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74. Nonemigrant aliens departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 1908 to

1927, by principal countries of intended future permanent residence.

75. United States citizens permanently departed, fiscal years ended

June 30, 1918 to 1927, by principal countries of intended future

permanent residence

76. Immigration to the United States, 1820 to 1927, by years.

77. Immigration to the United States from northern and western Europe,

southern and eastern Europe, Asia, Canada and Newfoundland,

Mexico, West Indies, and other countries, during specified periods,

1820 to 1927.

78. Immigration to the United States during specified periods, 1820 to

1927, by countries

79. Immigrant aliens admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1911 to 1927,

by countries of last permanent residence---

80. Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 1908 to 1927,

by countries of intended future permanent residence.

81. Immigrant aliens admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1899 to 1927,

by race or people..

82. Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 1908 to 1927,

by race or people...

83. Immigrant aliens admitted and emigrant aliens departed, showing

comparative per cent of total, by race or people, fiscal years ended

June 30, 1911 to 1927.--

84. Immigrant aliens admitted and emigrant aliens departed, with excess

admissions or departures and number departed for every 100 ad-

mitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1916 to 1927, as specified, by

country of last or intended future permanent residence---

85. Immigrant aliens admitted and emigrant aliens departed, with excess

of admissions or departures and number departed for every 100

admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1916 to 1927, as specified, by

race or people.--

86. Immigrant aliens admitted and emigrant aliens departed, with excess

of admissions or departures and number departed for every 100

admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1916 to 1927, as specified, by

States of intended future or last permanent residence-

87. Immigrant aliens admitted, showing races most important numeri-

cally destined to each State, fiscal years 1911 to 1927, inclusive.--

88. Immigrant aliens admitted, with comparative per cent, by sex,

fiscal years ended June 30, 1871 to 1927.

89. Emigrant aliens departed, with comparative per cent, by sex, fiscal

years ended June 30, 1908 to 1927.

90. Immigrant aliens admitted during specified periods, fiscal years

ended June 30, 1916 to 1927, by countries of last permanent

residence and sex..

91. Emigrant aliens departed during specified periods, fiscal years

ended June 30, 1916 to 1927, by countries of intended future

permanent residence and sex.

92. Comparative per cent of sex of immigrant aliens admitted and emi-

grant aliens departed during specified periods, fiscal years ended

June 30, 1916 to 1927, by countries of last or intended future per-

manent residence.

93. Immigrant aliens admitted during specified periods, fiscal years ended

June 30, 1916 to 1927, by race or people and sex.

94. Emigrant aliens departed during specified periods, fiscal years ended

June 30, 1916 to 1927, by race or people and sex..

95. Comparative per cent of sex of immigrant aliens admitted and emi-

grant aliens departed during specified periods, fiscal years ended

June 30, 1916 to 1927, by race or people.

96. Immigrant aliens admitted, fiscal years ended June 30, 1911 to 1927,

by occupational groups, and comparative per cent-

97. Emigrant aliens departed, fiscal years ended June 30, 1911 to 1927,

by occupational groups, and comparative per cent -

98. Alien applicants for admission to the United States, fiscal years ended

June 30, 1911 to 1927, showing comparison of the number debarred

at the seaports and at the land border ports, as specified..

REPORT

OF THE

COMMISSIONER GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,
BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION,

Washington, June 30, 1927. Hon. JAMES J. Davis,

Secretary of Labor. SIR: In surveying the myriad activities and accomplishments of the immigration field and bureau forces for another year, the thought which comes uppermost in my mind is the tremendous volume and infinite variety of problems disposed of. Here is a governmental agency dealing with human beings-aliens arriving, aliens departing, and aliens in our midst; aliens who want to come but do not know how to go about it, aliens who want to leave but are fearful of the possible consequences, aliens who, because of the fact that they were permitted to enter but temporarily, should leave, but do not want to do so. Merged with these are American citizens, near American citizens, alleged American citizens, persons of no nationality or dual nationality. The travel of American citizens in and out of our country and across our borders must be facilitated. Our officers must distinguish between them (naturalized or native-born) and aliens, with the least possible delay. The flow of humanity across our land borders alone aggregates in round numbers approximately 100,000 daily, or 36,500,000 entrants annually. In the matter of aliens, in particular, there are no two cases alike in all of their circumstances.

The law is designed broadly to classify, prescribe formulæ, fix limits, prohibit, and enjoin, and while it is all admirably conceived, representing as it does the fruit of many years' study upon the part of the lawmakers and experience of administrators, it does not and, in the very nature of things, can not take cognizance of the individual and all the possible circumstances, combinations of circumstances, and the limitless uncertainties inherent in human affairs-circumstances which may render two cases, identical perhaps as to law, utterly dissimilar in every other way and one of them needful of special consideration. In the view of every alien, and more frequently than not in the view of his relatives and friends, his case is exceptional; his case, it is reasoned, should therefore be decided differently from those of his fellows. The question is presented, Why can not we set aside the law in just this one case? "Surely one alien more or less in or out of the country can not be vital to the maintenance of the immigration structure.” Always, never ending, is the plea for special treatment and indulgence; not from one alien but from thousands upon thousands. Countless

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thousands of investigations have been made, countless thousands of letters have been painstakingly answered; sometimes as many as 20 or 30 in an individual case. We must be patient; we must explain again and again that, much as we sympathize with the motives, desires, and needs expressed, we can not yield where yielding involves a vital principle. Were we to do otherwise, the barriers and safeguards, which have been so painstakingly erected, would be speedily swept aside.

The struggle for self-preservation is not, as many appear to believe, confined to aliens seeking to enter the country, nor to aliens who, having gained lodgment by unfair means, resist all efforts to dislodge them, but is shared by Americans and aliens alike who have a right to be and remain here in unimpaired enjoyment of the blessings which this country has to offer. Were we indefinitely and without limitation or discrimination to share these blessings with those who wish to come and whom we do not need and with the aliens already here who violate our hospitality, we would sooner or later be no better off than the supplicants; in short, we would eventually have no need of immigration laws, since the inducements to come here would cease to exist. The welfare of the millions making up our own country must steadfastly be held paramount. It is not nearly so cruel, if cruelty it be, to reject the ones who threaten our well-being, as it would be to subject those in our midst, who are healthy, happy, prosperous, and law-abiding, to the danger of unfair competition with its inevitable train of lowered living standards and other devitalizing processes. By every means within our power we strive, in seeking to effectuate the purposes of legislation, to avoid as well the causing of unnecessary suffering. By every means the bureau is seeking to emphasize and to impress upon our officers the need of the employment-along with firmness—of kindness, courtesy, and consistent helpfulness in their every contact and relationship with the alien who seeks by fair and honest means to come to or remain in this country. In this respect it is felt that substantial progress has been made.

In a survey of the more tangible and concrete accomplishments of the past year it is extremely difficult to say just which of the many stand out most prominently or which ones are of the greatest value. Perhaps ridding the country of over 26,000 aliens unlawfully here, despite an acute shortage of funds with which to carry on, might be regarded as the outstanding feature. It may be added parenthetically in this connection that heretofore in discussing this phase of the work of the Immigration Service, the figures given have had to do solely with those aliens removed from the country by means of formal deportation proceedings. An even larger number of undesirable aliens, aliens unlawfully here, have, upon investigation of their cases, expressed a preference to leave the country voluntarily rather than to leave it under writs of deportation. The figure given comprehends both classes. The continued development, by means of the immigration border patrol, of safeguards along our land and some of our coast boundaries, to render abortive the efforts of aliens attempting surreptitiously to effect entry and lodgment in this country, is most gratifying. Over 12,000 such aliens were apprehended by this agency alone during the past year. The further development of the system of examination abroad of intending immigrants by officers of the

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