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system suggested to the prophet the desirability of something like it for his own people.
There are not data for a detailed comparison between Ezekiel's scheme and the Babylonian temple-organization, nor is it likely that he took from the latter much more than the general idea. The materials were already at hand in existing customs, which he had merely to develop and systematize. The provision that would most naturally suggest a borrowing is the assignment of land near the temple to the priests—an arrangement that then existed in Babylon, but seems not to have existed in Israel up to that time.
So far as appears, the movement for a stricter ritual, which culminated in Ezra's visit to Jerusalem, originated with Ezekiel. Its influence on the succeeding history of the Jews is familiar—it gathered up the formal elements of the nation's religious life into a mass, and carried it on to the point that called for the prophetic protest of John the Baptist, and the completion of Israel's spiritual development in Jesus Christ.
It is hardly necessary to remark that such a borrowing as this in no wise detracts from the true religious originality of Israel. The nation cast the materials thus gained from other peoples into the crucible of its own thought, and thence produced ideas, whose superiority to those of the Babylonians is demonstrated by the history of the world. To trace the genesis of Jewish religious forms and ideas is to follow the guidance of God by which the Jews became the religious teachers of the world and prepared the way for Jesus of Nazareth. Whatever the seed, and whatever the soil into which it was cast, the fruit was no less the creation of the Divine maker of all things, in whose hands all the experiences of Israel were fashioned into a form destined to be one of the great educating influences of the race.
On the Use of and Kapồia in the Old and New
BY PROF. D. R. GOODWIN, D. D., LL. D.
The word », with its cognates, »ş?, &c, designates the heart, in the first place, of course, as the physical organ, the centre of life; and one is tempted to suspect some genetical relation to the German Leben and our English word “life.” Then, it stands for the central part in general, the inside, and so for the interior man as manifesting himself in all his various activities, in his desires, affections, emotions, passions, purposes, his thoughts, perceptions, imaginations, his wisdom, knowledge, skill, his beliefs and his reasonings, his memory and his consciousness. It is not especially confined to the feelings and moral acts in distinction from the intellectual, except as there is more frequent occasion for its use in the former application than in the latter. It designates the central basis for the functions of the whole inner man.
These words, 35, 25, &c., are more frequently translated “mind” in our received version of the Old Testament than any other word, including such cases as “dead man out of mind,” “ bring to mind," “remember or come to mind,” “this I recall to mind,” &c. For this purpose, wɔ, and come next in frequency.
Under 25 are included such expressions as “imagination of the thoughts of his heart," "imagination of man's heart," Gen. vi. 5; viii. 21; also in Zechariah and in Jeremiah many times; "said in his heart,” Gen. xvii. 17; “speaking in my heart,” xxiv. 45; “wisehearted,"i. e. skilful, Exod. xxxi. 6; “wisdom of heart,” xxxv. 35; "in whose heart the Lord hath put wisdom,” i. e. skill, xxxvi. 2 ;
"an heart to perceive," Deut. xxix. 4 ; "in the imagination of mine heart," xxix. 19; "told all his heart," i. e. all he knew, Jud. xvi. 17; "an understanding heart,” yow a5, 1 Kings iii. 9; "I have given thee a wise heart," ii. 12 ; "feignest them out of thine own heart," Neh. vi. 8; "meditation of my heart, ”Ps. xix. 14; xlix. 3; "thoughts of his heart,” xxxiii. II; “heart inditing a good matter," xlv. I; “write on the table of thine heart,” Prov. iii. 3 ; "thine heart retain my words,” iv. 4 ; “ heart seeketh knowledge,” xv. 14 ; "a man's heart deviseth his way,” xvi. 9; "my heart had great experience of wisdom," Eccles. i. 16; "a wise man's heart discerneth both time,” &c., viii. 5; "consider in his heart,” Isa. xliv. 19.
295 is used in such cases as "consider in thine heart,” Deut. iv. 39; “thought in thy heart,” xv. 9; "ye know in all your hearts," Josh. xxiii. 14; “understand with their heart,” Isa. vi. 10; "heart of the rash shall understand,” xxxii. 4 ; "thoughts of thy heart," Dan. ii. 30; “beast's heart given,” iv. 16: V. 21 : and vii. 4; “shut their hearts (fem. pl.) that they cannot understand," Isa.. xliv. 18.
who is used for the affections quite as familiarly as , and, in that sense, is translated sometimes" heart," but generally "soul."
If it be said, as to the connection of >> with wisdom, that, in the Proverbs and elsewhere, wisdom is a moral quality, and so in the sense of the affections is appropriately used with it ; let it be observed
>, dom, and that in the most striking cases, as (1'3,)“Oye simple, understand wisdom,” Prov. viii. 5; (D) “Get understanding, “with all thy getting, get understanding," iv. 5 and iv. 7 ; "counsel is mine, I am understanding,” viii. 14 ; "the knowledge of the holy is understanding,” ix. 10; (70) "bow thine ear to my understanding,” v. 1 ; "and understanding put forth her voice,” viii. 1; “a man of understanding hath wisdom," (note that it is not the converse), x. 23; "a man of understanding walketh uprightly,” xv. 21 ; “is of an excellent spirit,” xvii. 27. So Isa. xi. 2, of wisdom and understanding” (727); and "ye fools, be of an understanding heart," (39), Prov. viii. 5.
-are also used in connection with this wis תְבוּנָה and ,בִּינָה בין that
" the spirit Καρδία. .
The use of Kapola in the New Testament corresponds almost perfectly to that of 3 in the Old Testament. It stands for the mind, the inner man, Lat. animus :-thus, “Think evil in your hearts," Matt. ix. 4; "should understand with their heart,” xiii. 15; "out of the heart proceed evil thoughts,” xv. 19; “reasoning in their hearts," Mark ii. 6; “not doubt in his heart," xi. 23 ; "imagination of their hearts," Luke i. 51 ; “pondered them in her heart," ii. 19; "mused in their hearts," iii. 15; “slow of heart to believe,” xxiv. 25; "they considered not for their heart was hardened,” Mark vi. 52; “have ye your hearts hardened ? . do ye not yet understand?" Mark viii. 17, because they did not apprehend about the leaven of the Pharisees ; so in Acts xix. 9, “divers were hardened and believed not;" "therefore,” says St. John, “they could not believe because that Esaias said again, he hath blinded their eyes and hardened their heart, lest they should . understand with their heart"; and so for other cases of hardening the heart;—to “blind the mind” and “harden the heart," seem to be parallel expressions for the same thing ;-again, “why hast thou conceived this thing in thine heart?” Acts v. 4 ; “show the work of the law in their hearts, .. their thoughts accusing or excusing,” Rom. ii. 15; “shalt believe in thine heart,” x. 9; “neither have entered into the heart of man the things," i Cor. ii. 9; "written in our hearts,”' iii. 2 ; “I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them,” Heb. x. 16; "till the day-star arise in your hearts,” 2
Pet. ii. 19.
With καρδία are connected διαλογισμου, “out of the heart proceed thoughts,” Matt. xv. 19; Mark vii. 21; "thoughts of many hearts,” Luke ii. 35; “Jesus perceived the thoughts of their hearts,” ix. 47; "why do thoughts arise in your hearts,” xxiv. 38;-also evOUPLE's, “discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart," Heb. iv. 12; dvoupéopa!, “wherefore think ye evil in your hearts?” Matt. ix. 4;also êrivola, “if perhaps the thought of thine heart,” Acts viii. 22, and “hast thought,” yopigw, viii. 20;-also drávoda, “imagination of their hearts," Luke i. 51. Jeuvola is also used in the moral sense like kapóía, “ desires of the flesh and the mind," Eph. ii. 3; "enemies in your mind by wicked works,” Col. i. 21; "I will put my laws into their mind," Heb. viii. 10; “I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them,” Heb. x. 16; "gird up the loins of your mind, be sober,” 1 Pet. i. 13; “Stir up your pure
Phil. ii. 5;
minds,” 2 Pet. iii. 1;-also čvora, "arm yourselves likewise with the same mind," 1 Pet. iv, 1;—also yonga, “their minds were blinded
for the veil is upon their heart," 2 Cor. iii. 14; “hath blinded the mind of them that believe not," 2 Cor. iv. 4; “so your minds should be corrupted,” xi. 3; “shall keep your hearts and minds,” Phil. iv. 7;—also yoos, “God gave them over to a reprobate mind,” Rom. i. 28; “warring against the law of my mind,” vii. 23; “ with the mind I myself serve the law of God,” vii. 25; "transformed by the renewing of your mind,” xii. 2; “renewed in the spirit of your mind," Eph. iv. 23; "disputings of men of corrupt minds," 1 Tim. vi. 5; 2 Tim. iii. 8;-also opóvoa and 4povéw, as cpówna σαρκός, Rom. viii. 7; and φρόνημα πνεύματος, viii. 27; φρονέω τούτο,
“savourest not the things that be of God,” Matt. xvi. 23 and Mark viii. 33; “ do mind the things of the flesh,” Rom. viii. 5; -also yuyó, “minds evil-affected,” Acts xiv. 2;—also, finally, and most striking of all, justavośw, and peTÁVOLC are the words used precisely for what we should call “a change of heart,”—not letaxapoia but μετάνοια. .
Thus a and rapòía are the subject or seat, not only of the affections, but of thought, imagination, meditation, memory, perception, reflection, knowledge, skill, belief, judgment, reasoning, consciousness; and, on the other hand, other words which are admitted properly to refer to intellectual operations are familiarly used also for the affections and all the moral activities.
The word opov, pl. cpévez, standing for the reins or kidney's, or the diaphragm or caul, came to denote, after its physical sense, what we express by heart, as properly as did zapôía; but, like zapota, it came also to stand for the whole mind. It is used but twice in the New Testament, and then in the same verse (1 Cor. xiv. 20), and is there translated “understanding." It is very curious that, while the ancients treated several of the internal physical organs as the seat of the mind, e. g., not only the heart and kidneys or liver, but the breast, and even the stomach and bowels, they never hit upon the brains for that purpose ;-except, perhaps, in Dan. iv. 13, “visions of my head";—although opéves comes so provokingly near the English word in sound that we are almost tempted to seek for some mysterious etymological connection.
The Latin “cor" of the same root as the Greek zapoia, was sometimes, though unfrequently, used for the cogitative or cognitive faculty. Through the French it has passed out into the special sense of courage. The English heart, of the same root as the Greek and