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Mt. retains the word, but explains it by adding kaì Xaμyev tò πроσшжоν avrоù os & λos. For this, cf. Secrets of Enoch 15 "their faces shone like the sun," 191 "their faces shining more than the rays of the sun," 2 Es 797 "their face shall shine as the sun," Rev 116 "His countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength." In Enoch 1420 the simile is used of raiment, "His raiment did shine more brightly than the sun.”—τὰ δὲ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο λευκὰ ὡς τὸ φῶς] τὰ δέ for καὶ τά, as often. Mt. omits Mk.’s στίλβοντα. This word is used elsewhere of metals, e.g. brass, Ezk 403, Dn (Th) 106; or of hills reflecting the sun's rays, 1 Mac 639. Lk. substitutes aσrpáπTOV, which is the LXX equivalent of Theodotion's σTÍABOVTOS in Dn 106. For Mk.'s simile of the fuller, which Lk. omits, Mt. substitutes és rò pŵs.
3. And, behold, there appeared unto them Moses and Elias talking with Him.] Mk. has: "And there appeared to them Elias with Moses, and they were talking with Jesus."-kai idov] see on 120. The order Moses and Elias, substituted by Mt. and Lk. for Elias with Moses, is probably simply due to a natural desire for the chronological order; cf. Lk.'s order in 1131. 32, as compared with Mt 1241. 42. On Elijah as the expected forerunner of the Messiah, see note on v.10. There seem to be traces in Jewish literature of a belief that Moses would accompany Elijah when he came; see Volz, Jud. Eschat. 191-193, and cf. Jochanan ben Zaccai in Midr. Debarim R. Par. 111 (Wünsche), p. 55: "When I bring the prophet Elijah, you shall both (Moses and Elijah) come together.” Moses may be referred to as one of the two witnesses of Rev 113; see Bousset and Swete, in loc., and Tert. Anim. 50.
4. And Peter answered and said to Jesus, Lord, it is good for us to be here: if Thou wilt, I will make here three booths; for Thee one, and for Moses one, and for Elias one.] Mk.: "And Peter answered and saith to Jesus, Rabbi, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three booths," etc. For the Semitic use of ἀποκριθείς, see Dalm. Words, p. 24. δέ for καί, as often. εἶπεν for λέγει, as often. -Kúpie] see on 82. Paßßeí occurs again in Mk 1051 1121 1445. Mt. retains it only in the last instance.-Tpes σкηvás] The idea apparently is that of prolonging the scene. Mk. adds at the end: "For He did not know what to answer; for they were very afraid." For Mt.'s omission, see Introduction, pp. xxxiii f.; and cf. the omission of Mk., 1440c. The "fear" is postponed by Mt. to a more suitable place in v.6.
5. While He was still speaking, behold, a cloud of light overshadowed them and behold a voice out of the cloud, saying, This is My Son, the Beloved in whom I took pleasure; hear Him.-TL avтou λaλoûνTOS] is inserted by the editor; cf. similar insertions, Mt 1246 Mk 331, and Mt 918 Mk 521. In both these passages, however, the clause is placed at the beginning of a section as a
connecting link. Here there seems no reason for the insertion. Lk. has a similar clause; see below. Mk. has καὶ ἐγένετο here twice, and in 19.11 223 44. 39. Mt avoids it in 19 223 44. He has it 5 times in a formula, 728 111 1358 191 251. In 317 Mk 19 he has kai idov, and in clause b here he assimilates to that passage. In clause a he has simply ἰδού.—νεφέλη] Mt. adds φωτινή; cf. Rev 1414 νεφέλη λευκή. The cloud is the symbol of the divine presence. It was to reappear in the Messianic period; cf. 2 Mac 28 ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα τοῦ Κυρίου καὶ ἡ νεφέλη.—ἐπεσκίασεν] cf. Ex 4029 ἐπεσκίαζεν ἐπ ̓ αὐτὴν ἡ νεφέλη.—καὶ ἰδού] for Mk.’s καὶ ἐγένετο, assimilated to 317.—OÛTÓS ÉσTIV, K.T.λ.] See on 317. Mt. assimilates to that passage by adding ἐν ᾧ εὐδόκησα.—ἀκούετε αὐτοῦ] cf. Dt 1815. —aνTOû áкovσeσbe] Christ was the prophet foretold by Moses.
6. And the disciples, when they heard it, fell upon their face, and E feared exceedingly.]
7. And Jesus came and touched them, and said, Rise up, and E fear not.] Mk. has nothing corresponding to these two verses. Mt., who has omitted expoßol yàp éyévovτo from Mk ", where "He knew not what to answer; for they were very afraid" seems to express a degree of bewilderment on the part of the Apostles which is unexpected, expands it here into the statement that the disciples were exceedingly afraid when they heard the divine voice from the cloud of light. Lk. places the "fear" at the entry into the cloud.-podpa] occurs 7 times in Mt., 1 in Mk., 1 in Lk.πроσn] see on 43.
8. And lifting up their eyes, they saw no one, save Jesus only.] M Mk. has: "And suddenly, looking round, they saw no one with them, save Jesus only." Mt. has modified to suit the previous verse. 'Suddenly looking round" would harmonise badly with "Jesus came and touched them."-ovdéva] Mt. omits Mk.'s OUκÉTI; see Introduction, p. xxxi.
1-8. Mt. and Lk. both modify Mk. in some striking respects. In some of these modifications they agree, but not in others, e.g. both feel the necessity of explaining μereμoppwon, but do so in different ways; see above. Both omit oriẞovra, but Lk. substitutes aσrpáтwv. Both omit the simile of the fuller, but Mt. substitutes s Tò pôs. Both transfer the fear of the disciples to another part of the narrative, but they do not agree in the position which they assign to it; see on v.7. These changes look like independent editing. Further, both agree in kai idov and in Μωυσῆς καὶ Ἠλείας, Mt 8, Lk 30; in εἶπεν, Mt 4, Lk 33 ; in ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος, Mt 5 = ταῦτα δὲ αὐτοῦ λέγοντος, Lk 34; and in λέγουσα, Mt 5, Lk 35. Of these all except the insertion of "while He was still speaking" "while He was saying these things," may be accidental coincidences. The additions of Mt. in vv. 5. 6. 7 are probably due to the editor. On the other hand, Lk 81-82 and
ἐκλελεγμένος in 85 for ἀγαπητός rather suggest that Lk. had a second source for the narrative. But they might be explained equally well by supposing that Lk. is inserting reminiscences of other versions of the incident, or as simply editorial insertions. The insertion of "while He was still speaking" = "while He was saying these things," can hardly be purely accidental, but is insufficient even in combination with the other small details, καὶ ἰδού, Μωῦσης καὶ Ἠλείας, εἶπεν, λέγουσα, to serve as a basis for the theory that Mt. and Lk. had in common a second narrative which they both used in addition to Mk. If so, their divergences, e.g. in Mt 2= Lk 29, in Lk 31. 32, in Mt 6-7, and in Lk 33, cause fresh difficulties. Rather Lk. may be supposed to have read Mt., and to have occasionally written reminiscences of Mt.'s phraseology.
9. And as they came down from the mountain, Jesus charged them, saying, Tell no man the vision, until the Son of Man be risen from the dead.] Mk. has: "And as they came down from the mountain, He charged (dcoreλaro) them that they should recount to no man what they saw, except when the Son of Man should rise from the dead." See note on Lk 936.
ἐγερθῇ for ἀναστῇ; cf. on 1621
Mk. has here the words: "And they kept the saying to themselves, disputing what the 'rising from the dead' was." Mt. omits other statements of misunderstanding on the part of the disciples; cf. the omission of Mk 652 817, and see Introduction, pp. xxxiii f.
10. And the disciples asked Him, saying, Why therefore do the scribes say that Elijah must come first?] Mk. has: “And they were asking Him, saying, Why do the scribes say that Elijah must come first?" Two facts in the preceding narrative may have suggested this question. The disciples had seen Elijah on the mountain. In what relation did this appearance stand to the coming which was attributed to him by the official theologians? Further, it was part of this official theory, that Elijah would prepare the way for the Messiah by restoring all things. (On this, see Volz, Jud. Eschat. p. 192.) But if all things were restored, and Israel was made ready for the Messiah, what did Christ mean by foretelling His death and resurrection? Why death in view of the restorative work of the forerunner?—Teρórnσav] aor. for Mk.'s imperf., as often. Ti for Mk.'s ambiguous or; cf. similar changes in 1719 Mk 928, Mt 911 Mk 216.
11. And He answered and said, Elijah indeed cometh, and shall restore all things.] Mk. has: "And He said to them, Elijah indeed having come first, restores all things."-åπOKATAσTýσei] for Mk.’s ἀποκατιστάνει is an assimilation to the LXX of Mal 45. Christ answers that the scribes are right in expecting a return of Elijah to accomplish a restoration, because so much was foretold in the prophet Malachi.
The words which follow in Mk. are very obscurely expressed: "And how has it been written concerning the Son of Man, that He should suffer much, and be set at nought?" Does this mean: "It has not been so prophesied. Elijah's coming was foretold, but not the Messiah's suffering"? Or, "Seeing that Elijah was predicted as coming to restore, in what sense are the prophecies of Messiah's suffering to be understood"? Or, "Elijah indeed comes, and (yet) how has it been written of the Son of Man? (It stands written) that He should suffer"? "But I say to you that Elijah has come," that is, "It was not only foretold that he should come, but he has come in the person of John the Baptist." "And they did to him whatever they wished." That is, "And he did not restore all things, because Herod thwarted prophecy by putting John to death. Thus no restoration has taken place, and there is room for the fulfilment of the prophecies of Messiah's death." "As it has been written concerning Him." To what does this refer? The answer is generally found in 1 K 192.10 "The fate intended for Elijah had overtaken John: he had found his Jezebel in Herodias" (Swete). But how can this prophecy by type and contrast explain the matter of fact words καθὼς γέγραπται ἐπ ̓ autóv? How can the escape of Elijah from death at the hands of Jezebel be a prophecy of the execution of John the Baptist at the instigation of Herodias? Mt. has re-edited the passage in order to simplify it. He omits the obscure question Mk 12b, and the equally obscure καθὼς γέγραπται ἐπ ̓ αὐτόν. The reference to Herodias can hardly have been present to his mind, for he has omitted Mk.'s statements that she persecuted the Baptist. Further, he adds: οὐκ ἐπέγνωσαν αὐτὸν ἀλλά, to explain the failure of the prophecy that Elijah should restore all things, and to compensate for the omission of Mk 12b adds the definite statement: ourWs kai ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου μέλλει πάσχειν ὑπ ̓ αὐτῶν.
12. And I say to you, That Elijah has already come, and they M did not recognise him, but did in his case whatever they wished. So also the Son of Man is about to suffer from them.]-ovк éréуvwσav autóv] i.e. did not recognise Elijah in the person of the Baptist.ἠθέλησαν] aor. for imperf., as often.—ἐποίησαν—ὅσα ἠθέλησαν] Cf. Dn 111 ποιήσει—κατὰ τὸ θέλημα αὐτοῦ.—μέλλει] see on 1627.
13. Then understood the disciples that He spake to them concern- E ing John the Baptist.] An editorial comment in favour of the disciples; cf. 1612.
14. And when they came to the multitude.] Mk. has: "And M having come to the disciples, they saw a great multitude, and scribes disputing with them. And straightway all the multitude seeing Him, were astonished; and running up, were saluting Him. And He asked them, Why dispute ye with them?" Mt. shortens the narrative throughout. Here he omits as elsewhere the question
in the mouth of Christ. See Introduction, p. xxxii. The rest he probably passes over because it is ambiguously expressed. Who were the parties to the dispute-the scribes and the disciples, or the scribes and the multitude? Why should the people be astonished (kaußeiv is a strong word) when they saw Christ?
There came to Him a man, kneeling down, and saying.] Mk. has: "And there answered Him one out of the multitude."προσῆλθεν] see on 43.
15. Lord, have pity on my son: because he is moonstruck, and in evil plight: for often he falls into the fire, and often into the water.] Mk. has: "Teacher, I brought my son to Thee, having a dumb devil; and wheresoever it takes him, it throws him down: and he foams, and gnashes his teeth, and wastes away." And in v.22 “And often it cast him into the fire, and into waters, to destroy him.” The symptoms seem to be those of some form of epileptic seizure, described in Mk. under terms of demoniac possession. Mt. omits the references to demoniac possession, except in vv.18. 20.—Kúpɩe] for Mk.'s Sidάokaλe. A similar change in 825,-σeλnviášerai] only διδάσκαλε. again in 424.
16. And I brought him to Thy disciples, and they could not heal him.] Mk. has: "And I spoke to Thy disciples that they should cast him out, and they could not (ioxvσav).—poσýveуka]· See on 43.-Oeрaπevσai] because Mt. omits the references to demoniac possession.
M 17. And Jesus answered and said, O faithless and perverted generation, how long shall I be with you? how long shall I suffer you bring him to Me here.] Mk. omits & 'Inσous.—elnev] for Mk.'s λέγει, as often.—καὶ διεστραμμένη] is not in Mk.; cf. Dt 325.—μεθ uv] "in your company." Mk. has pòs vuas; cf. Mk 63.-de] is not in Mk.; cf. Mt 1418. Mk. adds here eight verses describing how the boy was brought, how the spirit rent him so that he fell on the earth and wallowed foaming, how Christ asked how long he had been so afflicted. Then follows a short dialogue with the father, after which Christ commands the spirit to come forth; upon which the spirit having "cried and rent him much, came forth: and he became as dead; so that many said that he had died." Jesus then took him by the hand, and he rose up. For all this Mt. simply has :
18. And Jesus rebuked him; and the demon came forth from him: and the boy was healed from that hour.] It is probable that Mt. has intentionally omitted Mk.'s account of this healing. He elsewhere omits questions in the mouth of Christ; see Introduction, p. xxxii. He elsewhere has omitted a narrative of the expulsion of a demon, Mk 123-28, in which it was said that after the command of Christ the demon rent the sufferer and cried out. And, lastly, he has elsewhere omitted a miracle in which the healing was described