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tion of machines and benches to elevators, doors, stockrooms, toilets, etc., must be considered. The question of heat, light and ventilation would seem too obvious to mention and yet how often they are slighted, as of secondary importance. The size of rooms affecting the volume of work that can be supervised by one executive, is of no minor import.

If a new building is under consideration, an important factor of perfection is the relation of space required, for movement of material, to space required for workmen and machines or benches. This applies, especially, to buildings more than one story in height, where daylight must all enter from the sides and not from skylights. For instance, a building that is too wide requires that work must be done too far from windows, or else a waste of space in the center of the room. In the systemless factory, such space is easily filled by the accumulation of stock in process, which for some reason does not proceed. Such stock is not allowed to linger in the workroom of the up-to-date, progressively managed plant, and consequently this problem enters into the making of the ideal plan. A too narrowly constructed building necessitates the scattering of workers and an inconvenient arrangement is inevitable.

With the ideal plan for reference, the management will find it very easy and satisfactory to make all minor changes and additions to plant and equipment, in conformity with the general scheme. This may mean a considerable saving, both of time and money, not only when the time of new construction, or re-construction comes, but at every step of the way. That is, by the elimination of the cut-and-try process for every little installation of equipment, etc.

There will be no hesitating, guessing, doing and undoing, because every move is carefully planned in advance, not only as to its own value, but as to its bearing on other and subsequent developments. There is a feeling of assurance in the permanency and wisdom of every improvement because it harmonizes and is a part of the great central scheme, which is ultimately to be realized.

The management will be saved no end of nerve-racking hurry and worry. They will, on the contrary, derive an infinite amount of satisfaction in the construction of a new plant or large addition in accordance with an ideal, which has been developed from perhaps years of study of their peculiar needs. The employes, who have had a hand in evolving the ideal, will share this satisfaction; and their added interest all along the line will be of no small value

I believe in the independence of employes, but there must be a feeling of proprietary interest in the institution, in which they are employed, if efficiency and economy are to be stimulated. Nothing will incite such interest more than the feeling that their ideas and suggestions receive consideration and, finally, become part and parcel of the plant's development. The human factor figures in all industrial activities and should never be lost sight of.


Keep Still

HEN trouble is brewing, keep still. When slander is getting on its legs, keep still. When your feelings are hurt, keep still-till you recover from your excitement, at any rate. Things look differently to an unagitated eye. In a commotion, once, I wrote a letter and sent it, and wished I had not. In my later years I had another commotion, and wrote a long letter; but life rubbed a little sense into me, and I kept that letter in my pocket against the day when I could look it over without tears and without agitation. I was glad I did. Less and less it seemed necessary to send it. I was

not sure it would do any hurt, but in my doubtfulness I leaned to reticence, and eventually I destroyed it.

Time works wonders. Wait till you can speak calmly, and then possibly you will not need to speak. Silence is the most massive thing conceivable, sometimes.-Dr. Burton.


Safety and Sanitation


HE great causes that underlie the misery of the world are said to be ignorance, neglect, prejudice, poverty, sensuality and appetite. All are interwoven into one vast network of associate factors, but it would seem that the one which obstructs most the path of progress, that which is responsible, to a great extent, for the other causes, and of itself for more than half the world's troubles, is ignorance. Such being the case education is the most important factor in solving the fundamental problems of human life.

Education in the sense used here does not mean a knowledge of languages, theorems or astronomy, but simply a knowledge of those beneficial things which make for the betterment of the industrial worker, in the protection of health and life, and which may be assimilated from environment and example.

Those ignorant of existing conditions are prone to rave about the unsanitary conditions of factories and the nonobservance of common sense rules for safety. They place the blame wholly upon the heads of factory owners, when the truth of the matter is that for years by far most of the owners have lamented about these conditions and endeavored to put their several plants on a better plane, both as regards safety and health. They have found that educating the bestial instinct out of man is a very difficult matter and it is no wonder that many of them lost their patience and gave up the problem in disgust.

Take the matter of sanitation. One would naturally think that when an employer took the trouble to install modern toilet and wash-room facilities the employe would appreciate the improvement sufficiently to use it properly and with some care. Yet the writer has known of cases where the workman has deliberately thrown sawdust and shavings into the bowls, thereby plugging the pipes and causing an overflow that made more or less of a mess and not a little damage. Instead of using cuspidors the management provide, many men prefer to see how close they can come to hitting a hinge in the toilet room door or a crack in the work-room floor.

These actions are not prompted through any particular ill feeling for the boss, but because the employe who commits the act is ignorant of how much benefit he may derive from the usage of sanitary appliances and conditions.


The safety proposition seems to work out in a similar The employe apparently thinks that a guard of any kind placed on a machine is more or less of a nuisance and of no particular service to a man used to operating a machine.

The writer is not making these statements from hearsay. He has been there and seen operators who through ignorance try the patience of the well meaning employer to the limit. Still the good work goes on and both sanitary and safety regulations are being observed more and more.

The employe is rapidly learning that these improvements are as much for his benefit as for that of his employer and when that fact is once driven home there is no more trouble.

The Glenville Upholstering Co., Glenville, O., recently organized, will occupy the plant vacated by Vincent Bros.

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Entered at the post-office in Grand Rapids. Mich., as mail matter of the second class under the act of Congress of March 3, 1879.


Furniture Making in the Schools

T HAS come to be recognized that manual training, as it & possible to teach it in the public schools, is ltural rather than vocational. The educators have reathed the conclusion that nothing short of technical or trade sehools can fit a boy to build furniture or make patterns, or do a lot of other things which it was at first thought might be taught in the public schools, and secure a measure of eficiency. The short unit school for the Tan on the job" with practical and not theoretical men in charge is another proposition. In the woodworking line the activities among the manual training schools has been dipened almost altogether in the making of furniture. Now of all the state which have engrafted upon their of education vocational or manual training Wisconsin is in the lead. The German voters in that state-of which there are many-were ready for the system which has done so much for the Fatherland. The wille school system of Wisconsin gets its impetus from the State University at Madison, and the University is fortunate to have at the head of the Department of Manual Arts F. D. Craw-haw, a man of vision.

Mr. Craw-haw has recently sent to all superintendents of school- and all teachers of manual training in Wisconin a letter which is interesting and significant. "The man al arte,” he says, "are an outgrowth of one of a few fondamental human activities-they are a natural result f attempting to direct, educationally, a child's instincts to manipulate and construct. If mistakes have been made the part of the school in this direction, it has been - probably, to over-organization which has led to elization. We find in most of our manual arts work Kame tendency in all school work, viz., a desire to rgen we teaching material about 'subjects' rather than

Me Thus we have in wood work, for example, the on of bench working, furniture making, wood turnjerz making, etc. Quite often, regardless of the retional interests of a community, an

instructor will require of each pupil that he construct a series of small articles which he himself has made while in training school, or which may be advocated by some institution or teacher."

Mr. Crawshaw thinks that in schools where a majority of the students are from the surrounding country, things which have rural as well as urban significance should be made that "carpentry and framing occupy a larger place in woodworking than does furniture and cabinet making," and so he urges that the construction of serviceable things like crates, feeding boxes, egg and grain testers, model parts of vehicles, neckyokes, benches, bins, kennels, small sheds, etc., be taught with correlated courses in drawing. "It seems almost impossible to get away from saltbox, tie-rack and coat-hanger type of work," he adds, and then goes on to demolish the oft-repeated argument in behalf of the construction of beautiful objects for the home, such as the articles above named, or furniture, the basis of which argument is that these things give expression to the aesthetic.

Mr. Crawshaw believes that much may be done toward industrial intelligence by teaching things about the material used. He suggests that, as concrete is likely to have a larger place in building than lumber in the future, knowledge concerning cement and its use might be imparted. He lays particular stress upon the importance of keeping the time of employes and maintaining a time record and a system of cost accounting. "Few wellregulated commercial shops and drafting-rooms fail to use a system by which the time of employes and the routing of a job and the cost of production are accounted for. This is good practice, at least in a modified form, for the teacher to follow in his class work. It is also true that commercial shops and drafting rooms are examples of good discipline. Employes are economical of their time. Tools are kept sharp and in their particular places. Machines are kept clean and in repair. This is all educational and should be especially so for individuals in their formative period of development."

This is all good doctrine and will increase the respect of practical manufacturers for what is being attempted in our public schools. Mr. Crawshaw's suggestions should be adopted by teachers in these manual training and industrial schools.


An Affiliation of Associations

T SOME of the recent meetings of the various associations among the manufacturers of furniture the proposition has been bruited of some form of affiliation among the several organizations, seeking to improve the conditions in the various branches of the manufacturing industry. There are organizations among the manufacturers of case goods, the makers of tables, the makers of fancy tables, the metal bed and spring manufacturers, the makers of upholstered furniture and of chairs. There are several branches to the National Furniture Manufacturers Association, under which name the case goods makers now maintain an organization. These branches are determined by location chiefly. Then there is the organization among the parlor frame makers and the manufacturers of commercial fixtures. Now all of these associations have many things in common. But they have been meeting at different times in different cities. present plan is to maintain the identity of these several organizations, which is entirely right and proper—absolutely essential-but provide that the various associations meet in the same city, at the same time, at least once a year, and after each of the associations has transacted its business, to gather all the manufacturers into one general conference on problems of common interest. The


principal exponent of this plan has been R. W. Irwin, who has delivered addresses on the subject at a number of recent meetings among the manufacturers. As a result, representatives were appointed to a joint committee of conference and this committee has decided to call such a meeting for May 14, to be held in Chicago. Meantime the several existing associations will call meetings for dates within the same week.

Some of the arguments set forth by Mr. Irwin in his addresses are printed in another place.


In Favor of One Line a Year

L. CORNELL, of the Jamestown Lounge Co., is in line in support of the step which has been taken by the Berkey & Gay Furniture Co. to provide an opening of their sales season early in the year. This was expected, because the company named is one of the manufacturers in agreement with the makers of parlor frames, in producing but one set of patterns annually, and it was Mr. Cornell's associate, Chas. F. Reilly, who was responsible for the strong argument in behalf of such a general policy made before the Upholstered Furniture Manufacturers Association at its recent convention. Mr. Cornell's utterances on this subject has brought from Mr. Spratt, of the New York Furniture Exchange, a further expression on the same subject. Three years ago, Mr. Spratt undertook to make the opening date for the New York show in May or early in June, but was unsuccessful in making the change. But he is apparently still a believer in the logical and economic features of such a plan, for in a communication to all the furniture trade papers, he says: "It is very interesting to me to see the comments of Mr. Cornell on the 'one line a year.' Mr. Cornell is one of the progressive, aggressive, deep thinkers of the furniture business and to have him practically reiterate the arguments that I put forth nearly three years ago in anticipation of the opening of our new building, urging the advance of the summer season by gradual periods until it should reach May 1st is very gratifying to me. The opposition we met at that time by many of the better class of manufacturers who exhibit at the New York Furniture Exchange compelled us to abandon the project which seemed to appeal to both manufacturers and dealers, in the interest of economy and efficiency, both in the production of furniture and in its marketing, both by the manufacturer and dealer.

"Mr. Cornell speaks of the large buyers who would welcome this change. We found in our investigations previous to attempting to bring about this change that the larger buyers found the sale of close-outs at the end of every six months caused a serious depreciation in the value of their stocks on hand, and this reason-as well as the desire to reduce to a minimum the actual expenditure of time in the markets-made them very strong advocates of the one-line-a-year plan. The result of our rather extended efforts in this direction seemed to show that both manufacturer and buyer are in favor of it, but that the inherent fear of each other which seems to dominate the business policy of the furniture manufacturer has interfered with bringing the desired change to a successful issue. The combination of different branches of the manufacturers into effective organizations within the past two years will, we hope, soon remove this only obstacle, and an active campaign, backed by a few men of the caliber of Mr. Cornell, will bring about this desired change."

In a further letter to the writer of this, in commenting on the outcome of the season at the New York Exchange, Mr. Spratt says: "In some cases I know the most important trade of some of the exhibitors placed their orders in

November and December, before the Exposition opened at any of the markets. This latter development is proving a great factor in exposition results every season and fits exactly the situation as outlined by you in regard to Berkey & Gay's step. I am told by several of the representatives of the more important outside lines shown in the Rapids that they will follow Berkey & Gay's lead, so that I am convinced now that some one has had the moral courage to take the initiatory step, that May 1stand once a year-is an accomplished fact, and it is only a question of perhaps a single trial when it will be universally adopted by both dealers and manufacturers. There is always that element to contend with who try to hold a check rein upon progress, and who stick to the dogmas of the past with a tenacity that would be worthy of a better cause. History repeats itself so often in the overwhelming of such obstructions that I think we need have no fear of its result in this trade, which needs the reformation as to seasons and frequent change of patterns so badly."

Mr. Spratt certainly has the courage of his convictions.


The Opening for Birch

T SEEMS to us that the field which is particularly open to the manufacturers of birch lumber is largely that which is now occupied by oak. Oak is steadily increasing in cost. The manufacturer of furniture is even now compelled to make practically the same price for an article in oak as the same article in mahogany. Birch has the same sturdy, durable qualities as oak. Its grain is closer and it will stay in place better. The grain is not so strongly marked, it is true, but the characteristics of the wood have yet to be developed by suitable finishes. These finishes are yet to be developed. Thus far birch has been very largely used as an imitation of mahogany. The manufacturers of Mission furniture have in recent years been the largest consumers of oak-oak in a distinctive role. The fuming process and fumed finish have contributed immensely to the popularity of Mission furniture. May not finishes be found which will bring out all the latent beauties of birch? We think they will be, for birch, which is considerable cheaper than oak, with nearly all its good qualities, must come into use again.

Is it not possible that the Germans and the Austrians, to whom our designers are now looking for some of their inspiration, and from whom we got our silver or Kaiser gray, have something to offer? The whims of the buyers of furniture change frequently. The manufacturers of furniture think they follow these whims, but, as a matter of fact, they create them to a certain extent. It is possible the interested manufacturers of birch may create some new fashions in furniture with birch lumber as the basis.


Black Walnut Revival

T IS interesting to know, in connection with the apparent revival of interest in American black walnut that the traffic in this wood is almost entirely in the hands of a few men who, for a good many years past, have busied themselves in buying small lots of the black walnut logs as offered, assembling the same, and after the logs have been prepared, shipping them abroad. Germany has been the largest purchaser of American black walnut, although both France and Great Britain have made constant demand. One of the largest dealers in black walnut for export is located in Kansas City--a curious condition, considering that Kansas City is in the midst of a prairie district and is many miles removed from the ocean. In recent years this dealer has done a very considerable business in collecting butts of black walnut logs from which

the much-prized figured burl is cut. Stumps which were left when we were much more lavish in the use of our timber resources than we now are, and had little realization of the possibilities of this part of the tree, are sought out and cut closer to the ground. Some of the stumps probably come from the lands of farmers who knew it was easier to cut the tree three or four feet above the ground than at the very base, and did not appreciate that hard cutting meant more money, for in many cases the stump is the most valuable part of the log.

The butts once purchased are first stripped of the sap wood, which is not valuable, and are then buried in sawdust to prevent them from checking. When enough of these butts are assembled, shipment is made unless some veneer maker gathers them in for use in this country. But there has been comparatively little demand for walnut burl in America in recent years.

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We recommend the progressive policy of those companies who are raising the standard of school work by making possible

(a) Larger buildings with adequate equipment;
(b) Longer school terms;

(c) Practical as well as cultural courses;
(d) Well-trained teachers.

2. There is need for adapting the school work to the peculiar needs of the industry and the community, by giving

(a) Technical training for the youths in con-
nection with the material and processes
used in the industry;

(b) Short unit courses for adults, including
practical talks and demonstration of prob-
lems connected with their work;
Domestic science and home economics;
Thrift and savings;



(e) The destructive effects of alcohol.



3. There is a commendable interest in the larger use of the school building as a social and recreation Wherever practicable, buildings should be equipped with motion picture machines, libraries, games, etc., all under careful superVision. It is desirable to employ male teachers who can also become community leaders. State Departments of Education should be asked to cooperate for special adaptation of school work to the needs of lumber communities. The increase of home life in the logging camps is most desirable, and the schools should be recognized as an essential factor in this.

To these were added other recommendations for the physical welfare of the employes, and in support of the school and the church, in which connection recommenda

tions were made for the generous support of the churches. In the framing of these recommendations R. A. Long, of Kansas City, had a large part, and a little later Mr. Long gave evidence of the faith that is in him by giving $1,000,000 to the church denomination with which he is connected.


The Uniform Bill of Lading

WULPI, who is commissioner for the casket manufacturers and the makers of brass and iron beds, and springs, as well as for the manufacturers of extension tables, has filed a protest with the Interstate Commerce Commission against a feature of the uniform bill of lading. He asks that the four months' limit feature be changed to twelve months. The former period, he says, will prove a burden to the manufacturers, as it is too short a time to secure evidence, etc., in the majority of cases, and a year none too long. Manufacturers, as a rule, he says are not desirous of rushing to railroads with claims and only do so after exhausting all other efforts to adjust matters with the consignee. Only too frequently manufacturers know nothing of any damage to goods for months after shipment, and are only made aware of it after attempts are made to collect the bill. Then, consignees are slow in sending evidence, and to limit the time to four months, would absolutely debar the most of the claims. Then, too, frequently tracers on goods are delayed and evidence of eventual loss does not materialize until often after this time limit would have expired.


Will Not Forget

HERE is such a definite asset in the possession of a commercial reputation without taint that the disregard of cast-off scandal through mere change of industrial association is almost criminal-morally. It is practically impossible to cloak the verdancy of trade memory if, like the closet skeleton, a breach of ethics marks the trail.

It may not have been to escape bankruptcy that the Cutting Furniture Manufacturing Company, of Buffalo, has announced that before its doors are closed its stock will be sold to the consumer at wholesale prices—“approximately one-half the best retail stores can offer on the same articles." Whatever may have been the motive, its influence will not end when the wheels of the Cutting plant are stilled.

Sometime—somewhere, when all is said and done, the ghost of broken faith will reappear. To fail in just relation is not always to err and face the music-sometimes it is to err and run. The ultimate result, however, is the



Gentle Black-Mail or Paupery

ANUFACTURERS of furniture have recently been asked to purchase tickets for a ball claimed to be given under the auspices of an association of installment furniture dealers in New York city-a ball which they could not attend and are not expected to attend. The manufacturers are asked to come across for $5 or more to "improve the conditions under which the installment business is done in New York." Will the retailers of furniture never learn that no organization can succeed permanently which is not self-sustaining. If benefits are to be secured because there is a full treasury, and money with which to do, the merchants benefited should pay for those benefits. Certainly the manufacturers should not be called upon to support the work of

any organization of retailers, any more than the retailers should be called upon to support an organization among the manufacturers. In the matter of average profits, we believe the retailers have nothing of which to complain. The attempted sale of tickets for a "benefit", either by cajolery or threat, is not calculated to inspire confidence or respect for anything the dealers connected with this particular association or any other association, may attempt to do.

Editorial Notes

"INCOME collected at source," is an item which is bothering a lot of the plutocrats these days.

THERE is certainly some pep in Mr. Kraetzer's talk, whether his apparatus for curing lumber is all that is claimed for it or not.

IT IS quite evident that the manufacturers of furniture came in for their full proportion of the excess of losses from failure reported in the last half of 1913.

THE proposed meeting in May, at which the various associations of furniture manufacturers are to be brought into affiliation, should be some meeting of furniture men.

THE manufacturers of Pacific coast lumber are to begin an aggressive campaign of advertising and will try to batter down the belief that the timber supply of this country is nearly exhausted, and that therefore it is necessary to turn to substitutes for lumber.

PERHAPS the Forest Product Expositions, to be held in Chicago, the last of April and the first part of May, and in New York, at the Grand Central Palace, May 21st to 30th, will prove immensely valuable to the manufacturers of furniture who are looking for an education in the available woods for their industry.

IT IS stated that whatever else the Panama-Pacific Exposition may lack, it will not lack color. Many vivid hues will mingle in the decorative "scheme." The prevailing colors will be vermilion and yellow and orange in various shadings. The sea and the sky will furnish tints of purple and blue. A blend of pink and yellow will predominate in the coloring of the state buildings.

THERE were many furniture exhibitions in Canada in January. There was one at Stratford, another at Berlin and Waterloo, and a third at Toronto. All of these shows attracted buyers, although the exhibitions in most instances were made by the manufacturers operating in the cities where the shows were spread. Apparently no furniture center has yet been fully developed in the land to our north.

A BILL providing for the registration of designs has been introduced in the house of representatives, at Washington, by Mr. Oldfield, and in the senate by Mr. James. This is the outcome of the convention in behalf of registration of designs and protection of designs, whether for furniture, wall paper, draperies or anything else. The full text of the bill will be of interest when more progress has been made with the legislation.

THE Contractors who are building the new Pantlind hotel, in Grand Rapids, are anxious to be permitted to go right on and finish the entire structure at one time, instead of completing the first section before pulling down the

section now being used-the old building. If this plan should by any chance prevail, there would be no Pantlind hotel in January next, which would offer an excellent excuse for doing away with the January season in Grand Rapids in 1915. The entire hotel, it is promised, could then be ready by May. Good chance to try a new exposition plan.

AN INJUNCTION restraining the Globe-Wernicke Co., of Cincinnati, from the use of the trade name "Cabinetsafe," and from the further sale of the fixture thus called manufactured by them, has been ordered by the Ohio State Court of Appeals, reversing the decision of the lower court in a suit brought against the Cincinnati concern by the Safe-Cabinet Co., of Marietta, Ohio. According to the charge, Cabinet safes of a pattern designed to gain the benefit of the expense borne by the plaintiff in creating a market for its product, were marketed by the defendant. The Marietta company alleged unfair competition and infringement by imitation.

LOUIS M. HARTWICK, who is a teacher of manual training in Pueblo, Col., asks if there is any movement in vocational schools to let students make furniture for pay -where the school will handle the sales-and what would be the objections to this method of allowing students to get a little extra cash. He asks that this question be put up to the teachers in the schools, so many of whom are readers of THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURER AND ARTISAN. Sometimes furniture dealers have objected to their trade being infringed upon. Something of the kind developed in Winnipeg, but in due time the dealers found that the few things made by the students only stimulated desire for the purchase of things to go with the student-made furniture.

THE exhibitors in the Chicago market have organized an association with A. W. Dassler, of the Keil Furniture Co., as president. This association is distinct from the organization among the owners of exhibition buildings, which has been chiefly responsible for the promotion through advertising which has been done for the Chicago market. There is a movement on foot, also, in Chicago to gather a number of the quality lines of furniture, which are made by Chicago manufacturers, in a building by themselves and not make it necessary for these lines to be submerged in a mass of the cheaper grades of furniture which now comprise so large a part of all the goods shown in that city. One great building for all the exhibits is even suggested as the thing best calculated to turn the tide of exhibitors and buyers again towards Chicago.

CANADA imported over $3,000,000 worth of furniture in 1911, 92 per cent. of which was made in the United States. Five years ago Canada bought slightly over $500,000 worth of furniture from abroad. These are statements made in the Canadian Furniture World, which prints in a good advertisement an argument in behalf of Canadians buying the home-made product. It claims there are 172 furniture factories in Canada, with an output of $12,369,366 in 1911, practically all of which is marketed in Canada. Despite the tariff wall of 35 per cent., the manufacturers in the United States sold about $2,750,000 worth of their furniture in Canada. But will they do it in future years when immigration into the Canadian Northwest is not as lively as it has been? And may not some of the 172 factories in Canada be sending furniture into the United States with only a 20 per cent. tariff wall to climb?

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