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sentences may change as time passes on. If, however, this verse does contain the apostolic testimony that Christ is God, it is a direct affirmation of what the opposite doctrine would deny, and excludes that doctrine altogether.
We may add, in this connection, that, if the doctrine of Christ's divinity be established from other passages or other parts of the New Testament, this fact, by itself, will not prove that 0£ós here refers to him. It will only add to and confirm the probability derived from the examination of the verse, that it has this reference.
Secondly. The presentation of the subject, which has been made, shows the groundlessness and inappropriateness of the extreme assertions which have been indulged in by advocates of both views of this passage. It has been declared, on the one hand, by those who refer the words to Christ that the rules of construction absolutely exclude any other reference ; that doctrinal prejudice alone has been the cause of any denial of this explanation ; that there is no ground for such denial which is founded in reason ; that it argues mental or moral blindness, even, to support the opposite view. On the other hand, it has been affirmed that the interpretation which does not apply the sentence to God as a doxology is impossible, if the rules and principles of the Greek language are considered ; and that it is, indeed, little short of absurd. The fair and unprejudiced consideration of the words draws us away from all such extravagant statements, and brings us to the calm inquiry into the arguments for both sides, and the decision as to the probabilities within the sphere of language and grammatical construction. The presence of the two renderings in the Revised Version, as it comes into general use, will tend to make all theologians and readers recognize that there is a possibility of both renderings, while yet there is a probability that the one given in the text is correct.
Thirdly. It is a fact worthy of notice, that of the most prominent opponents of the reference of the passage to Christ-such writers, for example, as de Wette, Grimm, Rückert, Meyer, Jowett-each one admits a peculiar force as belonging to some particular argument among those which are urged in favor of that reference. Rückert says, that the naturalness of the connection of ú üy with 7plorós points strongly towards this understanding of the clause, and that the sentence moves on most fitly and satisfactorily in this way. de Wette remarks that the demand for a contrast, which is found in to zarà súpza, is the point of most difficulty to be overcome, and he evidently regards it as of serious moment. Jowett expresses the opinion that the omission of the verb, "the defective and awkward grammar,
is the strongest objection to the interpretation as a doxology to God. Grimm states that the inappropriateness of using or Távtwy, in this connection, with respect to God—that is, as describing his relation to the blessings of the Israelites—is the thing which holds his mind back from applying the phrase to God. Meyer allows the force of everything, as it were, except for the want of instances elsewhere in which the Apostolic writers use oeós of Christ. We cannot but regard the fact that these scholars find a strength in the various arguments, which it is hard to overcome-one looking upon one point as presenting very serious difficulty, and another upon another, until, as we read what is said by them all, we see that they are pressed by the weight of all the considerations-as showing that there is a real force in each one, taken by itself, and a cumulative force in the sum of them, when united together. If such advocates of the opposite view acknowledge that the argument, from stage to stage, causes even themselves to give it their most respectful consideration, the position of those who interpret the clause of Christ must be a strong one, and the reasons which support it must be such as ought to influence candid minds.
We have set forth these reasons and defended this position, with a due estimate as we trust, and with a fair presentation, of what is urged upon the other side. The interpreter is called, by the very duties and obligations of his profession, to be a calm, honest, unprejudiced inquirer after truth-to be a judge, not an interested advocate.
A Paraphrase of the Song of Deborah.
BY PROF. THOMAS H.
That the strong in Israel laid bare their strength ;
Praise the Lord !
Hear, O ye kings of earth! ye princes, lend your ear !
Lord, when Thou wentst our from Seir ;
Earth quaked; yea, heaven dissolved ;
Yea, clouds dissolved in rain!
The God of Israel !
In days of Shamgar, Anath's son ;
Went ways circuitous.
He chose new gods ;
My heart goes out to the leaders of Israel ;
Praise ye the Lord !
Ye, who on white asses ride ;
Ye, who on rich carpets sit ;
Muse on the victory!
Then from their refuges on high,
No foe to fear !
Awake, Deborah, awake!
Up, Barak, Abinoam's son,
Down to the battle came ;
Came down to Jezreel !
Next thee Benjamin, joined with thy hosts.
With captain's staff.
And Issachar like Barak brave,
Down to the vale his feet impel.
Why tarrying still amid the fold ?
Is bleat of flock so sweet to hear ?
But none the battle sought !
Asher by the seashore abides,
Kings came; they fought.
Spoil of silver failed to take !
The stars their courses left to fight with Sisera.
Kishon's brook swept them awayBrook of ancient days—Kishon's brook.
My soul contemns their strength !
Then hoofs of horses smote the ground;
A troubled multitude !
Curse ye Meroz, saith the Angel of the Lord ;
Coming not to help the Lord-
Jael, Kenite Heber's wife-
Let her blessed be !
Her hand out to the nail she stretched,
At her feet he sank, he fell ;
Through the window there looks forth, and cries aloud-
Why step his steeds so slow !
The wisest of her princesses reply-
"Surely they booty find and share ; A maiden, two maidens, for each man ;
Booty of garments bright for Sisera ;
Booty of garments bright, with needle wrought; A garment bright, on both sides wrought
Booty for me to wear !
So perish all who hate Thee, Lord !
But them who love HimLet them like the sun go forth,
In strength of victory!