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Rips a Straight Line Cut Without a Guide
Furniture factories where every available surface inch must be saved from every board find this new chain feed rip-saw especially adapted to their work. It edges stock with least possible waste, and in a straight-line without a guide.
At whatever angle the operator presents stock to the blade, the overhead pressure rolls hold it firmly onto the serrated-faced feeding chains and a straight-line cut is assured.
Ragged wane edges and objectionable edge knots may be edged close. If you wish to rip stock to strips, a throw of one lever brings guide to position. A scale shows exact setting at all times.
There isn't one experimental feature on this new machine. Berlin Band Sawing Machinery is standard for efficiency the world over. The wonderful success of Berlin Band Rip and Re-saws in the past and present is a guarantee to you that this new chain feed rip-saw will prove efficient, practical and a cost-reducer on your work.
The heavy, one-piece base affords a stable foundation for all working parts. The wheels are accurately machined and balanced and will carry either four- or five-inch saws. The
Berlin improved knife-edge straining device, adapted to single column construction, guarantees low expense for blade upkeep. Operator makes all adjustments, changes feed, tracks blade and sets guide conveniently from his natural position. Speed of feed, 55 to 225 feet per minute. Widest stock received between blade and guide, 30 inches.
We want you to know all about the new No. 312 now. We want to tell you what it's doing, and why we use two feeding chains, one on each side of the blade.
Just send us your name and address
THE BERLIN MACHINE WORKS, Beloit, Wis. Largest Manufacturers of Woodworking Machinery in the World CANADIAN PLANT, WITH OFFICES, HAMILTON, ONT.
HANDLING AND DRYING LUMBER
Primitive Methods of Handling Result in Waste-The Importance of Piling Your Lumber Right---The Effect of Seasoning---A Knowledge of Grades
By ALEXANDER T. DEINZER
URNITURE manufacturers have learned that one of the greatest sources of expense, and conversely, of profit, lies in unnecessary handling of lumber.
In and out of the plant they are arranging their facilities so as to cut down the labor expense attached to the movement of their material. The progressive manufacturer now appreciates that every step eliminated results in a saving. Your keen competitor is doing this, and it may behoove you to investigate.
After the lumber is sawed at the saw mill and seasoned, it is of course piled onto cars. One of the best, if not the best, device the writer knows of for economical handling of lumber into box or flat cars was invented by an Eastern man. It consists of an upright of hardwood about three by six inches in size, at the top end of which are attached two hooks,
A short time ago the writer visited a prominent, though small, furniture factory, and noticed that five men were at work unloading a car of lumber. One man
was on the car, one on the pile and three carried boards at a distance of over one hundred feet. I approximated that the car contained about 14,000 feet, and at the rate they were working it would require about two days to unload this car. Imagine, Mr. Reader, this waste. This is, however, not the only furniture factory where such conditions exist; there are very few manufacturing plants today handling their lumber in the most efficient way. Why did this manufacturer not permit gravity to do over 50 per cent. of his unloading. Three good men should have unloaded and piled this lumber in less than ten hours. How many readers, I wonder, have visited some of the large sawmills in the South? It would pay every manufacturer in business to investigate the lumber handling proposition and learn how our friends, the progressive lumber men, sort and handle this material.
ALEXANDER T. DEINZER
set at an angle, which are thrown over the edge of the roof of a box car or over the top of a car stake. About twelve inches apart on the flat side of the piece are set eye-rings. Into alternate eye-rings the two supports of a steel arm about two and one-half feet long, terminating in a roughened point, fit. The horizontal portion of the arm terminates in a hook which fits into one eyering, while the brace of the arm fits into a second eyering below. This arm can instantly be slipped out or raised to higher eye-rings, as the load of lumber is increased in height. The arm is not constructed exactly horizontal, but at a slight angle, so that its weight throws it out at right angles with the car. In use, a board about one-third of its length from the man handling it, is lifted on the end of the arm, and the other end pushed forward onto a flat car or across the regulation roller into a box car door. This pushes it around nearly parallel to the car. When the board is released the arm drops back into position at right angles with the car. It is believed that with one of these rigs one man can handle more lumber off a wagon, larry or truck than two men can handle without its use.
The gravity conveyer in the lumber yard will pay its original cost within a very few weeks. Some of the lumber manufacturers have rigged up conveyer sections containing rolls. The sections should be so constructed that they can be quickly adjusted (that is, raised or lowered), and that the units can be quickly fastened together. A conveyer of this sort has been designed by the Mathews Gravity Carrier Company, of Ellwood City, Pa., and is at present constructed by them as a result of many years of experience in that line of work. The sections of the carrier made by this company are in eight-foot standard lengths provided with instantaneous couplings, which permit a line of any required length to be quickly hooked together and adjusted to a 4 per cent. grade by means of adjustable jacks, which are made in five different sizes, each size having a certain number of inches for expansion, which renders it very convenient where ground surfaces are uneven. Either arm of the jack can
be raised or lowered independently of the other arm, which makes it possible to level up the conveyer under any circumstances.
Each section of the conveyer is composed of two rows of seven-inch rollers, which, with the three frame rails, makes a total over-all width of seventeen inches. This conveyer will handle boards of any width up to twenty inches. The slant of the roller axles is not at right angles with the frame. The slant of both rows of roller axles being convergent toward the center; therefore, a board placed upon the conveyer in a crooked manner at the loading end is forced to the center and kept there until delivered at the end of the conveyer. The Mathews Conveyer is patented and the patents have been passed upon by the courts.
By the gravity system you should cut the cost of unloading (distance considered) from 50 per cent. to 65 per cent.
The Mathews Lumber Conveyer
What sense is there in a workman carrying a two-inch plank of green oak, for instance, say a hundred or more feet when this same plank can be conveyed that distance much quicker and at much lower cost? Supposing your men are unloading a car load of 10/4 green oak planks of 14 foot lengths. We will assume the average width to be 10 inches, hence, the weight of, say, the average plank 14' x 10" x 10/4 would be 165 pounds approximately. You haven't many men in your yard who are going to carry 165 pound loads for eight or ten hours. You are, therefore, compelled to unload this lumber in gangs, two men to each plank. You have one or two men on the car unloading the lumber and one or two men on the pile and say four or six carrying. Now, Mr. Reader, get busy with pencil and paper and determine what it will cost you to unload that car of planks. Find the cost pretty high, do you? Visit some up-to-date saw mill and determine what it costs these people to handle the same class of material. You will be surprised Think it over. This suggestion may reduce the cost of lumber handling in your business.
Method of Inspection
A mistaken idea many lumber inspectors have (I do not refer to National inspectors, but the men usually found in the furniture manufacturer's yards) is to stand directly before the car door and inspect the lumber as it is shoved out of the car The writer thinks better results can be
obtained if the inspector will stand on the pile. It is certainly difficult to take note of all the defects when standing at the car door, for when a number of men are on the job, either time is lost in holding up the men, or the men are anxious to complete the job, especially so if they are being compensated by the bonus system plan, and the inspector is making only a superficial inspection. By this system there is also a likelihood for errors in measurements. The writer always preferred to stand on the pile and believe I obtained better results by so doing. Where the gravity conveyer is used it may be well to suggest that the inspector take up a position somewhere along the line of the conveyer. The boards roll along toward him slowly enough to enable him to examine both sides by turning the board over and determining the grade as well as feet contained in the board.
Foundations for Piles
Good foundations are absolutely necessary in every lumber yard. Without a good foundation for a pile there is no escape from the penalty of lumber destroyed while resting in piles upon defective foundations. The requirements of a good foundation are that it be solid, and that the two or more bearers be exactly in alignment with each other. Beyond all doubt, the cheapest lumber-piling foundations that can be constructed are of concrete. The concrete must, however, be carried below the surface of the ground far enough to prevent frost from reaching the bottom of the concrete. Of course, a certain amount of pitch is necessary. A fall of say 8 inches is in my opinion sufficient. If more pitch is wanted it is a simple matter to pile narrow boards on the front and middle bearings until the desired pitch is obtained.
Some manufacturers have what they call a box foundation, claiming that one great advantage in its favor is that it lets in air, where a foundation made of timbers or concrete makes a tight box, and that the lower courses are naturally damp. If your concrete foundations are built high enough you will have no trouble along this line. The writer suggests that the front bearing be from 17 to 18 inches high. My objection to the box foundation is that it is not near as solid as the concrete and is bound to give.
Placing the Pieces
In piling lumber the front ends of the boards should be drawn ahead on each course, and the cross sticks should be even with the course above. The slant of the pile will keep the rain from soaking down through the pile, and drawing the courses ahead. With the sticks flush with the front of the upper course, a wonderful protection against rain and sunshine is offered. See to it that your men get nice straight piles. You may be able to hide the piles of waste, saw-dust, dirt, etc., in your factory, but every one passing your place of business will see your lumber yard. Nothing looks worse, in my opinion, than crooked piling. Many furniture manufacturers believe that any Tom, Dick or Harry can pile lumber. This is not true. Be sure to keep the pile of lumber vertical sidewise as well as slightly inclined forward on the front end. The boards, if all of the same length, will help a whole lot in piling vertically, sidewise; but when there are unequal lengths to be dealt with, a good deal of care must be taken in order to make a good looking pile of lumber. And the good looking ones are the ones which shed water best.
We have discussed the importance of uniform piling sticks, which must be used when piling veneered stock. This applies as well to lumber piling sticks. All sticks should be of the same length, width and thickness. All cross pieces should be absolutely dry.