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shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.] Mk. has: "Do not kill, Do not commit adultery, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Do not defraud." Mt. takes a severer view of the character of the questioner than Mk. By representing him as asking, "What good thing shall I do that I may have eternal life?" he makes the question more unintelligent than it is in Mk. Here, by inserting Xéye-ró, he emphasises the man's obtuseness. In v.20, by putting into his mouth, "What lack I yet?" he attributes to him selfsufficiency. And he omits altogether Mk v.21a, Compare the treatment in Mt 2234-40 of the questioner described in Mk 1228-34 Tolas may mean, "What sort of commandment?" cf. 2286. Or Toîos may be hardly distinguishable from Tís, "Which commandments?" cf. Blass, p. 176; Win.-Schm. p. 241. See on 2442.οὐ φονεύσεις, κ.τ.λ.] Mk. has μὴ φονεύσῃς, κ.τ.λ. After μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς, Mk. has μὴ ἀποστερήσῃς (so N A B C D latt). This may be a reminiscence of Ex 2110, or Dt 2414 (LXX A F), or Ecclus 41. Mt. omits it (if it was in his text of Mk., but B S1 omit there), and substitutes after "honour father and mother," "thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself." This comes from Lv 1918, and occurs again in 2239 Mk 1281 = Lk 1027, whence it is here taken. The first four clauses come from Ex 2013-16 or Dt 517-20. In Mk. the order μὴ μοιχ. μὴ φον. is attested by A Ν Χ al latt, but μὴ φον. μὴ μοιχ. in a BC al S1. Mt. has this latter order, which is that of the Massoretic Text of Ex. and Dt., and of the LXX A F. In. Ex. B has οὐ μοιχ· οὐ κλεψ. οὐ φον., and in Dt. οὐ μοιχ. οὐ φον. οὐ κλεψ. Thus Mk. ( B C al S1) and Mt. agree in order with the Heb. (M.T.) and the LXX (A F Luc). The other order, où μox. où pov. où kλey., represented by Mk. (A N X al latt), Lk 1820, LXX (B in Dt.), Philo, is now supported by the Hebrew Papyrus published in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archæology, xxv. pt. i. pp. 34-56. Mk. has the indicative for the conjunctive of the LXX. Mt. assimilates to the LXX.
19. τίμα τὸν πατέρα καὶ τὴν μητέρα] Mk. has σου after πατέρα, M and in Ex. LXX B omits the second σov. Mt. ( B C* D al) omits the pronoun altogether as in 154. It is twice inserted by S1 S2 and some old latt, but can hardly be genuine. This is surprising, since the tendency in Mt. is to assimilate Mk.'s quotations to LXX, not to deviate from it.
20. The young man saith to Him, All these things I observed: M what lack I yet?] Mk. has: "And he said, Teacher, all these things I observed from my youth."-8 veaviokos] Mt. has formed a nominative for the verb out of Mk.'s K VEÓTηTÓS μOV, which he omits. He also omits Mk.’s διδάσκαλε, and has ἐφύλαξα for épvλaέáμnv.1 The former is the New Testament form elsewhere;
1 Weiss renders this in Mk. "From all these I guarded myself." See Meyer's Comm. 6th ed. in loc., and cf. Ac 2125, Ti 415.
cf. Lk 1128 1821, Jn 1247, Ac 753 164 2124, Ro 226, Gal 613, 1 Ti 521 620, 2 Ti 112. 14.—Tí čtɩ vσTepô] is formed out of Mk.'s ev σe vorepeî in the next verse. See on v.16.
21. Jesus said to him, If thou wishest to be perfect, go sell thy possessions, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come follow Me.] Mk. has: "And Jesus looking on him loved him, and said to him, One thing is lacking to thee: go sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come follow Me." Mt. omits the first clause, in accordance with his tendency to drop out clauses which attribute emotion to the Lord; cf. on 83, and Introduction, p. xxxi. Moreover, the questioner, as described by Mt., with his obtuse self-complacency, was not lovable. Mt. substitutes: "But if thou wilt be perfect." What could be said to a man of this sort, one who conceived of eternal life as something to be acquired by merit, as a day labourer earns a wage; one who regarded "goodness" as a definite and ascertainable quantity which could be worked off; one who so misunderstood the commandments, and so deceived himself as to suppose that he had kept them; one who could ask the question, What do I yet lack? "If thou wilt be perfect," says the Lord. The words are, of course, a descent to the level of the questioner. He thought of perfection as attainable by works, and the Lord took him at his own estimation, and proposed to him a task which would not lead him to perfection, but which would do one of two things. If he obeyed, he might learn in the service of Christ something of the spirit of the gospel, which sets before men the ideal of the divine perfection, 548, and which can never conceive of perfection as a goal reached; cf. Lk 1710. If he found the task too hard for him, he would have learned to be less confident of his own capacity to do the one thing needful for inheritance of eternal life.
For τέλειος, cf. 548.—σου τὰ ὑπάρχοντα] for Mk.’s ὅσα ἔχεις. тà vπáруоvта Occurs in 2447 2514, never in Mk., but often in Lk.
22. And the young man when he heard this saying went away grieved: for he had great possessions.] Mk. has: "But his countenance fell at the saying, and he went away sorrowful: for he had great possessions." Mt. omits Mk.'s strong word σrvyváσas, with its implication of unwillingness to obey Christ's command, just as he omits Mk 145 with its direct disobedience of Christ's word.
16-22. The section with its striking deviations from Mk. is most easily explained as being derived from the second Gospel. The alteration in v.17 seems clearly secondary as compared with Mk. On the other hand, the insertions in vv.17. 19. 21, and the double historic present vv.18. 20, might seem to point to another source, but are insufficient as a proof of such a source.
Lk. has some points of agreement with Mt. against Mk.
Both have ἐφύλαξα (Lk. N ABL) for ἐφυλαξάμην, both have οὐρανοῖς for οὐρανῷ, both omit στυγνάσας and substitute ἀκούσας, both omit μὴ ἀποστερήσῃς, and both omit ἐμβλέψας αὐτῷ ἠγάπησεν autóv. These agreements are not sufficient to make a second source necessary.
16. didáσкaλe] CE al S1 S2 latt add dyafé, assimilating to Mk 101.— Tí ȧyalóν] ȧɣabór is omitted by S1 S2 ff2 238 248 for the same reason. 17. Ti μe épwrâs πеρì тоû ảɣαboû] So NBDL S1 S2 latt. CE al assimilate to Mk.
NBDL 1 22 S1a; and with ỏ 0éos b c ff12 S2. CE
In these verses Mt.'s omission of åyalé after didáσkale, his insertion of ἀγαθόν after τί, his change of Mk.'s τί με λέγεις ἀγαθόν into τί με ἐρωτᾷς περὶ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ, and his change of οὐδεὶς ἀγαθὸς εἰ μὴ εἰς ὁ θεός into εἷς ἐστὶν ỏ ȧyalós, seem clearly due to a desire to warn readers of Mk. that the Lord did not refuse, as applied to Himself, a title which He admitted as applicable to God, and did not draw a sharp distinction between Himself and God. That these changes are due to Mt. himself rather than to the copyists of his Gospel, is suggested by the changes made by Mt. in the text of Mk., which are collected on pp. xxxi, xxxii of the Introduction.
The later copyists of the Gospel have assimilated the passage to the text of Mk.
els éσtìv å åɣaðós] al assimilate to Mk.
20. ¿púλa‡a] NebCD al S1 S2 a b c eff2 hq add ék veótηtós μov from Mk.-Ti ETI VσTEρŵ] Om. S1.
21. év oupavoîs] BCD. But NE F have év oupave as in 620. S2 adds, "and take thy Cross." The words are added in Mk. by AN X alaq S1.
23-30. Mk 1023-31.
23. And Jesus said to His disciples, Verily I say to you, That M a rich man shall hardly enter into the kingdom of the heavens. And again I say to you.] Mk. has: "And Jesus looking round saith to His disciples, How hardly shall they who have riches enter into the kingdom of God. And the disciples were amazed at His words. And Jesus again answering saith to them, Children, how hard it is to enter into the kingdom of God." Mt. by abbreviating avoids the redundancy of Mk., cf. Introduction, p. xxiv; and also the amazement of the disciples, cf. Introduction, p. xxxiv. πάλιν is reminiscence of the clauses omitted from Mk.
Svokóλws] is an uncommon word. Svakoλía occurs in Job 3430; dvokolos, Jer 498, Ezk 26 (Th); Ditt. Syll. 213. 33, Svσkódwv, καɩρŵν, and in Galen, Arist., Plato, Xenophon, and other writers.
24. It is easier for a camel to enter through the eye of a needle, M than for a rich man into the kingdom of the heavens.] Mk. has: "It is easier for a camel to pass through the hole of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.”—коTTEрos] see on 95.—τρήματος] for Mk.'s late and rare τρυμαλιᾶς.—εἰσελθεῖν] Mt. avoids the duplication of the verb διελθεῖν, εἰσελθεῖν in Mk.—ῥαφίς] add to the examples in Lexicons, Ox. Pap. iv. 736. 75, (A.D. 1).
25. And the disciples when they heard it, were very astonished, M saying, Who then can be saved?] Mk. has: "And they were
exceedingly astonished, saying to Him, And who can be saved?" Mt. inserts ἀκούσαντες and μαθηταί, substitutes his favourite σφόδρα for Mk.'s stronger περισσῶς, omits πρὸς αὐτόν, and substitutes τίς ἄρα for καὶ τίς. For Tis apa, cf. 181 1925 2445, Mk 441. Mk.'s πρòs avτóv, see Abbott, Johannine Grammar, 2366o.
26. And Jesus looking upon (them) said to them, With men this is impossible; but with God all things are possible.] Mk. has: “Jesus looked upon them and saith, With men it is impossible, but not with God. For all things are possible with God." Mt. inserts a conjunction, and substitutes a past tense for Aéye, as often. He omits the redundant åλλ' où πapà fe cf. Introduction, p. xxiv.
27. Then Peter answered and said to Him, Behold, we have left all things, and followed Thee; what then shall we have?] Mk. has: "Peter began to say to Him, Behold, we have left all things, and followed Thee."-TÓTE] Mt. avoids Mk.'s abruptness and his paro. His insertion of τí ãpa čστai îv seems intended to relieve the ambiguity of S. Peter's statement as recorded in Mk., where " Behold we," etc., is a half-interrogative statement evidently intended to provoke comment. "We have done what the young man could not bring himself to do (v.22). What reward in heaven shall we have?”
28. And Jesus said to them, Verily I say to you, That.] Mk. has: "Jesus said, Verily I say to you." Mt. avoids Mk.'s abruptness.
Mt. here inserts the following:
Ye who have followed Me, in the regeneration when the Son of Man shall sit on the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.] Lk. has somewhat similar words in 2228-30-adıyevería] After the advent of the Messiah the Jews expected the creation of a new heaven and new earth. Cf. Is 6517 6622, Dt 3212 (Onq.), Apoc. Bar 326 “the mighty One will renew His creation"; 4412 "the new world," cf. Charles' note on 32°. #aλıyevería is used by Philo, Vita Mos. ii. 12, of the renewal of the world after the Flood, and de Mund. xv. of the restoration of the world after being burned. There seems to be no exact Aramaic equivalent. According to Dalman, Words, p. 177, "new world" would be the nearest.-orav κabion, K.T.λ.] cf. Enoch 625 "Pain will seize them when they see that Son of Man sit on the throne of His glory"; and see on 1627. —Quλàs roÙ 'Iopanλ] i.e. those to whom they had preached the gospel; cf. 106. 23
29. And every one who hath left houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or children, or lands, for My name's sake, shall receive a hundredfold, and shall inherit eternal life.] Mk. has: "There is no one who hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or children, or lands, for My sake, and for the gospel's sake, but he shall receive an hundredfold now in this present time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions; and in the coming age
eternal life." Mt. avoids Mk.'s harsh construction, ovdeìs čσrwV ÖS ἀφῆκεν—ἐὰν μὴ λάβῃ. In Mk v.30 the thought is of the many advantages of incorporation into the Christian society. In it the convert should find fresh ties and new interests more satisfying than those from which he had cut himself adrift; cf. 1 Co 321. But in Mt.'s connection, after the insertion of v.28, the whole emphasis is on the future reward in the maλuryevería. This is why Mt. omits Mk.’s νῦν ἐν τῷ καιρῷ τούτῳ—διωγμῶν, for which his kλnpovoμýσe is a sort of substitute. The Apostles should sit on thrones; but even the humblest disciple should receive a manifold compensation, and inherit an estate greater than any which he had abandoned, namely, life everlasting.
30. But many first shall be last; and last first.] The con- M nection of this clause with the preceding is obscure both in Mt. and in Mk. It would seem that the woλλoć must refer to Christian disciples. All will inherit life everlasting, but many who are now first shall then be last. It seems best (with Swete) to understand the words as a rebuke to the self-complacent spirit implied in S. Peter's words: "It may be difficult for the rich to enter into the Kingdom, but we who have left all are in no danger of exclusion." Christ's words are a warrant for this confidence, and at the same time a rebuke and a warning. The ambiguity lies in the "first" and "last." Does He mean "Many who first became My disciples will find greater difficulty of entry than many who followed Me at a later period"? Or is the πрŵтоι used of rank rather than of time: "Many who now seem to hold a position of privilege will then find themselves in the lowest place"? Lk. (1330) has similar words in a different connection, and the saying occurs in the New Sayings of Jesus from Oxyrhynchus, ll. 25-27 in a doubtful context. 23-30. Mt. and Lk. in this section have a number of small points of agreement against Mk.
E.g.: Mt 23 Lk 1824 Sè—elπev. Both omit Mk v.24; but Mt. has a trace of it in πάλιν δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν. Μt 24 = Lk 25 τρήματος. Mt 25 Lk 26 åκovσaνтes. Mt 26 Lk 27 elev, and the omission of ἀλλ ̓ οὐ παρὰ θεῷ. Mt 27 = Lk 28 εἶπεν, ἠκολουθήσαμεν. Μt 28 = Lk 29 ὁ δὲ—εἶπεν. Μt 29, Lk 30 πολλαπλασίονα (Mt. B L).
24. βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ] Z curss a b c e Si Sa have βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν. We should certainly expect the latter, but, in editing Mk., Mt. does not seem to have carried out his modifications with absolute uniformity, and he may have left τοῦ θεοῦ here. If so, it was inevitable that it should be altered into Tŵv ouparŵr. But in view of the facts given in Introduction, p. lxvii, it must remain probable that rŵy oupavŵv is original here, and that it has been changed into τοῦ θεοῦ to assimilate to Mk.
τρήματος] ** Β, but &c D L X al, τρυπήματος,
29. μnтépа] C K al S2 add ʼn yuvaîka, which occurs in Lk 1829. It is omitted here by BDI S'a be ff13. It is unnatural here after the express prohibition of divorce in vv, 1-9