« ÎnapoiContinuă »
Rips a Straight Line Cut Without a Guide
Furniture factories where every available surface inch must be saved from every board find this new chain feed rip-saw especially adapted to their work. It edges stock with least possible waste, and in a straight-line without a guide.
At whatever angle the operator presents stock to the blade, the overhead pressure rolls hold it firmly onto the serrated-faced feeding chains and a straight-line cut is assured.
Ragged wane edges and objectionable edge knots may be edged close. If you wish to rip stock to strips, a throw of one lever brings guide to position. A scale shows exact setting at all times.
There isn't one experimental feature on this new machine. Berlin Band Sawing Machinery is standard for efficiency the world over. The wonderful success of Berlin Band Rip and Re-saws in the past and present is a guarantee to you that this new chain feed rip-saw will prove efficient, practical and a cost-reducer on your work.
The heavy, one-piece base affords a stable foundation for all working parts. The wheels are accurately machined and balanced and will carry either four- or five-inch saws. The
Berlin improved knife-edge straining device, adapted to single column construction, guarantees low expense for blade upkeep. Operator makes all adjustments, changes feed, tracks blade and sets guide conveniently from his natural position. Speed of feed, 55 to 225 feet per minute. Widest stock received between blade and guide, 30 inches.
We want you to know all about the new No. 312 now. We want to tell you what it's doing, and why we use two feeding chains, one on each side of the blade.
Just send us your name and address
THE BERLIN MACHINE WORKS, Beloit, Wis.
Largest Manufacturers of Woodworking Machinery in the World CANADIAN PLANT, WITH OFFICES, HAMILTON, ONT.
HANDLING AND DRYING LUMBER
Primitive Methods of Handling Result in Waste-The Importance of Piling Your Lumber Right---The Effect of Seasoning---A Knowledge of Grades
By ALEXANDER T. DEINZER
URNITURE manufacturers have learned that one of the greatest sources of expense, and conversely, of profit, lies in unnecessary handling of lumber.
In and out of the plant they are arranging their facilities so as to cut down the labor expense attached to the movement of their material. The progressive manufacturer now appreciates that every step eliminated results in a saving. Your keen competitor is doing this, and it may behoove you to investigate.
After the lumber is sawed at the saw mill and seasoned, it is of course piled onto cars. One of the best, if not the best, device the writer knows of for economical handling of lumber into box or flat cars was invented by an Eastern man. It consists of an upright of hardwood about three by six inches in size, at the top end of which are attached two hooks,
A short time ago the writer visited a prominent, though small, furniture factory, and noticed that five men were at work unloading a car of lumber. One man
was on the car, one on the pile and three carried boards at a distance of over one hundred feet. I approximated that the car contained about 14,000 feet, and at the rate they were working it would require about two days to unload this car. Imagine, Mr. Reader, this waste. This is, however, not the only furniture factory where such conditions exist; there are very few manufacturing plants today handling their lumber in the most efficient way. Why did this manufacturer not permit gravity to do over 50 per cent. of his unloading. Three good men should have unloaded and piled this lumber in less than ten hours. How many readers, I wonder, have visited some of the large sawmills in the South? It would pay every manufacturer in business to investigate the lumber handling proposition and learn how our friends, the progressive lumber men, sort and handle this material.
ALEXANDER T. DEINZER
set at an angle, which are thrown over the edge of the roof of a box car or over the top of a car stake. About twelve inches apart on the flat side of the piece are set eye-rings. Into alternate eye-rings the two supports of a steel arm about two and one-half feet long, terminating in a roughened point, fit. The horizontal portion of the arm terminates in a hook which fits into one eyering, while the brace of the arm fits into a second eyering below. This arm can instantly be slipped out or raised to higher eye-rings, as the load of lumber is increased in height. The arm is not constructed exactly horizontal, but at a slight angle, so that its weight throws it out at right angles with the car. In use, a board about one-third of its length from the man handling it, is lifted on the end of the arm, and the other end pushed forward onto a flat car or across the regulation roller into a box car door. This pushes it around nearly parallel to the car. When the board is released the arm drops back into position at right angles with the car. It is believed that with one of these rigs one man can handle more lumber off a wagon, larry or truck than two men can handle without its use.
The gravity conveyer in the lumber yard will pay its original cost within a very few weeks. Some of the lumber manufacturers have rigged up conveyer sections containing rolls. The sections should be so constructed that they can be quickly adjusted (that is, raised or lowered), and that the units can be quickly fastened together. A conveyer of this sort has been designed by the Mathews Gravity Carrier Company, of Ellwood City, Pa., and is at present constructed by them as a result of many years of experience in that line of work. The sections of the carrier made by this company are in eight-foot standard lengths provided with instantaneous couplings, which permit a line of any required length to be quickly hooked together and adjusted to a 4 per cent. grade by means of adjustable jacks, which are made in five different sizes, each size having a certain number of inches for expansion, which renders it very convenient where ground surfaces are uneven. Either arm of the jack can
be raised or lowered independently of the other arm, which makes it possible to level up the conveyer under any circumstances.
Each section of the conveyer is composed of two rows of seven-inch rollers, which, with the three frame rails, makes a total over-all width of seventeen inches. This conveyer will handle boards of any width up to twenty inches. The slant of the roller axles is not at right angles with the frame. The slant of both rows of roller axles being convergent toward the center; therefore, a board placed upon the conveyer in a crooked manner at the loading end is forced to the center and kept there until delivered at the end of the conveyer. The Mathews Conveyer is patented and the patents have been passed upon by the courts.
By the gravity system you should cut the cost of unloading (distance considered) from 50 per cent. to 65 per cent.
The Mathews Lumber Conveyer
What sense is there in a workman carrying a two-inch plank of green oak, for instance, say a hundred or more feet when this same plank can be conveyed that distance much quicker and at much lower cost? Supposing your men are unloading a car load of 10/4 green oak planks of 14 foot lengths. We will assume the average width to be 10 inches, hence, the weight of, say, the average plank 14' x 10" x 10/4 would be 165 pounds approximately. You haven't many men in your yard who are going to carry 165 pound loads for eight or ten hours. You are, therefore, compelled to unload this lumber in gangs, two men to each plank. You have one or two men on the car unloading the lumber and one or two men on the pile and say four or six carrying. Now, Mr. Reader, get busy with pencil and paper and determine what it will cost you to unload that car of planks. Find the cost pretty high, do you? Visit some up-to-date saw mill and determine what it costs these people to handle the same class of material. You will be surprised Think it over. This suggestion may reduce the cost of lumber handling in your business.
Method of Inspection
A mistaken idea many lumber inspectors have (I do not refer to National inspectors, but the men usually found in the furniture manufacturer's yards) is to stand directly before the car door and inspect the lumber as it is shoved out of the car The writer thinks better results can be
obtained if the inspector will stand on the pile. It is certainly difficult to take note of all the defects when standing at the car door, for when a number of men are on the job, either time is lost in holding up the men, or the men are anxious to complete the job, especially so if they are being compensated by the bonus system plan, and the inspector is making only a superficial inspection. By this system there is also a likelihood for errors in measurements. The writer always preferred to stand on the pile and believe I obtained better results by so doing. Where the gravity conveyer is used it may be well to suggest that the inspector take up a position somewhere along the line of the conveyer. The boards roll along toward him slowly enough to enable him to examine both sides by turning the board over and determining the grade as well as feet contained in the board.
Foundations for Piles
Good foundations are absolutely necessary in every lumber yard. Without a good foundation for a pile there is no escape from the penalty of lumber destroyed while resting in piles upon defective foundations. The requirements of a good foundation are that it be solid, and that the two or more bearers be exactly in alignment with each other. Beyond all doubt, the cheapest lumber-piling foundations that can be constructed are of concrete. The concrete must, however, be carried below the surface of the ground far enough to prevent frost from reaching the bottom of the concrete. Of course, a certain amount of pitch is necessary. A fall of say 8 inches is in my opinion sufficient. If more pitch is wanted it is a simple matter to pile narrow boards on the front and middle bearings until the desired pitch is obtained.
Some manufacturers have what they call a box foundation, claiming that one great advantage in its favor is that it lets in air, where a foundation made of timbers or concrete makes a tight box, and that the lower courses are naturally damp. If your concrete foundations are built high enough you will have no trouble along this line. The writer suggests that the front bearing be from 17 to 18 inches high. My objection to the box foundation is that it is not near as solid as the concrete and is bound to give.
Placing the Pieces
In piling lumber the front ends of the boards should be drawn ahead on each course, and the cross sticks should be even with the course above. The slant of the pile will keep the rain from soaking down through the pile, and drawing the courses ahead. With the sticks flush with the front of the upper course, a wonderful protection against rain and sunshine is offered. See to it that your men get nice straight piles. You may be able to hide the piles of waste, saw-dust, dirt, etc., in your factory, but every one passing your place of business will see your lumber yard. Nothing looks worse, in my opinion, than crooked piling. Many furniture manufacturers believe that any Tom, Dick or Harry can pile lumber. This is not true. Be sure to keep the pile of lumber vertical sidewise as well as slightly inclined forward on the front end. The boards, if all of the same length, will help a whole lot in piling vertically, sidewise; but when there are unequal lengths to be dealt with, a good deal of care must be taken in order to make a good looking pile of lumber. And the good looking ones are the ones which shed water best.
We have discussed the importance of uniform piling sticks, which must be used when piling veneered stock. This applies as well to lumber piling sticks. All sticks should be of the same length, width and thickness. All cross pieces should be absolutely dry.
Avoid mixing different lengths in the same pile. The long pieces are sure to weather badly where exposed. Keep long lengths by themselves, also short lengths. All piles should be well covered with roof boards. The finishing of a pile of lumber so as to make it wind and rain proof is a matter which does not always receive the attention it should. It is not uncommon to find piles where no attempt has been made toward keeping off the rain, or weighting the top courses so the wind shall not tear the boards away. When uncovering your lumber for the purpose of taking a portion to the factory see to it that the lumber is re covered. Hold some man responsible for this.
Care in Piling
Great care must be taken in properly piling lumber to prevent the attack of parasitic plants, known as fungi. For instance, lumber piled in warm, damp places, and excluded from sunlight, is subject to the growth of fungi, which soon decomposes the fiber and results in what is known as dry rot. No vegetation should be allowed to grow around the lumber pile, as it creates conditions favoring the germination of the fungi spores. It should be piled in dry and high locations (as already suggested) only.
It pays to paint the ends of lumber; the paint will help to keep the lumber from checking at the ends. We all know that the reason lumber checks is because it dries too fast, and by applying the paint to the ends we simply retard fast drying. There is a preparation on the market to be used for this purpose which is very good and can be bought at a reasonable price. Lumber costs money, and it requires but a short time to paint the ends in a pile of lumber. How many furniture manufacturers are doing this? To be perfectly frank, I have by no means visited all of the factories, but have inspected many of the largest plants and must say that there are seemingly very few who appreciate the importance of having this work done.
The writer has endeavored to prove that all lumber will deteriorate if not properly cared for. Many manufacturers have, therefore, built sheds to store their most expensive lumber. The writer was very much interested in a lumber shed he saw at the plant of the C. H. Haberkorn Co. at Detroit. Not one foot of lumber is exposed, all stock being kept under cover in a building especially constructed for this purpose. One objectionable point, however, is that they are compelled to haul their lumber, as they are not located on a side-track. They buy good material and take good care of it. The Lester Piano Co., of Philadelphia, has one of the best laid out lumber yards and storage sheds to be found anywhere. All lumber is handled but once. It is loaded from the car onto the trucks. These trucks, moving on a special trackage, are run into the storage sheds, where the ends of the lumber are coated with the preparation already suggested, which, of course, prevents splitting and cracking. From the storage sheds the lumber is run into the drying and seasoning kilns on the same truck on which it was first loaded; then into the factory for the first process in the making of the piano.
A Good System at the Kindel
When it comes to a thoroughly modern system of handling lumber I'll take off my hat to Mr. Kindel, of the Kindel Bed Company, Grand Rapids, Mich. I had the pleasure of meeting this gentleman at his plant on January 5, 1914. Regardless of the fact that this was a very busy day by reason of the furniture exhibit, which opened on that day, Mr. Kindel personally accompanied Mr. Maine (another contributor to the pages of THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURER) through his factory. Mr. Kindel is one of the few up-to-the-minute progressive furniture manufacturers, and it is a pleasure, indeed, to meet a man
as liberal minded and courteous as he. This factory is one of the most efficient in business today, but this has not spoiled Mr. Kindel. The gentleman is at all times ready to improve conditions at his plant. A few suggestions offered by Mr. Maine and myself were appreciated. What a pity that we haven't many men as broad as Mr. Kindel in the furniture manufacturing business.
But I am getting away from the subject under discussion. The type and capacity of your shed will depend upon the relative cost of labor for handling and the capital charges on larger yardage. It costs more to elevate lumber into second and third story sheds than to pile it in the first story, consequently, if the labor question is the controlling cost, it will be cheaper to use one story sheds only.
The Shed and Its Use
The use of the shed has several important aspects. It is used for the storage of surplus stock, for the seasoning of air drying of green lumber, and for the storage of material ready to be sent out.
Do not load up the shed with common lumber, which will receive but little or no damage from the elements, when you have to run the risk of piling more valuable material outside for lack of shed space. Many lower grades of lumber (for instance, crating stock) will stand exposure for some little time without impairing their usefulness for their intended work. With these it is only a question of correct stacking to prevent needless injury.
As we know, or should know, all lumber should be assorted for width, as far as possible. If the manufacturer would really know how much of his lumber is being wasted at the rip-saw he would be very much surprised. Of course, there are many manufacturers who will say, "There is very little ripping waste in my factory; we glue up our stock and then rip." Good, as far as the lumber is concerned, but do you realize that it costs money to joint and glue lumber, say nothing about the delay caused for reason of the gluing and the enormous expense of extra handling. This is a common fault of practically every factory I have visited.
Stock Suited to the Purpose
In our modest business we require many couch slats 274x234x8, also 274x334x8, any sound hardwood. My predecessor had these slats manufactured from No. 3 common oak, regular widths. Can you imagine the enormous waste? The writer is buying No. 3 common birch, which gives considerably less waste and costs less money. I have all the 6-inch and 8-inch stock sorted. Stock sawyers, therefore, simply make the cross cuts and one cut through the center, saving nearly 50 per cent. in machine room operation and considerable waste in the lumber, also greatly reducing the cost of handling.
The question was recently asked: "What effect does the season of the year when trees are felled have on the behavior and properties of the lumber and manufactured products?" It is quite generally regarded that winter cutting has decided advantages over that done at other seasons, and to that cause alone is ascribed such valuable features as greater durability, less liability to check and split, better color, and even increased strength and toughness. The question of season's effect on durability is complex and involves a number of factors. It is a matter of common observation that when wood dries it shrinks, and if shrinkage is not uniform in all directions the material pulls apart, causing season checks. If evaporation proceeds more rapidly on the outside than inside the greater shrinkage of the outer portions is bound to result in many checks, the number and size increasing with the degree of inequality of drying.
In cold weather drying proceeds slowly, but uniformly,
thus allowing the elements to adjust themselves with the least amount of rupturing.
The strength of many woods is nearly doubled by seasoning, hence it is very thriftless to use it in the green state. It is then not only weaker, but is liable to continual change of bulk and form, the longitudinal fibers of the wood being, as it were, bound together by the radiating pithrays. As the wood shrinks it finds relief by splitting radially from the center along the pith-rays. When a log is sawn into four quarters, by passing the saw twice through the center at right angles, the outer annual rings shrink the most, so that the two flat surfaces of each quarter of the log cease to be strictly at right angles to one another. In tangent-sawn timber, however, the same shrinkage causes the center plank to contract in thickness at its edge, whilst planks cut from the outside will shrink in breadth, their edge curving away from the center of the tree.
The rate of seasoning lumber depends, of course, upon the kind of wood, its shape and size. A thin piece dries more rapidly than a thicker one; sap-wood more rapidly than heart-wood; a light, open wood more readily than one which is dense and heavy.
Unequal Air Dried Stock
On my recent visit to Grand Rapids I met an exceptionally bright superintendent at one of the leading factories who told the writer he had put a question of drying to several dry-kiln men and had not found a single man able to answer it. The gentleman said: "As you will notice we dry considerable chestnut (the chestnut the writer saw was 8 4′′ stock). We find occasional boards after taking the stock from the kiln that are absolutely green." The writer suggested that this may depend upon the difference of the condition of the stock when put into the kiln; that the greater portion may have been well seasoned and the pieces found to be somewhat green had no seasoning. The superintendent, however, said, "I mean that I can take all the boards sawed from one log, seasoned for the same period of time and in the same way, place all the boards in the kiln and find a few boards green, although the other stock is thoroughly dry. The heart-wood boards in chestnut will not dry as quickly." This progressive superintendent has all the heart-stock sorted from cars and has this stock placed in the kiln by itself. Chestnut heart-stock is the only lumber commonly used that will give this trouble.
Irregularities in Shrinking
Irregularities in shrinkage tend to cause wood to become distorted or warped. In woods with straight grain and uniform texture the tendency to warp is least unless the distribution of moisture is very unequal. Thus the upper surface of a green board exposed to the hot rays of the sun will dry much more rapidly, and therefore become shorter, than the lower side, causing the board to earl up at the ends.
The behavior of boards on drying is often largely aferted by the manner in which they were cut from the kg. The Hat side of a half-log becomes convex. Boards ent from the middle of the log, so as to box the heart, berette convex on both sides. Boards cut from half a log, Se quarter-sawed, tend to become convex on the side ******* *re heart and concave on the opposite. This, I
explain most of the difference in shrinkage of words of different sizes, shapes, and manner of sawing. Ignorance of Lumber
We all know that lumber is the most important material *** 26 * manufacture of furniture. How many Lumber, however, know very much about it, so So many manufacturers to this very day buy
their lumber from their price list. They know very little about National Inspection rules, and will tell you that they employ competent men to do the inspecting. So far, so good. I will endeavor to prove how imperative this knowledge is by citing a case which occurred only yesterday, and the writer happened to be present.
Sound Wormy Chestnut
A certain manufacturer, who has been in business for many years, bought 4/4 chestnut. When the stock arrived his inspector found it unsatisfactory. The manufacturer informed the lumber dealer that the stock was refused and to kindly remove this at once, as they were very much in need of the yard room. The lumber dealer replied that his lumber comes up to grade and suggested that a National man inspect the stock. This was agreed upon. I found the National man at their yards. Of course, no National inspector is permitted to make any statements, and this man was very close-mouthed. Right here is where the shoe pinches. The well meaning buyer gave the lumber dealer an order for a car of 4/4 S. W. No. 1 common and better chestnut, which was sold at what the manufacturer considered a good price for No. 1 common and better. You will observe the term S. W., which, of course, means Sound Wormy. This statement is ambiguous. In other words, the manufacturer bought sound wormy stock; also No. 1 common and better. This is a peculiar case and just what the inspector's report will be I am unable to say. I would also like to learn how this is going to be settled. The writer simply cites this case to prove that it is necessary that the buyer of lumber understand the business. Do not attempt to play one quotation against the other. If you thoroughly understand the lumber business you may do so; if not, do not attempt it.
No fixed rules can be suggested. Every man must understand his own business. The lumber buyer must know when it is cheaper to buy low grades or upper grades, or what particular grade would be the best bargain in lumber at a given time. Again, No. 1 common may be cheaper stock to use for certain work than No. 2. The only way he can determine this is by keeping careful records and by being in close touch with the manufacturing end of his business.
Compression Grip for Pulleys
HE ideal method for attaching a pulley to a shaft is by compression grip. I am strong enough in favor of this that I am inclined to differ with Mr. Deinzer, who says that when a wooden pulley slips on a shaft it should be replaced with a good make of steel pulley. About nine times out of ten, when a wooden pulley slips on a shaft, it is because of neglect to keep it tightened. The wood split pulley has done more to introduce and popularize the compression idea for holding pulleys on shafting than anything else. We now have iron and steel centers and wood rim pulleys with compression grip and we have reached the point in development where we not only split some metal pulleys and put them on with the compression grip, but one of the biggest transmission companies of the country features a keyless compression coupling for shifting. Surely if one can hold a coupling with a compression and without a key it is an excellent way to hold a pulley, whether it be a split pulley or solid pulley. Indeed, the compression idea is so near ideal that there are times when I feel like predicting the future will see the disappearance of the key seat and key and the set screw, with its disfiguring point and its dangerous head and practically all pulleys will be fastened with a compression grip.-J. Crow Taylor.