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CONTENTS

PAO

PRELIMINARIES

The artistic disposition Susceptibility and impulse towards ex.

pression—Music in the rough, in animals, in savages—Design
essential-Expressive cries and expressive gestures leading to
song and dancing—Melody and rhythm—The art based upon
contrasts-Nervous exhaustion and its influence on the art
Tension and relaxation-Organisation

Music of savages—First efforts in the direction of design-Ele-

mentary types—Reiteration of phrases—Sequences—Tonality-
Ornament-Pattern tunes—Universality of certain types of
design-Racial characteristics—Expression and design-Highest
forms—Decline of genuine folk-music

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Characterisation—Increase of impulse towards the embodiment of

definite ideas external to music-Spohr-Weber-Mendelssohn
Berlioz-Instrumentation-Resuscitation of oratorio-Its peculi.
arities—Change in the aspect of choral writing-Secular choral
works—Declamation-Solo song—Treatment of words—Expres.
sion and design - Pianoforte music-Obviousness and obscurity
-Realiam-Great variety of traits and forms

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Italian disposition and its fruits-French opera–German ideals-

Wagner-Early influences-Instinct and theory-Exile and
reflection-Maturity-Methods and principles-Leit motive
Tonality-Instrumental effect-Design and expression again -
Declamation and singing–Profusion of resources

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THE ART OF MUSIC

CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARIES

THERE are probably but few people in the world so morose as to find no pleasure either in the exercise or the receipt of sympathy, and it is to be hoped there are very few so blind or perverse as to regard it as an undesirable and useless factor in the human psychological outfit. Whether it is the higher development of an original instinct which enabled mankind to rise above the rest of the animal world by co-operation and mutual helpfulness, or whether it is the outcome of the state of mutual dependence which is the lot of human beings, it is obviously a quality without which society could hardly continue to exist in the complicated state of organisation at which it has arrived. The jarring interests of hurrying, striving millions require something more than mere cold-blooded utilitarian motives to keep them properly balanced; and in matters of everyday life the impulses which tend to mutual helpfulness and forbearance are fed by the ordinary phases of this omnipresent instinct. But there are many kinds and infinitely variable , degrees of sympathy, and some people love best to bestow it, and some there are who much prefer to receive it. And apart from the ordinary sympathetic consideration of everyday life on the one hand, and of the devoted sympathetic heroism which often rises to the pitch of entire sacrifice of self on the other, most people have some special liries and subjects which excite their sympathetio instincts, and make

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