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so that a syrup-like fluid will result. If the solution be too thin, wait until the benzine evaporates. Then grind white lead into linseed oil varnish to a stiff paste and add the gum solution. This putty may be used, besides the above purposes, for the tight puttying in of window panes into their frames. The putty is applied on the glass lap of the frames and the frames are firmly pressed into it. The glass plates thereby obtain a good, firm support and stick to the wood, as the putty adheres both to the glass and to the wood.

(b) A useful putty for mirrors, etc., is prepared by dissolving gummi elasticum (caoutchouc) in benzol to a syrupy solution and incorporating the latter with a mixture of white lead and linseed oil to make a stiff pulp. The putty adheres strongly to both glass and wood, and may therefore be applied to the framework of the window, mirror, etc., to be glazed, the glass then being pressed firmly on the cementing layer thus formed.

HARD PUTTY. This is used by carriage painters and jewelers. Boil four pounds brown umber and seven pounds linseed oil for two hours; stir in two ounces of beeswax; take from the fire and mix in five and one-half pounds chalk and eleven pounds of white lead. The mixing must be done very thoroughly.

PAINTERS' PUTTY AND ROUGH STUFF. Gradually knead sifted dry chalk (whiting) or else rye flour, powdered white lead, zinc white, or lithopone white, with good linseed oil varnish. The best putty is produced from varnish with plenty of chalk and some zinc white. This mixture can be tinted with earth colors. These oil putties must be well kneaded together and rather compact (like glaziers' putty).

If flour paste is boiled (this best produced by scalding with hot water, pouring in gradually, the rye flour which has been previously dissolved in a little cold water and stirring constantly until the proper consistency is attained), and dry sifted chalk and a little varnish added, a good rough stuff for wood or iron is obtained, which can be rubbed. This may also be produced from glaziers' oil putty by gradually kneading into it flour paste and a little more sifted dry chalk.

TO SOFTEN GLAZIERS' PUTTY. (a) Glaziers' putty which has become hard can be softened with the following mixture: Mix carefully equal parts of crude powdered potash and freshly burnt lime and make it into a paste with water. This dough, to which one-fourth part of soft soap is still added, is applied on the putty to be softened, but care has to be taken not to cover other paints, as it would surely be destroyed thereby. After a few hours the hardest putty will be softened by this caustic mass and can be removed from glass and wood.

(b) A good way to make the putty soft and plastic enough in a few hours so that it can be taken off like fresh putty, is by the use of kerosene, which entirely dissolves the linseed oil of the putty, transformed into rosin, and quickly penetrates it.

SUBSTITUTE FOR PUTTY. A cheap and effective substitute for putty to stop cracks in woodwork is made by soaking newspapers in a paste made by boiling a pound of flour in three quarts of water, and adding a teaspoonful of alum. This mixture should be about of the same consistency as putty and should be forced into the cracks with a blunt knife. It will harden like papier mache, and when dry may be painted or stained to match the boards, when it will be almost imperceptible.

WATERPROOF PUTTIES. (1) Grind powdered white lead or minium (red lead) with thick linseed oil varnish to a stiff paste. This putty is used extensively for tightening wrought iron gas pipes, for tightening rivet seam on gas meters, hot water furnaces, cast iron flange pipes, for hot water heating, etc. The putty made with minium

dries very slowly, but becomes tight even before it is quite hard, and holds very firmly after solidification. Sometimes a little ground gypsum is added to it.

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The Commercial Fixture Manufacturers HARLES F. KADE, of Plymouth, Wis., was elected president of the National Commercial Fixture Manufacturers Association at the third annual meeting of the organization, held at the Hotel LaSalle, Chicago, January 13, 14 and 15. Delegates representing more than one hundred firms located in all parts of the country and in Canada were present at the gathering. Officers elected for the ensuing year were:

President-Charles F. Kade, Plymouth, Wis.
Vice-President-H. J. Hunt, Detroit, Mich.
Treasurer-J. H. Servatius, Chicago, Ill.
Secretary-C. F. E. Luce, Grand Rapids, Mich.

The members of the association's board of directors, appointed at the January meeting, follow: Sol. Himmel, Baltimore, Md.; J. Lehnbeuter, St. Louis, Mo.; J. H. Dimon, Columbus, Ga.; A. Moorman, St. Paul, Minn.; Herman Blitz, Chicago, Ill.; G. W. Johnson, Moline, Ill., and Tom Thoits, Grand Rapids, Mich.

In point of attendance and enthusiasm, the gathering was the largest and the most successful ever held by the association. Among the subjects pertinent to the trade considered were a plan for improving general business conditions through the gradual adoption of a code of business ethics of a high moral standard; a plan for improving and continuing the present methods employed in conducting an educational campaign regarding cost accounting and improvement of manufacturing methods, and the adoption of a resolution of protest against the change in rules for grading lumber.

In order to reduce the cost of production to the consumer, matters of transportation were generally discussed and plans were adopted for a country-wide campaign along this line. Greater coöperation between manufacturers in improving the service of the trade to the consumer was urged, in line with the policy of the organization to consider the interests of its members in connection with those of their customers. Business conditions have been unusually favorable during the last few months, according to the reports of the delegates, and the factories represented forecast a heavy run for the coming year. Orders have been larger in volume and number than is customary at this period and the outlook for 1914 is particularly optimistic.

The prosperity of the association is reflected in the fact that its membership has been doubled in the last twelve months. As a result, it is declared that the efficiency of the service conducted by the organization will be greatly improved. The membership covers manufacturers in all lines of furniture and fixtures for use in stores, offices and public buildings.

Among those who addressed the delegates at the Chicago gathering were H. A. Wheeler, president of the National Chamber of Commerce, who spoke on "The Needs and Functions of Associated Endeavor," at the banquet given by the association Wednesday night, Jan. 14; Robert W. Irwin, of Grand Rapids, whose subject was "Better Coöperation in Association Work," and F. A. Wurzbach, president of the Bronx National Bank, New York, who spoke on "Watch Your Step and Observe.” R. G. W. Barker, of Jones Bros. Co., Toronto, Can., acted as toastmaster and gave a short address on "Reciprocity."

The factory of the Long Furniture Co., Chillicothe, O., will be enlarged.

IT ALL COMES IN THE DAY'S WORK

A Department in Which is Collected Observations in and About Factories With Comment Pertinent and Impertinent on Things, Men and Measures

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By A. B. MAINE

ERE is where I make you manufacturers say, "It can't be done," again. Concerning your machines. You buy them to make money, don't you? Well, a machine ought to be in running order to make a profit. Its ideal condition would be to be running full time, at its full capacity, and turn out perfect work. But it will not do to stop there. Profits will not materialize even with the best machine in the world laid down in the shop and belted ready to run. Something more is required. The machine must be set up and fed with suitable stock in order to make a profit. Every minute the machine is idle for setting up or for lack of stock, the possible profit is reduced; therefore, it is up to the purchaser to see that the machine man is surrounded with all possible appliances and methods for keeping the machine everlastingly at work. There is the keynote of the whole matter of profit or loss. Granted that the quality of the output is right, the percentage of profit depends upon the net time the machine is running.

When it is convenient some time go into another man's factory for a casual visit, and at once discover some faults that you wou'd not find in your own in ten years.

A. B. MAINE

The owner doesn't realize what it means to keep a machine running all the time, for it has never yet been done, to the writer's knowledge. Still, it is possible. Engines have to run for 144 hours or more without a single stop, and it stands to reason that a modern machine should be able to run five hours on a stretch. without a stop or without loss of a foot of feed. Think it over, you men who are rubbing along with 15 to 60 per cent. loss of capacity in each machine in your shop.

You may say the idea is a crazy notion. Well, on the square now, are you not doing some things today that you thought were crazy notions five years ago?

We have a surfeit of argument about what constitutes a good diy kiln, but the dry kiln man has been sadly neglected. That is, the man that is responsible for the care and operation of the kiln. I have yet to find the kiln that is absolutely fool-proof, and the success of most of them depends to a great extent upon the competency of the operator.

A little of the "oil of human kindness" judiciously sprinkled throughout the plant may have as good an effect in laying the dust of discontent as does the coal tar product in laying the dust when it is efficiently spread on the road.

What do you think of Kaiser Wilhelm entering the woodworking industry? Yes, he sawed and split some logs and presented the manufactured product to the peasants It was a laudable undertaking, but the champion log splitter was a native of these United States, and no ruler across the "pond" will ever be able to get the title.

Speaking of the varnish dry kiln, one of the largest furniture manufacturers in the country told me recently that he would not be without them if they cost $5,000 each to install.

I was recently informed that the first varnish drier was put into successful operation on May 23, 1910. If such is the case I'll have to revise some of my opinions on the non-progressiveness of furniture manufacturers, for they certainly are grasping this proposition faster than they have been in the habit of taking up some other things beneficial to the industry.

"How did this world ever get along without the moving picture show?" asks a newspaper writer. It had to, my boy, because we have to get along without what we have not. In a short time the woodworking plant will be asking, "How did we ever get along without the self

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feed jointing saw?"

If you don't own an automobile, cheer up. There are close to one hundred million people in this country, and according to the latest figures 1,200,000 automobiles now running here. Some own more than one, others don't own the one they run. So if you don't own one smile, for you have lots of company.

Who says the direct electric drive has no place in the up-to-date furniture plant? Karpen Brothers, Chicago, investigated its possibilities and found it worth while to install an electric plant of its own. The change necessitated a layo it of about $60,000 to meet the requirements, but the company is satisfied that the money was well spent.

Sanitation in the factory can be made ludicrous as well as beneficial For instance, I contend it is a mighty poor policy to install steel lockers, shower baths, reading rooms and such things in the factory, if you are not paying your help sufficiently high wages to enable them to have some of these comforts in their own homes.

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Things to Be Ariided by the Amater-Where Studies for Design May Be Found-Suitable Tools to Empty-Examples of Early Efforts in Carving

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1.d care far too many painful illustrations of this in the tapies, chairs, etc., which we see carved all out any regard to the question of whether they are improved or spoiled by the process. The object of carving should be to break up large, plain surfaces, or to provide narrow bands of decoration to accentuare some feature of construction. The writer has seen so much misdirected effort of this kind that he would particularly draw the enthusiast's attention to the value of plain spaces and emphasize it. They serve as a foil to, and give an added value to the decoration.

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Another pitfall to the beginner is the use of glass paper. All cutting should be left clean from the tool, and at the same time the direction and cutting mark left by the tool should assist the modeling and the outline of the object. Every eat of chisel or gouge should have a meaning, and a good craftsman will make every cut of his tool tell. These manual signs give life and character to the work, and if well executed, are the best evidence of the skill of a good workman.

Practice will develop a steady hand and a good wrist, each of which is a greater power in wood carving, helping to prevent the tool slipping. The object of endeavor

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CHISEL EFFECTS AND THEIR APPLICATION.

should always be a free, crisp and steady cut. It is by the introduction of simple bands, etc., of carving that the work of manual students can be relieved of its severity, and also made educational. Generally speaking, the present-day cabinet-maker no longer stops his own moldings, flutes, etc., or finishes a mold into the difficult shapes, which the machine will not work. This is now taken to the earver, but the ability to do this is an advantage. Any

protection of our factories against a national organized labor force a matter of common interest to all furniture manufacturers? This force that some of us have fought and most of you will some day realize the strength of, is no respecter of lines. All are classified as furniture working industries, and to its mind there is no segregation such as we set up. What shape would Grand Rapids manufacturers have been in to fight their great strike if they had had three or four organizations instead of one? What applies to this question applies with equal force to many, many other problems with which we have to deal.

We are commonly interested in the transportation problem. Within a few months the National Furniture association, and the Grand Rapids Furniture association, and the Rockford association instituted important suits before the Interstate Commerce Commission in reference to coast furniture rates that affect all furniture manufacturers almost, irrespective of kind of furniture they make. No one can question but what the contention of the manufacturers in these cases would have had far greater weight if they were supported by a larger interest with the additional evidence that this would have produced.

We are all vitally interested in having a sane and intelligent uniform classification, one that will permit us to market our product throughout the length and breadth of this country upon an equitable basis.

Terms, credits and collections are of equal interest to us all because we are doing business with the same people. We can all recall our experiences of the past in the matter of advancing prices; how we endeavored to secure coöperation of other associations, that the action might be as uniform as possible. There is no time that conditions make it necessary for a general advance in the selling price of case goods that the same is not needed on extension tables, in fact, upon every kind of furniture. Complete coöperation will make it far easier to keep pace in our prices with the constantly increasing cost of production.

The formulation and maintenance of the proper grading rules of lumber is of no small importance to our industry. You are all familiar with what the lumber men tried to do within the year, and a more united resistance would have accomplished better results.

The marketing problem is practically a common one. Then there is the tariff question and a hundred and one other national problems, the effect of which is identical to us all.

Now, the question is, if I have established common interest, how to bring about a better coöperation? The line of least resistance is, no doubt, a close working arrangement among the present and future associations, an arrangement whereby they would all agree upon a plan for the handling of all matters of common interest in joint convention. Under such a plan it would be necessary for the various associations that are now in existence to agree upon a uniform time and place for holding their meetings, possibly setting aside two days for the work. On the first day the various associations could have their meetings and consider matters, interest in which was common only to their members. The second day could be devoted, by assembling in joint convention, to problems in which all furniture manufacturers, regardless of the line, were interested-such matters as I have heretofore spoken of.

I cannot see a possible objection to a working organization of that kind and it could not help being conducive of a great amount of good. Maybe it is all we can do at this time; possibly it is more than we can do, but it is not the right way, although it is the easiest. If there

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is anything in the general idea of community interest, why not do it right in the first place and form one big, strong organization to which we can all pledge allegiance? Divide that organization into departments or sections; place each department or section under the control of members of that particular section. For instance, we would want a section each for chair manufacturers, extension table manufacturers, case goods manufacturers, upholstered goods manufacturers, and so on, covering all of the lines that are organized today and any that are not now organized. Let each department have its own secretary, if necessary, employed and paid by the section, if you want it that way. Have separate executive committees for each branch of the work, made up of and named by section members. In this way you would hold the control of each branch of the industry within the members interested and all could be done that is being accomplished today, but have one general organization with a general executive committee made up from the various branches and a general secretary whose duty it would be to look after all matters of common interest. This united force, in obtaining new members, would, without question, bring into the fold of associated work many who cannot now be reached. It is often the case that the greatest influence cannot be extended upon manufacturers by men working in the same particular line. Another strong point in favor of one association is the great number of manufacturers whose lines comprise articles that are now separately organized, and one does not know which association to belong to, or rather, whether he should join them all.

My time is too short to try to elaborate upon the possible benefits of such an organization, but I believe, if you will lay all prejudices aside, you cannot help but realize its wonderful effectiveness. We would represent a product conservatively estimated at $200,000,000, employing at least 150,000 men.

This is very similar to the plan of the National Bankers association. We probably all read the press reports of the last meeting of this organization because of the matter they had under consideration at the time. Currency legislation affects us all. At that meeting the country banks, trust companies, and the reserve city banks met by themselves. These separate meetings covered a period of several days, all in advance of the general meeting. Then all came together to consider a matter of common interest, better prepared to analyze it, having previously canvassed the group interest in that legislation.

Do I need to dwell upon the increased effectiveness of such an organization, compared to what we can do today? Well attended meetings, and I am sure they would be well attended in an organization of such size and with interests so great, would command attention. Our influence would carry great weight, and our voice would be heard when raised in a righteous cause. A truly national furniture association would be of no small proportions. The influence of a business organization in many matters depends very largely upon the size of the interest it represents. If you would command attention, you must have strength.

I have endeavored within the short time allotted to me to put before you a plan for benefiting our industry to which I have given considerable thought, but I am not attempting to outline any details of organization. If the idea is fundamentally correct, and I believe it is, the evolution of a proper plan which will amply protect all interest will be easily accomplished.

An extensive furniture factory will be located in Palestine, Tex., according to report.

Bulgarian and Cubist Crazes Have Subsided---Patterns Are Smaller Than in Previous Years---Prints to Fit the Enameled Furniture---Light Effects

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By EDWARD T. HARRIS

EF Egays of upholstery fabrics for the Spring Ser are now in full bloom in the local show s and the salesmen are on the road. The ASTER SEct but be struck with the

cast between the present displays nie w were seen a year ago. Vile mere are novelties in plenty, and merge of choice was never greater, me & minant tone is far more conserva

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inspection shows that strong colors have been used. Among the newer examples is a line known as Radium cloth. This has an unusual antique or weatherbeaten effect, difficult to describe. The whole figure looks as though it had been printed on porcelain which had "crazed" into innumerable little irregular cracks like a very old piece of china-ware. The colorings are soft and have the appearance of being lightly washed over with white, or grey. The line includes patterns of pink roses with soft green and gray toned foliage, one with deep pink roses and similar foliage, another in blue and pink floral garlands joined by ribbons, and a striking example in delicate yellow roses, soft green foliage and a suggestion of helio in the shadows.

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EDWARD T. HARRIS

for strong colorings, but the demand is more in conformity with the accepted canons for harmony and more toward designs which have tile merit rather than those whose sole claim to notice is their ability to startle the beholder

Cotton Prints

In the cotton print section, old favorites seem to have aza. come to the fore and a good advance sale is reported

the standard type of cretonnes in floral patterns. The er range is somewhat enlarged, however, and blues, green and yellows share the popularity of the old-time pince and soft reds. A strong demand for blue colorings was noticable in heavy fabrics during the past season and it was anticipated that blue would go well in the lighter goode Patterns seem rather smaller than last year, on the role, although there are notable exceptions. Most sacre of cotton prints would prefer a smaller pattern for the sake of economy in cutting. Among the newer designs od is a line showing a floral pattern of rhododendron ard azalea in the most delicate orchid tones combined raft light-green foliage. There are several colorings aron in this pattern. Another evidently derives its inspiration from the American Beauty rose, for the long, sturdy

are utilized to furnish a stripe effect binding to the blooms, which are life size. This pattern ercent. four coloring--brown flowers and green foliage, Bisk Pomere and green foliage, pink flowers and brown fog, and dull purple flowers with brown foliage. This A KAY also be had in a double-faced material suit** for wang.ge to match the furniture. Bream line" effect of this American Beauty

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***. in veral other designs. A pleasing example **********round almost covered with brown foliage, ******** *.*, blue, pink, and red flowers in a delicate #474,one in a moving stream. This type of the influence of European designers **ww, fasoring long, lender curves. **t met dass of prints embraces shadow effects, or reden colorings. These all have a soft, **24ally pleasing with enamel finIn the warp prints, the outlines are wok pattern indefinite, although close

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Another desirable class presents a range of floral patterns on a background printed to represent a rough fabric like burlap or monks'cloth. It includes mulberry and brown flowers with green foliage. Striped patterns appear to be increasing in favor, but the effect is not obtained by solid printed stripes of color, but by the arrangement of small floral repeats which give the same effect at a distance. Some of these are in one tone, blue, green or pink, but others are in several tones, resembling the silk brocade patterns. Thus there may be a wide stripe of solid blue foliage combined with two narrower stripes of red, yellow and brown flowers. The individual bits of contrasting color are so small and the blending so artistically done that the whole effect is pleasing.

Small Figure Effects

The small figure effects which appeared last year are again strong this season and the range of choice is greater. Most of last season's patterns were in one tone, but there are several variegated patterns now on display. The detail consists of a tiny floral sprig, seldom over a half inch in its greatest dimension, repeated regularly over the fabric. The effect is very dainty and delicate. This pattern comes under the class of Colonial designs, which seem as popular as ever. The familiar dotted background is characteristic of the majority of examples in this section and the color range is somewhat greater this year. Large, open patterns are prime favorites, mostly adaptations from Chinese motifs. The Chinese colorings are also prominent in this class, including the soft scarlets, dull blues and deep yellows.

Antique needlework patterns have evidently furnished the inspiration for another large class of prints, showing curiously stilted floral and animal designs in strong but dull colorings. These depict a quaint disregard for realism which would delight a modern Cubist. In many cases there are strong, curving stems far heavier and broader than the scanty foliage which they seem to support. Amid the sparse leafage sport strange, gaunt birds with dark blue bodies and red wings, or some other unusual combination of colors. Blue stems and red foliage is a commonplace in this class of designs, which are faithful reproductions of antique examples.

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