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. which merits the highest commendation and justifies the pride which the bureau takes in them.

While the primary duty of this force is to prevent the unlawful entry of aliens, the very nature of the work of the officers comprising it throws them into contact with the lawless element which infests the borders and other outlying points such as the Florida Peninsula, where smuggling is prevalent, and their efforts are not confined to the suppression of alien traffic, but extend to the enforcement of all Federal laws designed to protect the country from the unlawful introduction of contraband.

Some idea of the concrete accomplishments of the force can be gained by reference to the following table: Principal activities of border pıtrol officers during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1925 Character of work

Number Persons questioned or investigated.

1, 252, 379 Persons detained temporarily -

9, 321 Persons referred to local immigrant inspector for further investigation. 14, 078 Persons apprehended (or assistance rendered in their apprehension) for violation of customs regulations..

1, 185 Aliens arrested involving seizure of vehicles or contraband goods.-

536 Aliens arrested on warrants.

2, 847 Aliens attempting to enter the United States turned back without resorting to warrant procedure..

14, 711 Alien smugglers captured..

331 Smuggled aliens captured.

4, 641 Miles patrolled (on foot, by vehicle and by boat)

2, 288, 000 INSPECTION OF TRAINS, MOTOR VEHICLES, ETC. Freight and passenger trains examined.

104, 094 Passengers on same (estimated).

1, 553, 500 Automobiles and motor busses stopped and examined.

418, 128 Boats and other means of transportation stopped and examined. 33, 485 Passengers on above---

1, 543, 400 SEIZURES (INCLUDING ASSISTANCE GIVEN OTHER OFFICIALS) FOR

VIOLATION OF COSTOMS, PROHIBITION, AND IMMIGRATION LAWS Automobiles -

253 Boats and other conveyances

195 Value of above, including seized contraband goods (estimated)

$475, 600 Special investigations made, such as requests by immigration officers

to establish responsibility and willingness to support relatives applying at various ports of entry for admission to the United States..'

2, 177

It should be understood that the foregoing table is representative merely of concrete results accomplished, but far more important than anything which can be presented statistically is the deterrent effect which this force has had upon those who would seek to violate the laws. Whereas formerly the borders were more or less open to those who plied their nefarious traffic across them, they are now so carefully guarded that none but the most daring smugglers run the risk attendant upon their illegal traffic, there having been a total of 331 smugglers captured during the year, most of whom were given comparatively heavy prison sentences. Besides this, many organized smuggling bands have been broken up. However, with the number of aliens who are constantly seeking entry through unlawful channels and the comparatively large rewards that accrue to the successful smuggler, the utmost vigilance can not be relaxed.

The force is now thoroughly organized and properly officered, but as organization has progressed the need for additional men and equipment to complete it and increase its effectiveness has become more and more apparent. Some of the vulnerable points in this armor of defense which require a 24-hour service are now being protected only by a sufficient number of men to give an 8-hour service, while other points are left practically uncovered.

There is no intention of building. so rapidly that the force will become a disorganized rabble, for experience has demonstrated that organization promotes effectiveness.

To man properly the force at the present stage of development there should be at least 660 patrol inspectors, 32 inspectors in charge, and 40 clerks, representing a total increase over the present authorized force of 158 employees. This estimate has been arrived at only after the most careful analysis of existing conditions, and represents the number of new employees that can properly be absorbed in the present organization and render it proportionately more effective.

Not alone has the force been handicapped in its operations by inadequacy in numbers, but equally as great has been the handicap resulting from lack of proper transportation facilities. With the amount of funds available for that purpose it has not been possible to provide sufficient motor equipment and horses to render the force mobile, and upon its mobility to a great extent depends its effectiveness. There are now certain patrol districts where a force of 10 men are called upon to cover a territory of approximately 300 miles, traversing which are numerous improved highways leading across the boundary, all of which on occasion are utilized by traffickers in contraband. To attempt to place guards at each of them would not only be futile, as their identity and location would soon become a matter of common knowledge, but the number of men that would be required to maintain an adequate protective force renders such a plan impracticable.

That the borders and other outlying districts should be protected is recognized by every citizen who has the welfare of his country at heart. It is a manifest duty to urge that everything be done to secure sufficient funds to man, equip, and maintain the border patrol force at a point where it will be as nearly 100 per cent effective as it is possible to make it.

That there may be presented an expression from the district officers themselves concerning existing conditions, extracts from their reports are appended hereto. For the most part these extracts are merely supplementary to reports previously rendered by them throughout

the year.

CANADIAN BORDER

District No. 1, headquarters at Montreal, Canada

There are thousands of Europeans in Canada who came here either to wait five years for exemption under the act of 1921 or to smuggle across the border.

There should innmediately he legislation penalizing entry without inspection, 80 that we need no longer rely upon an obsolete war time law which is in disfavor with judges and juries, if indeed it has not passed out of existence. There should also be provision like the one in the Canadian law, making it obligatory upon the passenger to find the immigration officer and report to him. This has always been needed. It is imperative now when there are hundreds of roads crossing the border, few of them even marked to show the boundary or the whereabouts of the nearest officer.

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There are indications of an organization among smugglers to get business, to provide vehicles to the border, to provide other vehicles to pick aliens up on the American side and take them to destination or to inland railroad point, and to provide bail and attorneys for those who are caught. The border patrol

has justified its existence and has been a preventive influence which can not be measured. Inspector in charge, border patrol, Niagara Falls, N. Y.

At the time of the inauguration of the border patrol, July 1, conditions along the border in this vicinity were very bad, a lawless element operating on both sides of the river and cooperating with each other. The smuggling of contraband other than aliens was being carried on extensively and about May the smuggling of aliens commenced on a large scale. The apprehension and conviction of an old-time smuggler did not seem to bother the alien runners much and it was not until July 8, at which time Patrol Inspector Ault was seriously wounded during an affray with smugglers, that notice was taken of the border patrol by those engaged in this nefarious business; from that date on the patrol had work and plenty of it, for the smugglers then engaged a number of spies or lookouts to watch our movements, and it was an easy matter with the few patrol inspectors that we had. However, we carried on until we were successful in curbing alienrunning in this vicinity to a point where the smugglers were compelled to use other tactics, which were easily discovered and broken up by our men. District No. 11, headquarters at Detroit.

Smuggling operations in this district during the past year, due to the energetic efforts of the officers connected with the patrol service, have been reduced greatly.

There were apprehended 36 smugglers, including 4 Chinese smugglers, and 275 aliens, including 4 Chinese. There were seized 37 automobiles valued at $57,500, 39 boats valued at $8,900, 1 other conveyance valued at $500, and contraband merchandise, mostly liquor, to the value of $46,050, the seizures representing a total value of $112,950. Practically all of the 275 aliens have been deported or are now under deportation proceedings. Prosecution was instituted against all the smugglers and many of the aliens involved, convictions being had with but few exceptions.

Our small force of men was successful in apprehending 17 smugglers and approximately 140 smuggled aliens. In addition, there were 8 smugglers and approximately 100 smuggled aliens apprehended by the Detroit police and the State constabulary. The immigration inspectors stationed at the ferry docks and on the railroad trains also apprehended a few smugglers and aliens. Sentences imposed on smugglers ranged from 30 days to 3 years. Fines imposed ranged from $25 to $2,000.

On account of the activities of the border patrol there has been a remarkable change for the better in smuggling conditions. In May, 1924, prior to the establishment of the border patrol, smuggling parties were being landed on the shores of this district daily, and it was not unusual to receive reports of boat loads containing as many as 30 aliens being landed.

Our men have also been very successful in apprehending violators of the prohibition law and in furnishing information to the various enforcement agencies whereby excellent seizures and captures were made.

It is believed the border patrol has reduced smuggling at least 50 per cent and even those operators who are working at the present time are more wary in their work and do not take the chances that they did take a year ago. District No. 18, headquarters at Grand Forks, N. Dak.

Investigation disclosed the existence of a systematic organized plan whereby aliens were being assisted across the border.

With the new border patrol firmly established and properly equipped, it may be expected that the operations of alien smugglers along this section of the Canadian border will be greatly curtailed, although perhaps the business never will be completely curbed. The registration of all aliens in the United States, it is believed, will provide the only effective means of checking alien smuggling. District No. 26, headquarters at Spokane, Wash.

It is believed that the border patrol has had a most salutary effect in checking the illegal entry of aliens into this country.

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MEXICAN BORDER

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District No. 25, headquarters at El Paso, Tex.

Enthusiasm throughout the border patrol organization has been maintained at a high pitch during the fiscal year covered by this report; green men have been trained in the work to a comparatively high degree of efficiency. There is much room for improvement in this respect; the utmost vigilance is being exercised to permit no person, mentally, morally, or physically unfit, to enter the patrol organization, and every effort is being made to maintain it at a high standard. The morale, it can truthfully be said, is most excellent.

The results attained, considering the handicaps under which the border patrol has labored, are most gratifying. By this, however, it is not intended to convey the impression that the border patrol organization has put a stop to the clandestine entry of aliens.

A number of minor casualties and one fatality have occurred among the force during the year.

* The bravery, courage, coolness, and resourcefulness of these patrolmen in times of stress and imminent peril constitute a chapter in the history of the border patrol which does not have its parallel outside of the annals of actual warfare. Conspicuous gallantry and bravery above and beyond the call of duty have been displayed by practically every member of the force under circumstances and conditions of defense vastly inferior to those generally obtaining in actual warfare. These men suffer the handicap of being compelled to wait until they are fired upon before firing. They must announce themselves as Government officers in challenging the smugglers and must not shoot first upon the assumption that they will be

This is one of the most difficult and trying problems incident to their work.

The best and most efficient equipment, including transportation and weapons, is none too good for these brave men. District No. 31, headquarters at Los Angeles, Calif.

As has been the case in all immigration experience, each added restrictive measure increased the incentive to illegal entry and to smuggling; so with the act of 1924 we find that smuggling activities and efforts of individuals to evade immigration examination have advanced apace.

Aliens who have been unsuccessful in securing the necessary credentials in the country of their residence have, in thousands of instances, either upon their own initiative or following the advice of unscrupulous steamship agents and other interested parties, turned their all into cash, left their homes, and proceeded to Mexico in the belief that, once there, entry to the United States in spite of our laws was a matter of easy accomplishment. The actual promoters of this movement have no interest in the alien other than such as is measured by the amount of money they can filch from him through guiding him along the path that leads to his ultimate downfall. The alien is met at the Mexican seaport, shunted from place to place, always at great expense, and finally is dropped, his money gone, facing either deportation to his home land or practical pauperism. In some instance the smugglers are not satisfied with charging a price for services rendered, but they actually rob and sometimes murder their victims in their greed to secure the last cent available. These aliens naturally turn to the only way out, the United States. They brave the danger of apprehension, well knowing that the only penalty involved is deportation to their own country, and, if successful in their attempt, entry to the land of their opportunity.

With the opening up of the large and remunerative field for smuggling naturally involved, the efforts of this service were speeded up with a view to prevention. As the difficulties grew the smuggler advanced his prices until now from three to five hundred dollars per individual is demanded, depending upon the amount of money the alien has and is willing to part with.

It has been the duty of the border patrol service to cope with the situation above described, and through actual results this service has most convincingly justified its existence. It has not only been the means of apprehending and deporting, or causing the voluntary departure under supervision of the aliens shown in the reports submitted, but from actual observation, it can be stated that the influence of this service has been felt by hundreds of aliens who, being illegally in the United States and hearing of the patrol activities, have hurriedly

departed to Mexico, there either to remain permanently or to wait such time as legal entry could be accomplished.

"The inauguration of the patrol service has added greatly to the work of the straight immigration or administrative branch, but entirely aside from any increases in results which are attributable to patrol activities, the records show

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that with a force that was not increased over its strength of the prior year until within the last few months of the year just closed, the number of aliens removed from the country through deportation proceedings is 162 per cent greater than in the previous year, and this during a period when the officers were working under the handicaps necessarily incident to a reorganization. This has been partially due to altered methods and partially to the splendid spirit of cooper&tion evidenced by the employees themselves, their loyalty to the service, sincerity of purpose, and the very evident desire of all to walk together all the time in the same direction toward the common goal, the goal of efficiency. District Director, San Antonio, Tex.

The patrol force was greatly increased during the past year and alien smuggling made proportionately more difficult.

The aliens simply did not attempt illegal entry in the face of the stern opposition they knew they would meet in the enlarged and reorganized patrol.

The added restrictions of the new immigration act, cutting down the number of aliens who may enter this country, have greatly stimulated the heretofore steady flow of European aliens to Mexico with the ultimate object of smuggling into the United States.

It is believed that more than 90 per cent have proceeded to Mexico for the sole purpose of eventually entering the United States. Information is reaching the service to the effect that Europeans are congregating in Mexico awaiting a favorable opportunity to smuggle into the United States. Fear of apprehension is all that keeps them from making a rush across the border, and even despite this fear many become desperate and make the attempt.

One aspect of border patrol activities which might otherwise escape consideration in any brief discussion of the subject should be emphasized, namely, the very great spirit of cooperation which exists between the border patrol officers and officials of other Government services which have as their object law enforcement along the international boundaries. Mutual assistance has at all times characterized their relations with other Government services, including officials of the Custom Service, prohibition enforcement officers, and agents of the Department of Justice. While stressing the cooperation which has existed and which will be encouraged, the opinion is constantly strengthened that this border patrol force can not be combined with or made a part of any other force if it is to function to the best advantage against aliens smuggling.

The success of the patrol force up to this time has been made possible by specialized effort, and it is well able to handle the peculiar problems presented in connection with violations of the immigration laws along the remote portions of the border as well as on the more thickly populated sections of the frontiers. In the more congested areas it is possible that further cooperation might be fostered, but the problems presented by the remote sectors of the border are peculiarly the responsibility of the border patrol force. With such difficult conditions no other force now in existance can successfully cope. Therefore it is recommended that no amalgamation be made of this efficient organization with other services, thus robbing it of its vitality and effectiveness in the prevention of illegal entry of aliens. Further, intensive effort to focus the activities of the border patrol, which Congress had in mind in creating it, should be continued.

The record of accomplishment of the past year by this small force of border guards, of necessity hastily chosen and organized into their respective units, is little short of an achievement. The bureau feels no little pride in this vigorous body of young men who have served so loyally to produce such results. A very substantial contribution has been made to the effectiveness of the Immigration Service, which as years go on will be an increasing source of strength from which to

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