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Based upon my interviews with defectors, it appears that the
screened at their place of escape and then again in West Germany,
appear lost and indifferent.
Their escapes are usually dangerous,
they are proud of this, they consider themselves heroes, they
thought that in the U.S.A. they would be useful, that their Soviet
exactly what the Soviet Government expects--the disillusionment in
The defectors fear the Soviet agents, do not trust the
English, they are alone, they long for their dear ones and friends
the U.S.S.R., and feel guilty towards them, they
the beginning, during the first days, they need attention, a chat,
explanation of some of the ways of life in the new society.
most important--human understanding, feeling of security, and hope
for a better future for the sake of which escaped to America.
It is not necessary to create a totally new organization for
An existing organization which has assisted defectors
in the past, the Tolstoy Foundation, is the ideal organization for
an enhanced program for defector resettlement.
is named after the great Russian writer and humanitarian, and many
shown that with this organization the defectors feel at ease and
The Tolstoy Foundation has a Center (commonly referred to as
the 'Farm') where Russian-Americans currently reside; there is a
library with a Russian collection of books, a church, a hall for
Russian-Americans, i.e., in Nyack, and in New Jersey.
the Center is only 20 miles from New York City where the Soviet
authorities are widely represented, defectors could live at the
Center among its residents without any feeling of danger.
I suggest utilizing the experienced personnel of the Tolstoy Foundation along the the Foundation's Center for any increased
program for the assistance of defectors. The stay at the Tolstoy Foundation Center for the defectors could be the first painless
period of their adaptation to the U.S.A.
There they could easily
defectors could teach English and Russian literature, culture,
etc., while the American students could, in turn, teach defectors
While residing at the Center, the defectors could
work with Radio Liberty/Radio Free Europe and Voice of America.
Their speeches and radio broadcasts addressed to the Soviet radio
listeners could be a first-class American propaganda weapon.
It also would be very desirable to publish every six months
an almanac in which the defectors could write about the
for their escape from the U.S.S.R., and about other experiences in
the Soviet Union.
Such an almanac would be an excellent source of
information about the U.S.S.R. for the American public and the
Experience shows that the defectors who began their new
life by writing articles and books about their escape and the
reasons behind it, psychologically, break their ties with their
resettlement of these defectors--would find employment in any part
of the country--the Foundation would need the assistance from the
State Department and other organizations for this purpose.
In connection with security measures, it would be necessary
to have a constant contact with the local police and control by
possibly, the staff of workers should be reinforced with screened American personnel who can speak Russian.
the U.S.S.R. should be discussed and reviewed with the management
of the Tolstoy Foundation.