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here καὶ παρρησίᾳ τὸν λόγον ἐλάλει (or ἐκλαλεῖ, k S' Tat.), which Mt. omits as being of doubtful meaning.


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22. And Peter took Him, and began to rebuke Him, saying, ME (God) be gracious to Thee, Lord: that shall not happen to Thee.] Mk. has: "And Peter took Him, and began to rebuke Him." The words from Aéywv are an explanatory gloss of the editor to explain Mk.'s ἐπιτιμᾷν; see on v.20.—Ιλεώς σοι] Cf. Ιλεώς μοι I Ch 1119, 2 S 2020; Letronne, Recueil des Inscripts grecques et latines de l'Egypte, ii. p. 286, ἵλεώς σοι, ̓Αλύπι: "(Sarapis) help thee, Alypius"; or with the subject inserted, ib. 221, iλews yμîv Пλáτwv kaì évтaûla, quoted by Moulton, Class. Rev. 1901, p. 436.-ov μǹ čσтaι] For the fut. ind. after où μn, see Blass, p. 209; Moulton, p. 190.-πрooλaμßávεiv] occurs only here in Mt. and Mk. Its presence in Mt. is due to Mk.

23. And He turned, and said to Peter, Go behind Me, Satan : M thou art a stumbling-block to Me: because thou thinkest not the things of God, but the things of men.] So Mk., without σkávdadov el quoû, which is inserted by the editor to explain the use of the harsh Σατανᾶ with reference to the Apostle. Mk. also has ἐπιστραφείς for σrpapeis (for σrpépw, which Mk. never uses, cf. 922), and adds kai ἰδὼν τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ, which seems to emphasise the publicity of the rebuke. The editor omitted it for this reason, or because he missed the point of it here. ὀπίσω, see on 31. οὐ φρονεῖς τὰ τοῦ OEOû, K.T..] seems to mean: "Your ideas of the Messiah and His destiny are superficial. You can imagine a career of splendour for Him, but fail to understand that suffering and death are a part of the career planned out for Him by God."

σκάνδαλον εἶ ἐμοῦ] So N* Β 13; εἰ μου, μ' C ; εἶ ἐμοί, D latt ; μovel, E Fal. Abbott, Johannine Grammar, 2566 c, suggests that the original may have been ciuí σo="I am a stumbling-block [it seems] to Thee!" But Zarava suggests that the following σkávdaλov is used of S. Peter, not of the Lord. In trying to set aside thoughts of the coming Passion, Peter was at once Christ's adversary and His stumbling-block. And this interpretation alone explains the following ort.

21-23. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in the following: anò τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθῆναι, Mt 21, Lk 22.

21. d'Inσoûs] So Neb C al S2; 'Inσoûs Xpiotós, N* B*. The latter can hardly be original. It is the work of a scribe who wished to emphasise the fact that this was a turning-point in Christ's ministry and teaching.

24. Then Jesus said to His disciples, If any one wishes to come M after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow Me.] Mk. has: "And having called the multitude, with His disciples, He said to them," etc. For the saying about the cross, see note on 1088, where another form of the saying has been




inserted. Here the meaning clearly is that the disciples must be ready to face death in allegiance to their Master, and after His example. The cross need mean no more than violent death; see on 1088.

25. For whosoever wishes to save his life shall lose it, and whosoever shall lose his life for My sake shall find it.] See on 1039.. ὃςἑάν] See on 1127. —ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ] Mk. adds καὶ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου. For Mt.'s omission of one of two synonymous clauses, see on 816; and cf. 1929 ένεκεν τοῦ ἐμοῦ ὀνόματος for Mk.'s ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ καὶ ἕνεκεν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου.—εὑρήσει] Μk. σώσει. Mt. assimilates to ro in order to form an antithesis to άñoλéσe. For antithesis in Mt., see on 152. 3. 4. 5 198.9.

26. For what shall a man be profited if he gain the whole world, but be deprived of his life or what will a man give as exchange for his life? Mk. has: "For what will it profit a man to gain the whole world and to be deprived of his life? For what would a man give as exchange for his life?" The meaning seems to be : "Suppose a man to shrink from martyrdom, he will, indeed, 'save' his physical life. But he will 'lose' the higher life of the soul. To gain the whole world, and to lose this higher life, is a profitless proceeding; because this higher life cannot be purchased. No money can buy it."-wpeλn@noeral] For Mt.'s preference for passives, see on 41.-] nov is to "fine" or "confiscate"; so in the passive, "to suffer confiscation or loss of"; cf. Phil 38 τὰ πάντα ἐζημιώθην.—ἀντάλλαγμα] is the price paid for anything; cf. Ecclus 615 φίλου πιστοῦ οὐκ ἔστιν ἀντάλλαγμα, 2614 οὐκ ἔστιν ἀντάλλαγμα πεπαιδευμένης ψυχῆς, “ there is nothing worth so much as, nothing which can be paid in exchange for, a wellinstructed soul." Sot in Mk. is the aor. conj.; cf. Blass, p. 49; Moulton, Class. Rev. 1901, p. 37; Gram. p. 55. Mt. substitutes the easier fut. ind.

Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in this verse in the following: ὠφεληθήσεται ἄνθρωπος—δέ, Μt. = ὠφελεῖται ἄνθρωπος-δέ, Lk. Mk. has ὠφελεῖ ἄνθρωπον—καί.

27. For the Son of Man is about to come in the glory of His Father with His angels. And then He shall give to each man according to his work.] Mk. has: "For whosoever shall be ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man shall be ashamed of him when He shall come in the glory of His Father with the holy angels." Mt. has already inserted words parallel to the first clause of Mk. in 1033. He therefore omits them here, and makes of oτav čλŋ a main clause, μέλλει γὰρ ἔρχεσθαι, μέλλειν, which here emphasises the nearness of the coming, is characteristic of Mt. ; cf. 1712. 22 μéda -Tapadidoobai for Mk.'s Tapadidorai, 2017. 22 246. He then adds, by way of compensation for the omitted clause of Mk., kai TÓTE

ἀποδώσει ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὴν πρᾶξιν αὐτοῦ.—ἐν τῇ δόξῃ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ] For the glory of the Messiah; cf. Enoch 618 "The Lord of Spirits placed the Elect One on the throne of glory," 622 "The Lord of Spirits seated Him on the throne of His glory"; and Test. Levi 18.

καὶ τότε ἀποδώσει, κ.τ.λ.] For the conception of the Messiah in glory judging men after their works, cf. Enoch 453 "On that day Mine Elect One will sit on the throne of glory, and make choice amongst their deeds," 6927 "And He sat on the throne of His glory, and the sum of judgement was committed to Him, the Son of Man." The terms seem to be borrowed from Ps 6113 σὺ ἀποδώσεις ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ; cf. Pr 242, Ecclus 3224

28. Verily I say to you, That there are some of those who stand M here who shall not taste of death until they see the Son of Man coming in His kingdom.] Mk. has: "And He was saying to them, Verily I say to you, that there are some here of the bystanders who shall not taste of death until they see the kingdom of God come with power." The eyev avroîs of Mk. may be a hint that this saying was not spoken on the same occasion as the preceding. However that may be, Mt. omits kai deyev avroîs, and connects the words closely with the foregoing. By substituting Tòv viòv Toû ἀνθρώπου ἐρχόμενον ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ αὐτοῦ for τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ ἐληλυθυῖαν ἐν δυνάμει, he makes it clear that what the “some of those who stand here" will see is the coming of the Son of Man "in the glory of His Father," or "in His kingdom." That is to say, he believed that that coming would take place in the lifetime of some of Christ's contemporaries. The same belief finds expression in 1023 and 2434, and has an important bearing on the date of the Gospel.-ȧun] see on 518.-yeveσbai baváтov] was a Jewish γεύεσθαι phrase; cf. Schlatter, Die Sprache und Heimat des Vierten Evangelisten, p. 35. It occurs in Jn 852, He 29.

XVII. 1. And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, and James, and M John his brother, and leadeth them up into a high mountain privately.] So Mk., without τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, and with μόνους after κατ' ἰδίαν. For Mt.'s omission of one of two synonymous expressions, see on 816.

2. And was transfigured before them; and His face did shine as M the sun, and His raiment became white as the light.] Mk.: "And was transfigured before them; and His raiment became glistening, very white, as a fuller on earth cannot so whiten."-μeteμoppwon] Both the later Evangelists seem to have found difficulty in the use of this word in reference to Christ. It was ambiguous, and it might easily be misinterpreted. Lk. omits it, and substitutes ἐγένετοτὸ εἶδος τοῦ προσώπου αὐτὸν ἕτερον. For this, cf. Dn 5 LXX ἡ ὅρασις αὐτοῦ ἠλλοιώθη, Theod. ἡ μορφὴ ἠλλοιώθη, Secrets of Enoch 17 "the appearance of my countenance was changed."





Mt. retains the word, but explains it by adding kaì λaμyev tò πроσшпоν аνтоû os ó cos. For this, cf. Secrets of Enoch 15 "their faces shone like the sun," 191 "their faces shining more than the rays of the sun," 2 Es 797 "their face shall shine as the sun," Rev 116 "His countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength." In Enoch 1420 the simile is used of raiment, "His raiment did shine more brightly than the sun.”—τὰ δὲ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο λευκὰ ὡς τὸ φῶς] τὰ δέ for καὶ τά, as often. Mt omits Mk.'s στίλβοντα. This word is used elsewhere of metals, e.g. brass, Ezk 408, Dn (Th) 106; or of hills reflecting the sun's rays, 1 Mac 639. Lk. substitutes aσrpáπTOV, which is the LXX equivalent of Theodotion's σTίABOVTOS in Dn 106. For Mk.'s simile of the fuller, which Lk. omits, Mt. substitutes is rò pŵs.

3. And, behold, there appeared unto them Moses and Elias talking with Him.] Mk. has: "And there appeared to them Elias with Moses, and they were talking with Jesus."-kai idov] see on 120. The order Moses and Elias, substituted by Mt. and Lk. for Elias with Moses, is probably simply due to a natural desire for the chronological order; cf. Lk.'s order in 1181. 32, as compared with Mt 1241. 42. On Elijah as the expected forerunner of the Messiah, see note on v.10. There seem to be traces in Jewish literature of a belief that Moses would accompany Elijah when he came; see Volz, Jüd. Eschat. 191-193, and cf. Jochanan ben Zaccai in Midr. Debarim R. Par. 111 (Wünsche), p. 55: "When I bring the prophet Elijah, you shall both (Moses and Elijah) come together." Moses may be referred to as one of the two witnesses of Rev 113; see Bousset and Swete, in loc., and Tert. Anim. 50.

4. And Peter answered and said to Jesus, Lord, it is good for us to be here: if Thou wilt, I will make here three booths; for Thee one, and for Moses one, and for Elias one.] Mk.: "And Peter answered and saith to Jesus, Rabbi, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three booths," etc. For the Semitic use of ἀποκριθείς, see Dalm. Words, p. 24. δέ for καί, as often. εἶπεν for λέγει, as often. -Kúpie] see on 82. Paßßeí occurs again in Mk 1051 1121 1445. Mt. retains it only in the last instance.-Tpes σKηvás] The idea apparently is that of prolonging the scene. Mk. adds at the end: "For He did not know what to answer; for they were very afraid." For Mt.'s omission, see Introduction, pp. xxxiii f.; and cf. the omission of Mk., 1440. The "fear" is postponed by Mt. to a more suitable place in v.6.

5. While He was still speaking, behold, a cloud of light overshadowed them and behold a voice out of the cloud, saying, This is My Son, the Beloved in whom I took pleasure; hear Him.-TL aurou Aaλouvтos] is inserted by the editor; cf. similar insertions, Mt 1246 Mk 331, and Mt 918 Mk 521. In both these passages, however, the clause is placed at the beginning of a section as a



connecting link. Here there seems no reason for the insertion. Lk. has a similar clause; see below. Mk. has καὶ ἐγένετο here twice, and in 19.11 223 44. 39. Mt avoids it in 19 223 44. He has it 5 times in a formula, 728 111 1353 191 251. In 317 = Mk 19 he has kai idov, and in clause b here he assimilates to that passage. In clause a he has simply ἰδού.—νεφέλη] Mt. adds φωτινή; cf. Rev 1414 νεφέλη λευκή. The cloud is the symbol of the divine presence. It was to reappear in the Messianic period; cf. 2 Mac 28 ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα τοῦ Κυρίου καὶ ἡ νεφέλη.—ἐπεσκίασεν] cf. Ex 400 ἐπεσκίαζεν ἐπ' αὐτὴν ἡ νεφέλη.—καὶ ἰδού] for Mk.'s καὶ ἐγένετο, assimilated to 317.-OUTÓS EOTIV, K.T.A.] See on 317. Mt. assimilates to that passage by adding ἐν ᾧ εὐδόκησα.—ἀκούετε αὐτοῦ] cf. Dt 1815. -AUTOÙ ȧKOVσEσbe] Christ was the prophet foretold by Moses.

6. And the disciples, when they heard it, fell upon their face, and E feared exceedingly.]

7. And Jesus came and touched them, and said, Rise up, and E fear not.] Mk. has nothing corresponding to these two verses. Mt., who has omitted expoßol yàp éyévovτo from Mk 6, where "He knew not what to answer; for they were very afraid" seems to express a degree of bewilderment on the part of the Apostles which is unexpected, expands it here into the statement that the disciples were exceedingly afraid when they heard the divine voice from the cloud of light. Lk. places the "fear" at the entry into the cloud. opódpa] occurs 7 times in Mt., 1 in Mk., 1 in Lk.— роσnev] see on 43.

8. And lifting up their eyes, they saw no one, save Jesus only.]M Mk. has: "And suddenly, looking round, they saw no one with them, save Jesus only." Mt. has modified to suit the previous verse. "Suddenly looking round" would harmonise badly with "Jesus came and touched them."-ovdéva] Mt. omits Mk.'s OUκÉTI; see Introduction, p. xxxi.

1-8. Mt. and Lk. both modify Mk. in some striking respects. In some of these modifications they agree, but not in others, e.g. both feel the necessity of explaining μerepoppoon, but do so in different ways; see above. Both omit oriẞovra, but Lk. substitutes έασтρánтwv. Both omit the simile of the fuller, but Mt. substitutes is Tò pôs. Both transfer the fear of the disciples to another part of the narrative, but they do not agree in the position which they assign to it; see on v.7. These changes look like independent editing. Further, both agree in kaì idoú and in Μωυσῆς καὶ Ἠλείας, Mt 3, Lk 30; in εἶπεν, Mt 4, Lk 33; in ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος, Με 5 = ταῦτα δὲ αὐτοῦ λέγοντος, Lk 24; and in λέγουσα, Mt 5, Lk 35. Of these all except the insertion of "while He was still speaking" = "while He was saying these things," may be accidental coincidences. The additions of Mt. in vv.5. 6. 7 are probably due to the editor. On the other hand, Lk 81-82 and

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