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Mk 121.

The editor then comes to He has already (413) anticipated the mention of Capharnaum,1 and can therefore omit Mk 121a. Mk 121b speaks of teaching in the synagogue. Here, therefore, is an opportunity of inserting an illustration of Christ's teaching, which is to be followed by an illustrative group of His miracles. As an introduction to these two sections of illustration, the editor substitutes for Mk 121 a general sketch of Christ's activity (423-25), using for this purpose phraseology borrowed from various parts of the second Gospel. The reason why he places his illustration of Christ's teaching before that of His miracles is no doubt to be found in Mk 122, which describes the effect produced by that teaching on the people. The editor therefore inserts the Sermon on the Mount between Mk 121 and 22, and closes it with this latter verse. Thus : Mk 121.


are substituted for

5-727 are inserted.

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The editor now proposes to give illustrations of Christ's miracles. The next five sections in Mk. are:

123-28 The demoniac.

29-31 Peter's wife's mother.

132-34 Healing the sick.
135-39 Retirement and tour.

140-45 Healing of a leper.

We therefore expect the editor to begin his series of illustrations with the narrative of the demoniac, but he omits this altogether, and, passing over Mk 132-39, continues with Mk 140-45 the healing of the leper:

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Mk 140-45.

It is not easy to account for the omission of Mk 123-28, and for the transposition of 40-45. The following reasons may have co

operated to produce them:

(a) Mt. has omitted the reference to Capharnaum (Mk 121), and has adapted Mk 122 to an entirely different situation. But still he might have inserted a statement of an entry into Capharnaum to form a link between the Sermon and the healing of the demoniac.

(b) The incident of the leper is recorded by Mk. without any detail of time or place, after a verse which states that Christ "came preaching in their synagogues throughout the whole of Galilee." It is therefore not unnatural to place the healing of the leper after the Sermon, which may be taken as illustrative of this synagogue preaching.

(c) Leprosy was perhaps the most dreaded of all bodily 1 The Kaтwknσe of 413 implies that Capharnaum will henceforth be the headquarters of Christ's ministry.

ailments in Palestine, and its cure forms a fitting introduction to a series of three healings of disease.

(d) The reason why, after inserting the healing of the leper, the editor did not continue with that of the demoniac, may have been that he wished to form a series of three healings of disease, and that in the Church tradition the healing of the centurion's servant was closely connected with the Sermon. Lk. has the same connection.

(e) Moreover, there were features in the story of the demoniac which did not recommend it to the editor, features which Lk. found it desirable to modify. See below, p. xxxiii.

After inserting Mk 140-45 and omitting 23-28, the editor inserts the healing of the centurion's servant, 85-13, and can then continue with Mk 129-31, thus forming a series of three healings of disease— leprosy, paralysis, fever. He closes the series with words borrowed from the succeeding verses of Mk 32-34, adding a quotation from Isaiah. Thus : 814

85-18 are inserted.



Mk 140-45


I 32-34

817 is inserted.

The next section in Mk. is 135-39. This would be out of place in a series of miracles, and is therefore omitted. Mk 140-45 has been already inserted. The editor, therefore, comes to Mk 21-22. This he postpones, perhaps because it occurred on a visit to Capharnaum different to that just described. By recording it here the editor would confuse the two visits. Mk 223-36 he reserves for a controversial section. 37-35 contain no miracle. 41-34 he reserves for his chapter of parables. He therefore comes to 435. Here Christ is surrounded by a crowd. The editor adapts this to his context:

inserts 819-22,


Mk 435,

Mk 436-520.

and then takes over Mk 486-520 with considerable omissions:

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In Mk 521 Christ returns to the western side of the lake. Mt. adds to this, that "He came to His own city":

Mt 91


Mk 521a,

and can then go back and borrow Mk 21-12 with its sequel 18-23:

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thus completing a second series of three miracles which illustrate Christ's power over natural forces (823-27), over the hostility of demons (28-34), and in the spiritual sphere (the forgiveness of sins, 91-8).

The editor now postpones Mk 228-484 for the same reasons as before. He comes therefore to 522-43. This he abbreviates, and

adds two other miracles, thus forming a third series of three miracles illustrating Christ's power to restore life, sight, and speech:

927-81 inserted.


Mk 522-43

Having thus given illustrations of Christ's teaching and miracles, the editor now proposes to show how this ministry found extension in the work of the disciples. He therefore postpones Mk 61-6a, and expands 6b into an introduction to this mission modelled on the similar introduction 423-25:

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Chapter 101 continues with Mk 67; but the editor here inserts Mk 316-19, which he had passed over.

amplification of Mk 68-11:

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The rest of 10-11 is an

Mk 67.


There now follows a series of incidents illustrating the growth of hostility to Christ on the part of the Pharisees. For these the editor now goes back to Mk 223-28ff.:





Mk 223-28.




1217-21 inserted.


Having already borrowed Mk 313-19a he now comes to 19b-21 and 22-30. For this he substitutes a similar but longer discourse introduced by another miracle :

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This brings him to Mk 4, which is a chapter of parables. The editor borrows this and adds other parables:

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As he has already inserted Mk 435-543 he now comes to Mk 61-6a:
Mk 61-6a

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From this point the editor follows the order of Mk.'s sections.

3. The editor not infrequently abbreviates Mk.'s record. (a) Some examples of abbreviation in expression are given below on p. xxiv.

(b) In other cases details are dropped from the narrative.
E.g. Mk 118" He was with the wild beasts."

120 with the hired servants."

129" with James and John."

226 "in the days of Abiathar the high priest."


Mk 227 "The Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath."

3170 Boanerges.



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upon the cushion."

about two thousand."

612 the mission of the Twelve.

637 "two hundred pennyworth."

639-40❝by companies-green-in ranks, by hundreds and by fifties."

78-4 the explanation of "unwashen hands."


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93 so as no fuller on earth can whiten them."
three hundred pence."

1451 the young man who fled naked.


21 "the father of Alexander and Rufus."

1544 Pilate's inquiry about the death of Christ.

Especially statements of the thronging of the multitudes and the inconvenience caused by it.

E.g. Mk 133" and the whole city was gathered together at the


145 "so that He would no longer enter into a city." 22.4 “And many were gathered together, so that there

was no longer room for them, no, not even about the door. . . . And when they could not come nigh unto Him for the crowd." 39 "And He spake to His disciples, that a little boat should wait upon Him because of the crowd, lest they should throng Him.”

10 "pressed upon Him."


320 so that they could not so much as eat bread."

631 "they had no leisure to eat."

(c) Not infrequently sayings are omitted from a discourse. But, for the most part, such sayings have already been inserted in an earlier part of the Gospel. The left-hand column shows where the saying has been omitted, the right-hand column where it has been inserted.

Mt 1323-24





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Mt 515.














1312 1040 1042.




(d) In other cases a whole narrative or section is given in a

much abbreviated form.

E.g. Mk 37-12 is compressed into two verses in 1215-16. The

reason is obvious. The editor is collecting illustrations of the controversies between Christ and the Pharisees. Having just borrowed Mk 223-31-6, which is suited to his purpose, he comes to 37-12, which has nothing bearing upon the subject. He might well have omitted it, just as he omitted 135-39. But the thought of Christ's ministry of healing, Mk 310, suggested to him a contrast between the Lord's quiet work of love with its shrinking from publicity, Mk 312, and the hostile clamour of the Pharisees. He therefore shortened Mk 37-12 and added a quotation from Isaiah to emphasise this contrast.

Mk 51-43 is much shortened in Mt 828-34 918-26. See notes on 828 918.


Mk 614-29 is abbreviated in Mt 141-12.
Mk 914-29 appears in a shorter form in Mt 1714-20

See note on

4. Contrasted with this shortening of narrative sections is the amplification of discourses.

E.g. Mk 17-8, the preaching of the Baptist is expanded into Mt 37-12

Mk 322-26, the refutation of the charge of diabolical agency is expanded into Mt 1224-45

Mk 4, the chapter of parables is considerably lengthened in

Mt 13.

Mk 68-11, the charge to the Twelve is expanded into Mt 105-42. Mk 935-50, teaching about greatness is expanded into Mt 182-35. Mk 1237b-40, denunciation of the Pharisees forms the nucleus of a whole chapter in Mt 23.

Mk 13, the discourse on the last things is expanded in Mt 24-25 into double the length.

Four of these bodies of discourse, formed by interweaving some other source or sources with the shorter discourses found in Mk., viz. chs. 10. 13. 18. 24-25, are closed by a formula: kaì éyévero ὅτε ἐτέλεσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς διατάσσων τοῖς δώδεκα μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ, 111; καὶ ἐγένετο ὅτε ἐτέλεσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὰς παραβολὰς ταύτας, 135; καὶ ἐγένετο ὅτε ἐτέλεσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοὺς λόγους τούτους, 191; καὶ ἐγένετο ὅτε ἐτέλεσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς πάντας τοὺς λόγους τούτους, 261. These together with the Sermon on the Mount, chs. 5-7, which closes with a similar formula 728, cf. Lk 71, form one of the most striking features of this Gospel.

5. In linguistic detail there are a certain number of characteristic changes made in Mk.'s language.

(a) Mk.'s characteristic words kaì evðús, táλiv, the adverbial Toλά, and orɩ after verbs of saying, are frequently omitted, and dé is repeatedly substituted for kai.

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