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I talked with a manufacturer of a glue cooker a short time ago. He said: "We also manufacture instantaneous glue heaters, but we will admit that they do not improve the quality of glues. We manufacture them because some of our trade demands them, but we do not misrepresent nor do we offer them unless the man asks for them." There are many points in favor of the instantaneous glue converter, but I would not have one in our factory. There is something in what you say regarding the use of the glue spreader. Of course, we all know that a first-class house painter works the paint well into the wood by means of his paint brush. Glue should also be well worked into the wood and this can best be done by means of a brush. Again, if glue is applied to hot wood, all the water of the glue solution will be absorbed by the wood, leaving a thin, inadhesive coating of glue at the surface of the joint, which, if made in this fashion, will hold only a short time.
Of course, glue spreaders are absolutely necessary. What would we furniture manufacturers do without them? However, we have certain high-grade jobs at our factory that do not go through a spreader for the reason above cited. As stated in my letter of the 15th, there is nothing wrong with the sample of glue you mailed to me for analysis, and if you are not paying any more than the commercial value I suggested, there is no reason why you should change glues. Your theory is wrong in testing glues by gluing test pieces and breaking them apart. The strength of the glue can be determined, but there are many factors which must be considered. This is an engineering proposition and cannot be made by the cabinet-maker nor glue-room foreman. The density of the wood must be considered, temperatures, pressure applied, amount of glue in the joint, the number of pounds required to pull apart the joint, which test must, of course, be made on a tensile machine.
I have been following, with much interest, the series of articles by Walter K. Schmidt, and experimenting with formulas given. Some of the ingredients mentioned, I find, are unknown in this city under the names he gives therein. I would like to find out where they can be obtained. Walnut brown, sap brown, oil red, oil black, oil brown, spirit black, spirit scarlet are some of the more important ingredients which I can not find. Also, is nigrosine always the same? What I have makes a blueblack instead of jet black. E. H. SMITH, Carnegie Institute of
Institute Manual Training.
Technology, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Answer by Walter K. Schmidt:-I am sending you a catalog which will give you the necessary information. Your question as to nigrosine brings up an important point and, therefore, I will explain that while there are hundreds of shades, they can, however, be classified for general purposes as jet black, blue black, violet black, green black, meaning that the black has a violet, blue or green tint and that when it dries down it has a general appearance of black which shows a hue of one of the other colors. Therefore, any color that you may be endeavoring to make may go wrong. If, for instance, you are using a violet black, a very green black is intended. It is safe, however, in wood-working, unless otherwise specified, to use jet black.
communication with anybody who makes a business of handling rush caning. As far as we can ascertain, rush caning is a local production. The manufacturers who use this material for the seating of chairs, harvest their own supply as far as possible in their immediate vicinity. The supply in this country is getting to be very short. The Michigan Seating Company, which operates the chair factory in the Jackson prison and makes a sort of rush fiber chair and full line of furniture, imports its material from Manila. We beg to suggest that you write the Manila Merchants Association, Manila, P. I., for information if you want to be assured of a steady supply of a rush fiber that will serve your purposes. Of course, there is no import duty and the material can be bought there undoubtedly for much less than you would be able to buy it in this country from any source. So far as we know there is no one who has written a work on the subject of handling it, but a small advertisement in THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURER AND ARTISAN would in all probability bring you some one who knows the process of twisting it and weaving into chair seats.
A UNIVERSAL MACHINE
We have been informed that you could furnish us with the name of a company manufacturing a universal machine comprising a band-saw, rip-saw, shaper and boring machine. We are also in need of an electric router, suitable for removing cane seats from chairs. We have been looking for such a machine for some time and as we heard they were made in Grand Rapids, we thought you could aid us in finding them. Thanking you in advance for this information, we remain,
H. J. HASBACH & SONS. Answer by A. B. Maine:-I believe that you can obtain the universal machine you require from any one of these three concerns: Tannewitz Works, Grand Rapids, Mich.; Sidney Tool Co., Sidney, Ohio; Crescent Machine Co., Leetonia, Ohio. Perhaps it would be wise for you to investigate them all before you purchase. For your electric router, I suggest that you inquire of the Kelly Electric Machine Co., Buffalo, N. Y.; United States Electric Tool Co., Cincinnati, Ohio.
In filing hand-saws I usually get the teeth longer on one side than on the other. Please advise how to overcome this. J. R. S.
Answer by Alex. T. Deinzer:-Your trouble is in holding the file. It requires experience to determine just what shape or space, angle and bevel should be given to the teeth, as well as the amount of set best suited for certain classes of sawing. You do not state the kinds of wood you saw. The tooth best adapted for sawing soft woods is not at all suitable for cutting hard woods. Of course, the work could be done after a fashion, but the result would not be as good as that obtained by the use of a saw properly toothed for its particular purpose. You can take a hand rip-saw and cross cut with it, but note the difficulty. In line with this, it may be noted that even a saw blade made for cutting soft metals is not at all adapted for sawing the harder metals, nor will a saw made for sawing wood stand the work of cutting a combination of wood and metal without injury to the points of the teeth, thereby spoiling it for further use in making a clean, sweet cut in wood.
If you get the teeth longer on one side than on the other, it may be well if you purchase a filing guide and clamp from a hardware dealer. Another point I wish to bring out is this: How many wood-workers really test a saw before buying? An important point to be observed when buying a saw is to see that it "hangs" right. Grasp it by the handle and hold it in position for working. Then try if the handle fits the hand properly. A handle
Plochus names of manufacturers of steel tubing and wood frames for bed springs, Fort Williams, Ont.
MCKELLAR BEDDING CO.
Answer by the Editor: Steel tubing is made by the Pittsburgh Tubing Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. You undoubtedly get what you want made by addressing the Minneapolis Bedding Co., Minneapolis, Minn., or Sali bury & Hatterlee Co., Minneapolis, Minn. Both are large manufacturers and make springs with both kinds of frames. They are nearer to you than anybody else. might not be a bad idea to communicate with the DeWitt Seitz Co., Duluth, Minn., who are wholesalers of furniture, who are located so that they may get into communication readily with some of the steel corporations operating on the Range. We also beg leave to refer you to the Simmons Mfg. Co., Chicago, Ill., and Foster Bros. Mfg. Co., Ution, N. Y. Both of these concerns are situated so that they can ship you by water in the navigation senson if you have any considerable call for these articles.
NOME PROBLEMS IN FINISHING
What would you suggest to equalize the color of oak when sume is to be stained Early English? This stain, you know, is largely made up from nigrosine and pensol, then sized and filled, after which it is finished with shellae. But I have trouble in getting a selection of oak that will take the same color, and can not sap nor overstain without destroying the figure of the wood. This stain is applied with good strength and the surplus wiped off. The hard parts take light and soft parts take darker and saps take very dark. Now, there is one way, to my mind, that might help out, namely: sponge the hard parts with water, and sand, then proceed to stain. This is, however, a slow and uncertain process, and not all workmen are equal to this process. Can this stain be made as a water stain and get the correct shade? I am inclined to think not. But, however, you may know something different. I have yet to see a piece of furniture finished Early English that is of a uniform shade. If you can help me out with a correct solution of the troubles just mentioned, I certainly will appreciate your very kind advice. W. H. SURBER, Wabash, Ind. Wabash Cabinet Co. Answer by Walter K. Schmidt:-The proposition that you have is one that confronts every finisher. If the wood working end of the factory would take more pains
2. it is Lave a
dark, have the theft part with as the stain. Sain
je as a water
a much richer
met with water stain than with an oil techat you have yet to see ~ Early English that is uniform. 5, the fact that they are oil The prose de Et permit the amount of Kending hit a war in do. You might as well Iake up: r mind trot as last that in order to uniform your work in ring. it will have to be done in the thishing-re-m ani the firm will have to take this time into consideratia in making the price on the finished promiset.
WHO MAKES A MACHINE LIKE THIS!
Can you give us any information in regard to a machine that will be a double cut off saw and cut a miter at each end? What we want is a machine in which a panel molding can be mitered at both ends with one operation, the saw being arranged so that they can be adjusted so that they will cut any angle within 90 degrees and so that it can be set to cut stock from 8 inches up to 6 feet in length. THE ROBERT MITCHELL FURN. Co. Cincinnati, Ohio. Per W. Ledyard Mitchell.
LAYING OUT A ROCKER
Will you please send me a plan for locating sweep point for laying out a rocker for all sizes of chairs? St. Louis, Mo. J. A. BRANDTS,
School of Mechanical Trades. Answer by Alex. T. Deinzer:-The radius of the circle, or what we term sweep of the standard rocker runner we have, is 3 feet 434 inches. I know of no rules that can be followed. The length of the sweep depends upon the height, weight and depth of the rocker. For instance, a heavy, deep rocker would require a long sweep. This is, after all, a simple matter, and, I believe, that if the radius above suggested is used, any ordinary rocker may be fitted with scoops. The rocker should, of course, be so adjusted that the back legs set on the floor. This, at least, is our way of doing and we have made many rockers in times past.
Answer by C. A. Zuppann:-There is no standard sweep for all rockers. If a quick-motion chair is desired, the rocker will be of less radius than for a slow motion, thus bringing the center of gravity of the occupant nearer the center of the arc. As these two centers approach each other, the chair becomes more unstable or of quicker motion. There are certain limits between which a good average rocker can be obtained. Length of rocker between 26 and 38 inches or extending about a foot or slightly more beyond the back leg. Radius of are from 33 to 38, or even 40 inches, for a very slow heavy chair. The back leg is made from 12 to 11⁄2 inches shorter than the front. To find the center of arc, connect the bottom of back leg and bottom of front leg, allowing for thickness of rocker, with a line which is a cord of the desired are. Erect a perpendicular from its middle and selecting a
radius suitable to the requirements as given above, lay off the arc with the center on the perpendicular. This will give the pattern for the bottom curve expected that toward the back, and it should run slightly flat or tangent to the arc. Moving the center slightly back of the perpendicular will give a curve suitable for the upper side of the rocker.
RETAINING THE COLOR IN WOOD
Can you give me any light on a European process of finishing oak wood so that the final color is identical with the color of the wood before anything is applied to it? As you know, the application of oil to the whitest of wood will give it a yellowish cast, likewise with the application of shellac. The object is to give the wood a polish or egg-shell gloss without applying anything to the wood which will change it from its original color; that is, pure white. In other words, a finish identical with a white maple finish only it must be on oak and be transparent, not painted or enameled white. I have never seen any in this country, but I have a small panel finished in Europe which I would like to match.
Answer by Walter K. Schmidt:-Replying to your letter, the only process that I know of which will carry out the points that you mention, is the following: After your wood has been thoroughly smoothened and cleaned give it a coat of lacquer, then apply paraffin wax, which has been previously melted, and when taken off the stove thinned with pale turpentine so that when the wax cools it will permit of spreading with a soft cloth and rubbing to a polish on the work. The Sun Varnish Co., of Louisville, Ky., are working on a new transparent finish and I suggest that you write them for information.
DIRECT DRIVE, ETC.
We have a plant which is now operated by steam and are considering taking this out and substituting motor drive for all machines. This will necessitate facilities for heating the mill, dry-kiln and glue-room. We will appreciate your suggestions. C. S. A. Co.
Answer by Alexander T. Deinzer:-You are making a move in the right direction. Investigations of plants operating from line shafting and belt drive show that from 25 to 60 per cent. of the total power may be saved. This fact, when considered in connection with the fact that the average load in wood-working plants is only 10 to 35 per cent. of the total load connected, shows that the friction losses due to the shafting and belts amounts to practically the greater part of the total energy used. The electric motor largely eliminates such losses, for when a machine is standing idle no power at all is transmitted to the motor. I might suggest that you visit some of the furniture factories in Grand Rapids equipped with motor drive, or the West Michigan Furniture Company, at Holland, Mich. It would require too much space to say what could be said on this subject.
As to the glue-room, I would suggest that you purchase electric glue cookers. Electric heating is far superior to steam for glue-room heating. It is a simple matter to control the temperature of glue in an electrically equipped cooker. We all know that glue should not be heated over 150, preferably 140 degrees, Fah. It is now the almost universal practice to heat wood-working plants by direct steam radiation. This is largely done for the reason of requiring steam for the engine and dry kilns. I do not favor steam heating. Steam heating by direct radiation simply reheats the air in the factory over and over again. The result is that the operator becomes loggy and loses in efficiency. Some manufacturers place the radiators on the ceilings overhead, claiming that they will be out of the way of the trucks and lumber piles. The result of this practice is that the heat,
by radiation, bears down directly on the heads of the workmen, and while the air in the room may be cool, yet they are overheated just where, according to the old rule, they should be cool. The only correct way to heat any factory, regardless of line of goods manufactured, is by a blast system of pure heated air. This air should be carefully secured from an uncontaminated source, filtered by washing, if need be, and delivered into the work-room at the rate of at least six changes per hour. As to the dry kin: As already stated, I do not know where you are located, nor the amount of lumber you require. If your factory is small and you require but little lumber, I might suggest that you buy your lumber kiln-dried and place this lumber into sheds, or curing rooms, when you receive it. If possible, store in buildings so as to protect it. Should you require much lumber it will, of course, be more economical to dry this. In this case you will require a steam heating plant.
You are tackling a big proposition. I will suggest to you that you engage expert heating engineers to do this work for you. Inasmuch as this may cost you a little more than if you planned the work yourselves, you will soon make up the additional cost in the savings which are bound to result. This problem is too broad for the average steam fitter or engineer.
BLEACHING BOARDS FOR UNIFORM COLOR
We notice that you think it necessary for us to dip the basewood, but I can not bleach it out by so doing. We think we will try and see what we can do with some of our foot boards by dipping them in the solution of bichromate of potash, as suggested by you. We presume that by following the instructions of the mixture we can obtain results. We will do a little experimenting ourselves and see what we get.
We do not know whether water would affect bichromate of potash solution or napthol yellow aniline through the varnish. As our boats are all used in the varnish, it would not do if the water soaked through and caused this to run out. Can you give us an opinion on this? Thanking you again for the trouble.
Peterborough, Can. PETERBOROUGH CANOE Co., Ltd. Answer by Walter K. Schmidt:-In my opinion you will have no trouble with either the bichromate or napthol yellow. In fact, I think that the napthol yellow with bichromate will work out the best if the wood is allowed to dry thoroughly before the varnish is put on. You will have absolutely no trouble by the use of these color materials. I have had similar questions from step ladder people, so that the proposition is not new to me. I am having sent you a small sample of napthol yellow so that the tests are made with the same material employed by The bichromate you can probably get at your local
buy is not any better than the cheapest. Factory windows have dropped out soon after they are put in. I recently purchased some windows and the maker guaranteed the putty would stay on two days and would not guarantee it any longer. No house that I can get hold of will guarantee that it will stick. How did they use to make it and what was used? SUBSCRIBER.
Answer by Walter K. Schmidt:-Your information will reach you through the columns of the paper, together with some formulas which undoubtedly will prove valuable to you, and which we hope will give you the information you desire. The difficulty with the putty of today
is usually due to the oil employed, the oil which is used to replace the old-fashioned kettle-boiled linseed oil. Petroleum oils are so cheap and plentiful that a market must be found for them, and while the drying material commonly known to painters as drier, will permit the use of a large percentage of these petroleum oils, in connection with linseed oils, in making paints, and owing to the fact that with the pigments and the surface to which paint is usually applied, a sufficient amount of binder is produced to make a fairly good paint. Working on that theory, the same oil proposition is used in the putty, but the binder is not present in the glass and this is manifested by this fact, that you will find the putty entirely drawn away from the glass, but you will usually find it still adhering to the wood. The non-drying oil having greater penetrating powers, finds its way through cohesion drawn down into the wood. The linseed oil follows on, and by its oxidation hardens and forms a binder that holds the putty, but this peculiar cohesion works against the adhesive power of a putty when applied to a surface like glass, and tends to draw away before the putty congeal or hardens. In the formulas given, you will undoubtedly find relief for your troubles.
Answer by Alex. T. Deinzer:-Putty should consist entirely of whiting ground in genuine linseed oil. Any other substance added should be regarded as an adulterant. This is the kind of putty our fathers use thirty years ago. However, there is good putty on the market today. Putty is quite frequently found to contain barytes or mineral oils, the presence of which latter is deleterious. In order to examine the putty for mineral oils it is necessary to extract the oil from the putty. A formula commonly used is as follows: Mix a small quantity of from 15 to 20 per cent. of white lead, boiled oil, and enough whiting to give the putty the proper consistency. As above stated, the writer suggests whiting and pure linseed oil.
THE FUMING OF WOOD
If you have a copy of your journal in which there is a description of how woods are fumed, will you please send me a copy of same? Also advise me if there is a book of any sort giving description of the different woods and finishes, and if so, please give me the name of publisher and greatly oblige. J. D. ALLEN. Lynchburg, Va. Care Winfree-Strother Furn. Co. Answer by the Editor:-We published in THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURER AND ARTISAN, some time ago, two or more articles on the fuming of wood. These articles were by Walter K. Schmidt. Copies of the paper containing Mr. Schmidt's articles on fuming are all gone. The demand was so insistent and from so many sources that we embodied it in J. II. Rudd's book on "CabinetMaking," which was then going to press. This book we can send you for $1.50. There are three chapters on the subject in that book. One of these deals with "The Construction of a Fuming Room," another gives "A Description of a Canvas Fuming Box," and the third deals with "The Process of Fuming." We know of no book such as that about which you ask, but expect to publish in the near future Mr. Schmidt's writings in book form. How soon this book will be published we are unable to advise you definitely.
BEST ALCOHOL, ETC.
Will you kindly advise us which is the best alcohol to dissolve white shellac? We have been using denatured alcohol and find that it will not cut the shellac. What is a good preparation to put on a soapstone kitchen sink to keep it from getting white? NELSON A. BUTZ.
Answer by Walter K. Schmidt:-The best alcohol to use for dissolving shellae is grain alcohol. Denatured
alcohol is grain alcohol to which naphtha has been added. This sometimes gives difficulty in the cutting of shellac. High grade wood alcohol is, therefore, preferable. As a rule white shellac, when it does not cut, is usually at fault itself. A certain change takes place in bleaching of shellac that makes it almost impossible to cut it. Therefore, when a batch of that kind is obtained, it is better to return it immediately to the dealer for fresher goods. Your second query as to soapstone turning white: This is due to the alkali present in soap, Dutch Cleanser, and the various household cleansers that are in use. They deprive the soapstone of parts of its natural components. In other words, they remove the life of the stone. Would suggest that after the sink has been thoroughly cleansed and dried, give it an occasional coat of paraffin oil. The temperature, when this is applied. should be high and the oil warmed so that it is limpid when applied.
BRACING A BAND SAW
Will you explain how to brace a small band saw so as to take out the twist, which is so often the cause of breakage? J. E. D.
Answer by Alex. T. Deinzer:-There is a cause for everything, and it seems to me that this cause should be removed as much as possible. The old saying, “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure," certainly holds true here. The most frequent causes of breakage may be named: The use of inferior saws of unsuitable gauge for the work; pulleys being out of balance or too heavy; the use of improper tension arrangements; not slackening saws after use, thus preventing the free contraction of saw blade on cooling down after work; the framing of machine column being of too light a section or too high, thus causing excessive vibration; joint in saw not being of same thickness as the rest of the blade: improper method of receiving the back thrust of saw. consequently case-hardening the back of saw blade and cracking same; using band saws with angular instead of round gullets at root of teeth; top pulley overrunning saw; working dull saws; feeding up work too quickly to the saw; allowing sawdust to collect on face of saw wheel, thus causing it to become lumpy and uneven; stopping or starting a machine too suddenly, especially while using a light blade, will almost always snap a saw in two. Always endeavor to have full knowledge of the working and condition of each saw and examine each blade carefully as it comes off the wheels. Close application in studying the conditions under which the saw works, along with good judgment as to when it is properly fitted for its particular work, is what is wanted in every filer and operator who wishes his saw to run successfully.
WHOSE CUSTOMERS ARE THESE PEOPLE?
We have been purchasing glass castor cups, or insulators, from some concern in Grand Rapids, but we have lost their name. We wonder if you could give us this information, and oblige.
THE J. T. WAMELINK & SONS PIANO COMPANY. Cleveland, Ohio.
SHORT LENGTHS OF CHEESE CLOTH
Kindly give us the names of different concerns handling short lengths and ends of cheese cloth for finishingWALTER S. MACKAY & Co.
Answer by the Editor:-I do not find that our local manufacturers buy cheese cloth for finishing-room use. They use, instead, washed rags, but we have ascertained that you can probably buy cheese cloth, short lengths, by addressing Jenks, Spears & Co., New York City; F. A. Foster & Co., New York City; Norwood Bros., New York City; John H. Lyon & Co., 256 Water St., New York City. This latter firm tell us that no concern makes a
specialty of supplying cheese cloth rags. This is a scarce commodity, but a fair quantity could be picked up on special order, but there would be no assurance of any certain amount. Lyon suggests that the subscriber write him, stating full requirements. The freight rates to California, where the subscriber is located, would make the price very high. Could not this party use washed rags instead of cheese cloth?
LOOKING FOR BIRD'S-EYE MAPLE, ETC.
Will you please inform me where I can likely procure either or all of curly maple, bird's-eye maple or birch to make the table shown in the July issue of THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURER AND ARTISAN, on page 316?
EDGAR M. PERRY.
Can you inform us whether any of the furniture factories are prepared to furnish veneered boards, finished or unfinished, to be used for mounting hardware samples? We are informed that some of the factories are making a practice of doing this, and we should like to get in touch with such factory or factories. St. Paul, Minn.
FARWELL, OZMUN, KIRK & Co. F. E. Whitman. Answer by the Editor:-You ought to be able to find the material about which you write us under date of January 12th, by addressing some of the makers of builtup stock-the concerns that manufacture veneer and then mold it into boards. We suggest that you write F. Eggerts Veneer Seating Co., Two Rivers, Wis.; the Frosts' Veneer Seating Co., Sheboygan, Wis.; Louisville Veneer Mills, Louisville, Ky., and the New Albany Veneer Works, New Albany, Ind.
of agriculture about the exploitation which is carried on in those zones in spite of the President having enacted recently three decrees annulling the concessions for the exploitation of forests in the maritime zones of the northern coast, from the province of Pinar del Rio to Caibarien, and on the southern coast of Santa Clara.-Cuba Review.
Figure and Color in Wood
HE figure of wood is determined more by the characteristic grouping and direction of the fibers than by any difference of color, says The American Architect. The transverse surface of an oak log exhibits circles; the longitudinal surface cut through the center of the log, parallel straight lines; and the obliquely cut surface, parts of ovals; but few, if any, trees are to be found either exactly perpendicular or straight. Although these three surfaces show a general disposition to the figures described, especially when polished, very little bend and twist in the tree disturbs the regularity of the fibers, and adds to the variety and ornamentation of the wood. A longitudinal section through the center of the log is the hardest and most diversified, because in it occurs the zone of greatest density. The first and last layers of growth are presented in the same plank, but the density and diversity lessen as boards are cut further from the axis.
Curls are formed by the filling in of the space between the forks of the branches. The beautiful figure thus induced causes a log, say of mahogany, to be valuable in proportion to the number of curls it contains. There is great competition in the large markets for such logs, and prices which seem astonishingly large are sometimes paid for logs known by timber merchants to contain what is known as curl grain. The curl is generally shown on the outside, and there is always a possibility of there being interior ones as well, which do not show on the surface.
Figure is produced in a number of ways. One of them is by means of numerous small branches which the parent stem sheds during early life. These fail to penetrate to the exterior, and are covered over by the more vigorous deposition of the annual rings.
The New York Exposition
ITH a total for three weeks of 2,954 visiting buyers, which was but 116 less than the total registration of January, 1913, the record year, the New York Furnitue Exposition closed on January 31. The attendance at the forty-sixth New York show during the first week was unusually light, but this was counteracted by the influx of buyers during the second and third weeks, which raised the average daily attendance to sixty visitors. The attendance from remote districts, as far west as California and Utah, was unusually good.
In spite of the fact that the exhibiting manufacturers came to the Eastern market in a pessimistic mood, results of the exposition were unexpectedly favorable. The exhibitors numbered 358, many of whom reported business above normal at the close of the season. In several cases, the manufacturers declared that more business was done than in any previous January market.
The unusually strong close of the January exposition is the basis for the New York prediction that the present spring season will prove as brisk as that of any previous The consensus of opinion, according to report, forecasts a banner year for the furniture business during 1914.
The Cutting Furniture Manufacturing Co., Buffalo, N. Y., has retired from business.