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that some features in sayings common to Mt. and Lk. cannot be explained without reference to an Aramaic original (Einleitung, p. 36). Since, however, he clings to the theory that the verbal agreement in many of these sayings forces us to suppose that they used a common Greek source, he is obliged to hazard the complicated and unnecessary conjecture that the two Evangelists sometimes altered their Greek original and sometimes substituted for it a new translation from the original Aramaic (p. 68). But, as I have already shown, the great amount of disagreement in substance, in setting, in order, and in language between Mt. and Lk. in these sayings is only explicable if they were not directly using a common source. Mt. drew directly from a Greek translation of the Logia. Other translations were also made, and from these the Logian sayings passed in a form substantially agreeing, whilst often slightly differing in language, into the evangelic writings of the Church.

Hence, when Lk. wrote his Gospel, he found these sayings dispersed in many quarters. Some of them, e.g. the Beatitudes and the Lord's Prayer, had passed through many stages since they were first extracted from the Logia. Others had suffered but little change. If at times the agreement in language between Mt. and Lk. seems remarkably close, it must be borne in mind that Lk. may well have read the first Gospel, and have been sometimes influenced by it.

The narrative sections tabulated above under (e) call for special consideration, since it is unlikely that they came from the same source as the sayings just discussed. The narratives contained in 118-25 21-12. 13-23 1428-81 1724-27 2110-11 273-10. 19. 24-25. 51a-53. 62-66 2811-15 all look very much like Palestinian traditions. Judgment upon their date and value must be almost wholly subjective, but to the present writer they seem to be early in date, or, to say the least, there seem to be no cogent reasons for placing them late. For 1724-27 as written before the fall of Jerusalem, see Wellhausen, in loc. Whether they came to the editor in written form, or whether he had himself collected them in Palestine, it is impossible to conjecture. Some little evidence might be adduced to show that 118-417 came from a special source which in 31-417 overlapped with Mk 11-15. E.g.:

(a) The editor of the Gospel shows a distinct tendency to remove historic presents from a source before him (p. xx). In Mk. there are 151 such tenses. Of these, 72 are cases of λέγει or λέγουσιν. Of the remaining 79 the editor of the first Gospel omits or alters 69, retaining only 10. Yet in 31-417 there are 7 such tenses,1 viz. 31. 18. 15 45. 8 (2). 11. This would be explicable if the editor were following a source of which the use of the historic present was a marked feature.

1 Cf. palverai, 213 (but B has épávŋ) and 219

(b) There are some words and phrases which occur only or chiefly in this part of the Gospel; e.g.:

λάθρα, 119 27.

'Ieporóλvua, fem. sing., 23 351.

παραγίγνεσθαι, 21 31. 18.

πυνθάνεσθαι, 24.

KAT' ŏvaρ, 120 212. 13. 19. 22.

Besides only 2719.

Besides from Mk 171 2017 2687.

παραλαμβάνειν, 8 times.

Elsewhere, 1245 1816 2440.41 2727.

åvaɣwpeîv, 5 times. Elsewhere, 924 1215 1418 1521 175.
KaTOLKELV, twice. Elsewhere, 1225 2321.

The construction ἀναχωρησάντων δὲ αὐτῶν ἰδού, 120 21. 13. 19.
Elsewhere, 982 2811

But this evidence is insufficient to prove the existence of a special written source for this part of the Gospel; and the fact that the Old Testament quotations in 118-2 and in 279. 10 have probably been introduced by the editor into originally independent narratives, rather suggests that all the narratives above mentioned came to the editor as independent traditions, and not from a document into which they had been collected. 2652-54 and 314-15 may belong to the same cycle of traditions. 2616-20 is probably based on the lost ending of Mk. I have thought it advisable not to confuse these narratives peculiar to Mt. with the few narrative sections (see p. xliii) common to Mt. and Lk. The former are marked in the commentary by P (= Palestinian), the latter by X (unknown source).

The quotations in 122-23 25. 6. 15. 17-18. 23 414-16 817 1217-21 1385 214-5 27° present peculiar difficulties.

(1) Five of them, viz. 414-16 817 1217-21 1385 214-5, seem to have been inserted into or appended to a section of Mk. by the editor.

(2) Six of them, viz. 123 26. 15. 17-18. 23 279, might seem to be an integral part of the narrative in which they stand.

(3) One of them, 223, cannot be verified.

(4) All of them are introduced by a striking formula:

122 τοῦτο δὲ ὅλον γέγονεν ἵνα πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ Κυρίου διὰ τοῦ προφήτου λέγοντος.

20 οὕτως γὰρ γέγραπται διὰ τοῦ προφήτου.

215 ἵνα πληρωθῇ, κ.τ.λ.

217 τότε επληρώθη τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ Ἱερεμίου τοῦ προφήτου λέγοντος.

223 όπως πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν.

414 ἵνα πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ Ἠσαΐου τοῦ προφήτου λέγοντος.

817 ὅπως πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ Ἠσαΐου τοῦ προφήτου λέγοντος. 1217 The same.

1385 The same, with the omission of 'Hσatov.

214 τοῦτο δὲ γέγονεν ἵνα πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τοῦ προφήτου λέγοντος.

27 τότε ἐπληρώθη τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ Ἱερεμίου τοῦ προφήτου λέγοντος. (5) 123 agrees in the main with the LXX; 26 seems to be an independent rendering of the Hebrew; 215 is also a rendering of the Hebrew; 218 is apparently quoted from the LXX, with reminiscence of the Hebrew in тà tékva avrŷs; 223 cannot be traced; 415-16 is from a Greek Vs, but not from the LXX (see note, in loc.); 817 is an independent translation from the Hebrew ; 1217-21 is from the Hebrew, with reminiscence of the LXX in the last clause, or more probably from a current Greek version, which is already implied in Mk 111; 1335 seems to be an independent translation from the Hebrew, with reminiscence of the LXX in the first clause; 215 agrees partly with the Hebrew, partly with the LXX; 27 appears to be a free translation, with reminiscence of the LXX. Further, 26 seems to come in the main from Mic 514, with assimilation of the last clause to 2 S 52; 1218 from Is 421-4, with assimilation of the last clause to Hab 14 (Heb.); Mt 215 is a conflation of Is 6211 and Zec 99; 279-10 comes from Zec 1113, but has probably been influenced by Jer 326-9.

With these quotations might be compared 1110, which occurs also in Mk 12, and which therefore seems to have been current in Christian circles in a form slightly differing from the LXX. Here, too, there seems to have been a slight assimilation to Ex 2320.

It will be seen that there is a good deal of agreement with the Hebrew against the LXX. This makes it very unlikely that these quotations are due to the editor. For (a) in the quotations borrowed by him from Mk. the editor shows a tendency to assimilate the language more closely to the LXX. The single exception of change in favour of the Hebrew is Mk 1230 Mt 2287. For such assimilation, see Mt 1315 kai láσopai aurous for Mk.'s καὶ ἀφεθῇ αὐτοῖς; Mt 158 ὁ λαὸς οὗτος for Mk.'s οὗτος ὁ λαός; Με Ios adds καὶ (προσ)κολληθήσεται τῇ γυναικί αὐτοῦ; Mt 222 adds εἰμί; Mt 261 adds τῆς ποίμνης. So LXX A. Mt 2746 ἵνα τί for iva

εἰς τί.


(b) In nine quotations not borrowed from Mk., viz. 44. 7. 10 521. 21. 27. 38. 43a 913 = 127 2116, there is a general agreement with the LXX, except in kai où, 913127, which agrees with Heb. and LXX A Q against LXX B.

It seems, therefore, probable that the eleven quotations introduced by a formula, and also 1110, were already current when the editor compiled his work in a Greek form. They may come from a collection of Old Testament passages regarded as prophecies of events in the life of the Messiah. In this connection 223 is very important, because it must have originated in Jewish Christian, i.e. probably in Palestinian, circles.


In making the second Gospel the framework of his own, the editor has adopted the general outline and plan of that Gospel, which is as follows:

A. Mk 11-13 Introductory. The Messiah had been heralded by the Baptist, had been declared to be the Son of God at His baptism, and had been prepared for His ministry by temptation. B. 115-723 Ministry in Galilee.

C. 724-9 Ministry in the surrounding districts.

This period is marked by the confession of S. Peter, and by teaching as to Christ's death and resurrection.

D. 101-52 The Journey through Peræa to Jerusalem.

E. 11-168 The last days of the Messiah's life.

To this general framework the editor prefixes two chapters dealing with the genealogy, birth, and three incidents of the Messiah's childhood.1

[A. 1. 2 Birth and Infancy of the Messiah.]

He then inserts Mk.'s introductory section with considerable expansions.

B. 31-411 Preparation for His ministry,

[37-10. 12. 14-15 43-11]. Passing to Mk.'s section B, the editor makes considerable alterations in the order of Mk 115-613. For a detailed examination of these alterations, see pp. xiii-xvii.

The result is as follows:

C. 412-1520 Ministry in Galilee :

(1) Public appearance as a teacher,

(2) First disciples,

(3) Illustrations of His teaching and work:

(a) Preliminary,

(b) His teaching,

(c) His work,

[blocks in formation]


81-984 [85-13. 19-22 927-31. 32-34.

(4) Extension of His mission in the work of the Twelve,

935-111 [935b-38 105b-8. 10b. 15-16. 23-111).

[(5) Survey of His ministry,


(6) Illustrations of His controversies with the Pharisees,
121-45 [5-7. 17-21, 22-23. 27-28. 30. 32-45].

(7) His relations seek Him,
(8) Illustrations of His teaching in parables,

1246-50 13 [16-17 24-30. 33. 35-52].

From this point the editor is entirely guided by the order of sections as they stand in Mk. [1428-31 and 1512-14 are not found in Mk.].

(9) Various incidents,


1 Passages enclosed in square brackets are interpolations into Mk.'s narrative.

In the next sections he follows the order of incidents in Mk.'s section C. Thus:

D. 1521-1835 Ministry in the neighbourhood of Galilee, [1523-24 162-3. 17-19 1724b-27 183-4.7.10-35]. [1911-12. 28 201-15].

E. 191-2084 Journey to Jerusalem,
F. The last days of the Messiah's life,

2128 [214-5. 10-11. 14-16

3-10. 19. 24-25. 43. 52-53. 62-66

2228-32. 43-45 221-14 23 (very greatly enlarged from Mk
1337b-40) 2426-28 25. 2625. 52-54
289-10. 11-22].


The life of Christ as thus presented in the Gospel is framed in an Old Testament setting.

He was the Jewish Messiah descended from Abraham, the father of the Jewish nation (11, cf. 39), and within narrower limits from David (11. 20 1223 219.15 2242). In particular, he was the Messianic King (22 215 2711. 29. 37. 42), the Messianic Son of God (317 46 1127 1433 1616 175 2754), and the Messianic Son of Man. See pp. lxxi ff.

Many of the incidents of His life had been foretold by the prophets. His birth (122-23) by Isaiah, at Bethlehem (26) by Micah, Herod's massacre of the children (217-18) by Jeremiah, Christ's return from Egypt (215) by Hosea, the settlement of His parents at Nazara by the prophets, the coming of His herald (3) by Isaiah, His own mission in Galilee (414-16) by Isaiah, His work of mercy in healing the sick (817) by Isaiah, His avoidance of publicity (1217-21) by Isaiah, His preaching in parables (1335) by the Psalmist, and the inability of the people to understand them (1314-15) by Isaiah; His entry as king into Jerusalem (214-5) by Zechariah, and the use to which the price of His life was put (279-10) by "Jeremiah." His betrayal (2624. 54. 56), His desertion (2681), and many of the incidents of His death and burial had been foretold in Scripture (2734. 35. 39. 43. 57). And of His three days' sojourn in the tomb Jonah was a type, 1240.

Three features of the Gospel are prominent as characteristic of the editor's method:

(a) the grouping of material in 423-13 into sections illustrative of different aspects of Christ's ministry.

(b) the massing of sayings into long discourses.

(1) the Sermon on the Mount (5-727), which seems to be an expansion of a shorter Sermon found in the Logia.

(2) the charge to the Twelve (10).

(3) the chapter of parables (13).

(4) the discourse about greatness and forgiveness (18). (5) the discourse about the last things (24-25).

These are all ended by a special formula.

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