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is greater than the herbs, and becomes a tree, so that the birds of the heaven come and lodge in its branches.] Mk. has: "Which when it is sown upon the earth, though it is less than all seeds which are upon the earth, and when it is sown, grows up and becomes greater than all herbs, and makes great branches, so that the birds of the heaven are able to lodge under its shadow."

ồ μikpóтepov μév éσTw] Mt. simplifies Mk.'s harsh construction, ὃς μικρότερον ὄν. He also avoids the repetition of ὅταν σπαρῇ and ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς.—κατασκηνοῖν] cf. Ps 10412.—ἐν τοῖς κλάδοις αὐτοῦ] Mk. has ὑπὸ τὴν σκιὰν αὐτοῦ. Both expressions are used of birds in connection with trees. For ὑπὸ τὴν σκιὰν αὐτοῦ, cf. Ezk 1723; and for ev Toîs Kλádois avтoû, Dn 418 Th. The latter phrase expresses more suitably here the size of the tree.

Mt. and Lk. have several agreements in this parable as against Mk. ; cf. ὁμοία ἐστιν, Mt. Lk. ὃν λαβὼν ἄνθρωπος ἔσπειρεν ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ αὐτοῦ, Μt. = ὃν λαβὼν ἄνθρωπος ἔβαλεν εἰς κῆπον ἑαυτοῦ, Lk. αὐζηθῇ, Μt. = ηὔξησεν, Lk. ; δένδρον, Mt. Lk.—ἐν τοῖς κλάδοις αὐτοῦ] So far as Mt. goes, these variations from Mk. might be easily explained as editorial revisions of Mk.'s text. But his omission of Mk 426-29, combined with these variations and with the fact that the interpretation of the Tares does not immediately follow that parable, but comes later, after other parables in vv.36-43, suggests that he borrowed the whole section 24-52 (excepting v.34) from the Logia. In that case, when he came to Mk 426 he turned to his other source for all that follows down to v.52. His variations from Mk 430-32 are then due chiefly to the fact that this parable stood in the Logia in a form which differed from that of Mk. Lk. at 818 omits Mk 426-34, but has the parable of the Mustard Seed combined with that of the Leaven later in his Gospel at 1318-21. He probably, therefore, borrowed them from a non-Marcan source, which may have been the first Gospel, or a source which contained these two parables in the same order and largely in the same language as the Logia.

The parable seems to describe the future propagation of the word or doctrine of the kingdom. Starting from small beginnings in the teaching of Christ, it will spread rapidly and win many adherents.

31, 32. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in the following: ὁμοία ἐστίν—ὃν λαβὼν ἄνθρωπος—αὐτοῦ, Mt 31, Lk 18. 19.

αὐξηθῇ, Με 32 = ηύξησεν, Lk 10. Mk. has σπαρῇ.

δένδρον, Μι 32 = εἰς δένδρον, Lk 19. Mk. has μεῖζον πάντων τῶν λαχάνων.

ἐν τοῖς κλάδοις αὐτοῦ, Mt 2, Lk 19. Μk. has ὑπὸ τὴν σκιὰν αὐτοῦ.

33. Cf. Lk 1320. 21.

Another parable He spake to them; The kingdom of the heavens L



is like to leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened.] Lk. has: "And again He said, To what shall I liken the kingdom of God? It is like to leaven," etc.—ὁμοία ἐστίν] for this and for Lk.'s τίνι ὁμοιώσω—ὁμοία ἐστιν, see on v.24. The parable, like that of the Mustard Seed, describes the propagation of the doctrine of "the kingdom." Like leaven, this will spread rapidly until it has accomplished the purpose for which it was taught.


34. The editor now inserts Mk.'s conclusion, 433-34

34. All these things spake Jesus in parables to the multitudes; and without a parable He was speaking nothing to them.] Mk. 33. 34 has: "And with many such parables He was speaking to them, as they were able to hear. And without a parable He was not speaking to them. But privately He was interpreting all things to His disciples." Mt. has omitted Mk 83b and 34b account of the ambiguity of 33b "as they were able to hear." 35. He now adds one of the series of quotations from which he has elsewhere borrowed.


35. That it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophet, saying, I will open My mouth in parables; I will utter things hidden from the foundation of the world.]—ows Tλnwby] see Introduction, p. lxi, and on 122. The quotation is from Ps 772. The LXX there has: ἀνοίξω ἐν παραβολαῖς τὸ στόμα μου, φθέγξομαι προβλήματα ἀπ ̓ ἀρχῆς. The first clause of the Gospel quotation betrays reminiscence of the LXX, the second clause appears to be an independent translation from the Hebrew. For ἐρεύγεσθαι, cf. Ps 183 ; and for κεκρυμμένα, cf. 2 Mac 1241 καταβολὴ Kóσμov does not occur in the LXX, but here, 2534, Lk 1150, Jn 1724, Eph 14, three times in Heb., 1 P 120, and Rev 138 and 178. Cf. also Ass. Mos 114 "ab initio orbis terrarum" =πρò̟ KатаßολŶs кÓσμov, with Charles' note, p. 58. But see critical note on p. 154.

36. Then having left the multitudes, He went into the house; and there came to Him His disciples, saying, Explain to us the parable of the tares of the field.]-TÓTE] see on 27-åpeís] as in 2644 2222. εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν] cf. 131. Mt.'s references to place in this chapter are very vague; vv.2-9 were spoken in the boat. poσEλóvTES, V.1o, may or may not suggest a change of scene, but in the former case nothing is said of the disembarkation nor of the scene of the following section, 10-35. The reference here to roùs oxλovs ὄχλους suggests that the whole of 2-35 was spoken in the boat. If so, Christ now disembarks and returns to the house. Since the reference to the boat and the house are borrowed from Mk., it seems probable that τότε ἀφεὶς—οἰκίαν is an editorial insertion to introduce the explanation of the Tares.—προσῆλθον] see on 48.—διασάφησον]. The verb occurs again in 1831, a probable Logian passage. It is found in Dt 15, Dn 26 LXX, 1 Mac 128, and several times in 2 Mac.

37. And He answered and said, He who sows the good seed is L the Son of Man.]

38. And the field is the world; and the good seed, these are the L sons of the kingdom; and the tares are the sons of the evil one. oi vioì rês Baσideías] i.e. those who are qualified to enter into it; cf. "Son of the coming world," Taanith 22a, and other phrases quoted by Dalm. Words, p. 115. The phrase is used with rather a different application in 812. There it means "those who were chosen to enter the kingdom, but have failed to justify the choice."

39. And the enemy who sowed them is the devil; and the harvest L is the consummation of the age; and the reapers_are_angels.]— ouvrédeia aiŵvos] The phrase occurs in vv.40.49 243 and 2820. In the two latter it seems to have been inserted by the editor into his source. If this section is Logian, the phrase in 243 and 2820 will be due to the influence of Logian language on the editor. If this section is wholly editorial the phrase points to the Jewish origin of the editor, for it is characteristic of Jewish, especially of apocalyptic, literature. It occurs in He 926. Cf. συντέλεια τῶν alovwv, Test. Levi 10; "consummation of the age," Apoc. Bar 837 ; consummation of the world," 5421; Dn 1213 ovvтéλeiav ýμepŵv ; "consummation of the times," Apoc. Bar 133 2715; "of time," 298; "the day when the great consummation of the great world will be consummated," Enoch 161; "the end of this time," 2 Es 7113; "the consummation of the end of the days," Ass. Mos 118. Cf. Dalm. Words, p. 155; Volz, Jüd. Eschat. p. 166.—äyyeλo] cf. 2481.

40. As therefore the tares are gathered and burned with fire; L so shall it be at the consummation of the age.]

41. The Son of Man shall send forth His angels, and they shall L gather together out of His kingdom all stumbling-blocks, and they who do lawlessness.]ἀποστελεῖ] cf. 2431.—ἐκ τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ] This must not be interpreted in such a way as to suggest that the kingdom is conceived of as a present condition of things within which tares and wheat grow together. When the Son of Man has come, then the kingdom also will have come. Hence at that future date the tares can be said to be gathered out of His kingdom.

42. And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be the L wailing and the gnashing of teeth.]-Kávov тov pos] only again in v.50 a Logian passage; cf. "furnace of Gehenna," 2 Es 786, and see Volz, Jüd. Eschat. p. 285.-ékeî čσTai, K.T.λ.] See on 812.

43. Then the righteous shall shine as the sun in the kingdom L of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.]

τότε] see on 27.—οἱ δίκαιοι ἐκλάμψουσιν] Cf. Dn_128 Th. καὶ οἱ συνίεντες λάμψουσιν—καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν δικαίων.—ὡς ὁ ἥλιος] cf. references on 172, and add Ecclus 507 s os éкλáμπшν; Ep. Jer 66.—8 exwv, K.T.λ.] A similar refrain occurs in 1115 139.







The parable deals with the period prior to the future establishment of the kingdom, during which Christ and His disciples preach its "secrets" and announce its coming. See Introduction, p. lxx.

35. Add 'Hoalov, * curss. and MSS. known to Eus. and Jer. Omit BCDS' S2. The word is certainly not genuine.—кaтaßoλĤs kóσμov] No BI 22 k omit κóσμov. S1 S2 have "from of old", assimilating to the Syriac and to the Hebrew of the Psalm, which has 7p. It seems probable that Mt. wrote Kaтaßoλns, that S1 and S2 assimilated to the Hebrew, and that the mass of authorities have added κóσμov to assimilate to the general usage of the N.T.

36. διασάφησον] * Β; φράσον, CD al. implies διασάφησον.

44-50. Three Parables from the Logia.

probably ܦܫܩ ”STS

44. The kingdom of the heavens is like treasure hidden in the field; which a man found and hid, and from joy goes and sells all that he hath, and buys that field.] This and the following parable deal rather with the nature of the doctrine of "the kingdom" than with the method of its propagation, as in the previons parables. The good news of the kingdom is of such value that men will give up everything else to accept it.

45, 46. Again, the kingdom of the heavens is like a merchant, seeking goodly pearls. And having found one precious pearl, he went and sold all that he hath, and bought it.]

ὁμοία ἐστι] see on v.2.—ἀνθρώπῳ ἐμπόρῳ] cf. ἀνθρώπῳ βασιλεῖ, 1823 223; cf. ἀνθρώπῳ οἰκοδεσπότη, 132 2133.

47. Again, the kingdom of the heavens is like a net, cast into the sea, and gathering of every kind.]

48. Which, when it was filled, they drew to the shore, and sat down, and gathered the good into vessels, but the bad they cast away.] -ayyn] so BC M*. åyyeîa, D E F al. ayyeîov occurs again in 254. S1 S2 have "the good as good" for tà kaλà eis ayyn; see Burkitt. 49, 50. So shall it be at the consummation of the age: the angels shall go forth, and shall separate the evil from the midst of the righteous, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be the wailing and the gnashing of teeth.]

συντελεία] see on v.39.—κάμινον] see on v.42.—ἐκεῖ ἔσται, κ.τ.λ.] see on 812.

51, 52. Have ye understood all these things? They say to Him, Yea. And He said to them, Therefore every scribe who has become a disciple of the kingdom of the heavens is like a householder, who brings out of his treasure new things and old things.]—râs Ypapuaтeus] Christ's disciples were to be disciples and teachers of His doctrine, just as were the Jewish scribes of the Law and of the traditions; cf. 2334 where He describes His disciples as "prophets and wise men and scribes.”—μaðŋteveis] only here intransitive, no doubt corresponds to on, a scholar or disciple.

-ȧvoρúπų оiкodeσTóτy] see on v.45. The thought seems to be of a house steward, who brings from his household stores, new and old things, food, raiment, etc., as and when they are needed for household use. Just so Christ's disciples who had learned from Him the secrets of the kingdom, i.e. the truths about its near approach, the qualities which befitted those who should enter into it, and the separation between bad and good which would be made at its coming, were to be teachers of others. In this respect they would be as stewards, bringing out of the stores of their newly acquired knowledge, truths new and old, as was necessary to the requirements of those who wished to learn from them.

(9) Various incidents, 1353-1520, borrowed from Mk.

53. And it came to pass, when Jesus finished these parables.] E For this formula, see Introduction, p. lxiv.

54. The editor left Mk at 484. Having already inserted 485543, he comes to 61-6a which he now borrows.

He departed thence, and came into His native town, and was M teaching in their synagogue, so that they were astonished, and said, Whence hath this man this wisdom, and these miracles?] Mk. has: "And He went forth thence, and cometh into His native town; and His disciples follow Him. And when the Sabbath came, He began to teach in the synagogue. And the multitude (oi Toλoí) hearing were astonished, saying, Whence hath this man these things? And what is this wisdom which is given to Him, and the miracles such as happen through His hands?

μετήρεν ἐκεῖθεν] μετήρεν occurs again in rol for Mk.'s ἔρχεται, here for Mk.'s ¿¿ñλ0ev. ¿keîßev in Mk. refers to the house of Jairus; here, to the house of Mt 1336.—eis Tǹv πaтpída avтoû] in Mk. apparently means Nazara, cf. Mk 1o, and so, no doubt, in Mt., cf. 223-0v] Mt. as usual avoids Mk.'s hist. pres. pxeral, and omits καὶ ἀκολουθοῦσιν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ as unnecessary, since the disciples are not mentioned in the incident that follows, and κai γενομένου σαββάτου as unnecessary, since no further reference is made to the Sabbath.-édidaσkev] Mt. avoids Mk.'s pέaтo, as often.-TÓ TOÚtų į σopía avтn] Mt., as often, dovetails together two clauses of Mk., see Introduction, p. xxiv; but in this case compensates by repeating the phrase in the next verse in a slightly different form, πόθεν οὖν τούτῳ ταῦτα πάντα.—καὶ αἱ δυνάμεις] Μt. omits Mk.'s τοιαῦται διὰ τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ γενόμεναι as otiose.

55. Is not this the Son of the carpenter? Is not His mother M called Mary and His brethren, James, and Joseph, and Simon, and Judas ?] Mk. has: "Is not this the Carpenter, the Son of Mary, and brother of James, and Joses, and Judas, and Simon?" Mt. has substituted "the Son of the carpenter" for "the Carpenter," from a feeling that the latter was hardly a phrase of due reverence. Mk.'s striking phrase "the Carpenter" is occasionally echoed in

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