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found this was much too light. I would here suggest, then, that you take a half pint of water and to it add first a quarter ounce of powder, which is the same strength as an ounce would be to a quart. Then gradually add thirty grains of powder until you have a shade that you know is darker than it really ought to be. I say thirty grains because thirty grains is half of a dram, and it keeps your figures more in direct relation to the weights you are employing. Consequently, when you come to figure it will enable you to avoid the many little pitfalls which are due to errors in calculation, especially when you are increasing your formula in weights and measures. Then again you must remember that the amount of water is going to increase with each dilution. You take eight ounces of water to begin with and suppose that each dilution is made by the use of one more additional ounce of water. When you get through you will have seventeen ounces of water in the ten dilutions. The seventeen ounces of water will represent the same amount of powder that was contained in the original eight. As a rule, I have found that you usually find by this method the fourth, fifth and sixth dilutions as bringing out the shades. Of course, you thoroughly understand that your judgment of the colors selected has been correct, but if it was the fifth dilution and you have used the quarter of an ounce, then you have a quarter of an ounce of stain powder in thirteen ounces of water, from which it is easily calculated how many grains would be to the gallon, for you would divide the number of grains by thirteen which gives you the number of grains in each ounce. Then you would multiply by the number of ounces contained in a gallon and thus arrive at the amount of stain powder to be employed to each gallon of water.
If Results Are Not Secured at First
But suppose that the powder or color material does not give you the desired shade, and it thus becomes necessary to try out several colors in order to produce the shade. Proceed in the same manner and if you wish to assure yourself that you have selected colors that will make the shade, take a graduate, add a little of the one in which you have the most confidence, and then shade it up by the addition of the other two or three as the case may be, until this preliminary test convinces you that you have the correct components. Then start out to ascertain the correct strength. Do it in the same manner. Take the ten boards, coat each one with the first solution, cross it with the second solution. Go back to the first way with the third solution and so on until all the solutions have been applied. Somewhere in the square you will have your match. Then you figure back for the amount of powder that you require. Now, if you wish to prove this, weigh out the amount of powder shown you by the key, and dissolve it in the amount of water, but be sure not to fall into this pitfall. The most natural thing to do is to find out the amount of powder and forget to multiply the amount of water employed. In other words, each color had been dissolved in the same amount of water. Therefore, it becomes necessary to multiply the amount of water by the number of colors you have employed to produce this shade. In very careful work it becomes absolutely essential to see to it that a complete solution of the color material has been made. If you wish to be absolutely certain, put a bit of cotton in a small funnel and run the solution through this. If no sediment is left on the cotton, you can safely go ahead, but if there is sediment, throw the cotton and the sediment into the graduate and vessel and agitate the mixture until the solution is complete. Always bear in mind that you are operating in diminutive quantities and that
a slight error becomes greater when it comes to make up the formula into gallon lots.
In a chemical formula, and the one now uppermost in the trade is fumed oak, I strongly recommend doing the varying in the bichromate of potash rather than in the alkali, such as caustic, carbonate of potash or ammonia, as the effect of the alkali is practically governed by the one ounce to the gallon formula, and the variance of the shade is more readily produced by the strength of the bichromate.
To Get Beautiful Shade of Brown
Where a first coat of tannic or pyrogallic acid is given, increase the strength in the pyrogallic acid rather than in the strength of the tannic acid, and bear in mind that the atmosphere has a whole lot to do in turning these chemicals brown. That pyrogallic acid mixed with an alkali turns brown, and that some of the most beautiful shades of brown can be produced by mixing a solution of pyrogallic acid with carbonate of soda or potash, and sulphite of soda, coating the wood with this and entirely omitting the bichromate, is true. To those who are not using a fuming box, let me suggest that they make a few experiments. In the few preceding sentences, we have told the trade something. We have told more than is realized, we believe, and if the manufacturer be alert he can work upon the foregoing suggestions to his own surprise and positive satisfaction.
In golden oak, where a board is sent in to be matched,. endeavor to make up your mind whether it has been of recent finish or whether it is an old sample. Make up your mind whether it is one in which the effect has been produced by the use of a colored filler, by which I mean a filler stain in which some of the stain material has been incorporated. This you can usually tell by closely examining the flake and the smooth portions of the wood. Don't look at the pores at all. If the smooth portions present a uniformity of color, you may conclude that the piece was originally stained and then filled. And again you know that practically all the golden oak is made by the use of an oil stain. Asphaltum being the base, the color is augmented by the use of an oil soluble yellow, brown and a black. A good quality of asphaltum is required, and in a case of this kind, proceed about as follows:
In Handling Asphaltum
Dilute the asphaltum with an equal part of turpentine. Make the solution of the three colors, that is three separate solutions, all of a known strength. Then add of each enough of the asphaltum solution until you have the shade, judging the shade by the flakes only, applying the stain and wiping off with a rag which has been wet with naphtha. Add just enough naphtha to take off the stain clean, for you will find that this stain will look like a brown varnish. You will also notice that by the addition of colors to the asphaltum solution you have diluted this solution, all of which must be taken into your calculations when making up the larger formula. When this formula is produced and you are ready to go ahead, make up the stain and instead of wiping off with a rag, fill it with an uncolored filler. The spreading of the filler will take up the excess stain, and color the filler as it is rubbed into the pores. Then, of course, when this is done, clean up. Care must be taken in matching to go very easy on the yellow, depending largely upon the asphaltum to produce this yellow shade.
While golden oak is supposed to be a more uniform color, yet you will find by laying the samples of various factories side by side, considerable variance in shade is noticed and the nicety of match can readily be handled by following the above suggestions.
Having outlined to the reader a general method for matching colors, some details will depend upon the initiative of the individual who intends to benefit by the suggestions made.
You will find after making one experiment along these lines, and especially if you have never tried this method, a revelation is in store for you, and after you have made your first experiment, carefully note down the details and the results. If you cared to perpetuate the original solution, by which I mean to keep a portion of it, use half of the original amount of diluting purposes, and put away properly labeled a bottle, well corked, of the full strength solution. You do not know how soon you will be required to make a similar experiment. But if you will take the trouble to properly label the ten little boards and put the full data on the back of number one, you
may find that in the future you will be able to refer to it, that it is the one hundred squares quite often. Select therefrom a perfect matching of another sample. At any rate, the first experiment will serve as a valuable key to a second. You can tell, for instance, at a glance whether any combination previously employed comes anywhere near to a new proposition, and if it does, use the information for the second. But if it does not, you have the satisfaction of knowing that nothing employed in the first experiment is going to help you in the second. I have often said it is impossible for this department to give you specific amounts in the case of matching colors, but a method such as here given, if employed with a reasonable amount of care, especially when it comes to the figuring of weights and measures, will produce results absolutely positive and trustworthy.
THE SALES MANAGER AND CREDIT MAN
The Work Which is at Hand for the Men Who Fill These Offices---Where It May be Profitable to Combine Two Positions---Sales Manager's Duties
By A PRACTICAL MAN
T IS not my purpose to set forth a personal history, but it is absolutely essential that some few points be illustrated by actual experiences to prove certain contentions that I make, so in the following lines
I will kindly ask your indulgence of any seeming egotism. It shall be my earnest endeavor to relate facts as I have found them in years of study and experience and if it should be my fortune to benefit few or many sales managers and credit men, my mission shall have been fulfilled.
Combining Sales and Credit Departments There has been a time, and that not so many years ago, when the sales and credit departments of large factories and wholesale houses worked as independent of each other as was possible, but in this progressive age of pull together spirit, of bankruptcy laws, etc., it is necessary that these two departments be affiliated as closely as possible. Of course, in a business of such colossal volume as is done by our packing houses and other similar industries, they are forced to put the two departments in question under separate heads, but if you know nothing of their methods, you would be amazed to learn how minutely they keep in touch, one with the other.
It is my contention, and both observation and experience bear me out in it, that where it is at all possible, one man should handle both departments, but by all means let him first acquire by experience the necessary qualifications. I shall later endeavor to prove my contention by facts.
The Sales Manager
When you see a letter signed "T. J. Jones, Sales Mgr.," you naturally conclude that "T. J." has won his laurels and his way to a roll-top desk and stenographer by actual hard grind on the road, and he should have, but if you were to investigate conditions as I have and see just how many sales managers there are who never called on a dozen customers in their lives, it would stagger you. I have actually seen so many pseudo sales managers and credit men that I often wonder how they or their firms keep their heads above water.
Is it fair to the man on the road, who is really the pivot on which the business hangs, to be ordered hither
and yonder by some ninny who knows no more of conditions in the territory than a canary bird? Certainly not, but to illustrate this, I will relate a little incident with which I came in contact less than six months ago. I was out in a certain territory with one of our salesmen looking over a new field we were opening up, and met a man who sells gloves for a large factory located in the Middle West. This man told me that his sales manager, who owned some stock in the company, but who had never traveled a day in his life, required him to travel by a route list furnished from the office, and further stated that he could increase his business at least 25 per cent. if allowed to cover the territory as he saw fit. Who is at fault in this case, the salesman or the boss? Who is the better judge of conditions in the territory, the traveling man or the man who dictates the letters and makes up the route lists, and especially since the department head had never worked the trade himself? Think of it! You men who direct your sales force. Here is a factory losing good business in a fertile territory and for what reason? I will let you solve the riddle; the answer is easy.
Don't Be Too Specific With Traveling Men If you are of the opinion that you ought to tell your traveling men where they should or should not go, just get out in the different territories with them for a while; the office can do without your smiling countenance and the aroma of your cigar for a few days; get down to brass tacks and your eyes will be opened to a few things that will keep you awake nights provided your cranium isn't too much like ivory to absorb it.
What are the sales managers' duties? Are they to sit in the office, look wise, write dictatorial letters in the forenoon and spend the afternoon playing golf? No. not if you get the results you are expected to produce, but many of us think this way, nevertheless. If it is really your desire and ambition to get results and increase the efficiency of your department, think over the following for a few days.
Above all things keep your sales force full of enthusiasm, write them encouraging letters frequently, especially if it is out of season or if business has a tendency
to lag for any reason. When a salesman lands a new customer or sells an unusually nice order, compliment him and don't be stingy with it; let him get chesty if he wishes, it will do him good and help him sell the next man he calls on.
Let Salesmen Use Their Own Methods
If one salesman in a certain territory begins to roll the orders in, don't try to force his methods on the other boys, because conditions may be entirely different where they are. Study your force carefully, find every man's vulnerable spot and hit him there hard and often if you would have him working overtime for orders. Next, be on the hunt for new selling ideas and talking points continually. If your brain is too shallow to originate them, read your trade journals, talk to every traveling man you see, and when you really find a new idea that is a winner, drive it into your men until they either get results from it or cry quits, but be sure it is the goods before you adopt that plan. How are you going to know whether or not it is a winner? The best way to find out is to first try it out on some of the trade yourself.
Keep your stationery, stamps and stenographer on the move. Never let a month go by without sending a good, strong circular letter to every dealer on your mailing list. If you haven't a list, get busy and start one. There are many ways in which you can do this, but the most efficient and satisfactory way is to have your salesmen send in a daily report showing the names of the best dealers in each town they have made that day and continue this until they have covered their entire territory. Thus you have a complete mailing list with the wheat separated from the chaff.
When you send out your circular letters, don't expect them to bring a flood of orders, because the chances are about twenty to one that they won't do it. This being the case, what do they accomplish? They keep your firm and your product in the minds of the trade and are the greatest asset in the world to the salesmen if kept up systematically. I know this from actual experience.
I was at one time in a certain manufacturing business in which there was wonderfully keen competition. I knew it was up to me to put one over if I were to successfully cope with my older competitors who had already built up an established business.
I had my
printers get me up a piece of stationery with a quarterinch red border around the edge and the printing run in heavy blue type. The moment I saw it, I knew I had what we wanted for my circular letter work, because it would compel a man's attention whether he desired it or not. I had 25,000 each of two different letters multigraphed, let my stenographers fill in the names and addresses on typewriters, and sent them out to the trade a week apart. The profits on the sales from these two letters alone netted us close to $500 and lined up many more prospects that were afterwards landed, and all of this with an absolutely new commodity.
A Little Experience
I had already engaged nine A-1 specialty salesmen of unquestionable repute who had successful records behind them, and I sent them out immediately following my second circular letter, and orders literally showered in. What would have happened had I stopped here and sat back in my office and told my salesmen where to go and what to do? Instead of that, I first filled them so full of knowledge of our product that they literally bubbled over with enthusiasm and then told them: "Boys, you know the selling game and you know we have something the trade needs, so get busy. You have a certain amount of territory to cover; work it as you think and know best.
If you work a town this week and think you can get more business there next week, use your own judgment because you will be on the ground. I will be satisfied so long as you get results." Might add here that I let them settle between themselves as to how the territory should be divided.
I offered a bonus of $50 to the man whose sales were the largest the first month, and sent them a weekly letter showing what each man had sold; this kept them up to fever heat. This plan proved so successful that I offered some different prize every month to the entire satisfaction of everybody concerned.
Results With Letters
I sent out from 15,000 to 25,000 circular letters to the trade every week; not every month, but once a week, and our records proved that our circularizing more than paid for itself in orders actually secured from it. But the greatest benefit derived was the talk it caused among the dealers throughout the country, keeping our product before them all the time, and the many sales it helped our traveling force to land. This is not supposition, but actual facts, because there was hardly a day passed that some of the boys didn't write me and say, "I sold Tom Jones & Co. as a result of the letters you have been sending him; you have certainly made him believe in our goods," or something similar to that. I also know this because I frequently jumped into some one of the different territories and would hear the same story. Furthermore, your circular letter will often accomplish results, of which you will never know directly, but a two-cent stamp that carries the name of your firm and your goods to a well-rated dealer is never wasted.
At the end of six months our business showed a net profit of 171⁄2 per cent., and we sold out for an exceedingly handsome profit over and above our original investment and all operating expenses. Did your business show this much net profit the first six months?
Know not only your own product thoroughly, but that of your competitor as well. If you manufacture or job an article, the style of which sometimes changes, find out what your competitors are doing. Get up some new styles before he does, or if he should beat you to it, go him one better and improve on his patterns. If your new stuff is right, don't wait for your salesmen and the trade to pry the secret from you, shoot it at them like a comet passing through the atmosphere.
In the second article in this number, which will appear in the September number, the writer will discuss credits and the credit man and further elucidate his theory that the offices of sales manager and credit manager may oftentimes be profitably combined.
Fundamentals in Advertising
O MY mind there are only three fundamental principles in advertising; namely, be honest, be sensible, be persistent. I say be honest because every advertiser should remember that advertising doesn't create value, it merely tells of it. The value has to be in the article itself. I say to be sensible because the majority of people who read copy are endowed with good common sense. I say to be persistent because you have to keep everlastingly at it. People soon forget and unless we keep persistently at advertising we had better not begin at all.-Hugh Chalmers.
The Martinsville Furniture Co., Martinsville, Ind., has signed a contract with the commercial club of that place for a free site of five acres and twenty-five acres of land at $5,000. Robert Gum, who is at the head of the new enterprise, reports that the factory will be 60 x 400 feet, brick, and will employ fifty men at the start, later 200. General household furniture will be built.
ELECTRIC POWER IN WOODWORKING
Its Application to Machinery of the Average Furniture Factory---Cheapest When Once Installed---Makes a Saving of Space and From Waste of Power
By THOS. S. WATSON
LECTRICAL energy has been used so extensively in wood-working plants that its advantages and disadvantages are quite well known, but there are some points in its favor that are sometimes overlooked. There have been many misapplications of electric motors for driving machinery and this has led to false impressions in a great many cases.
In the average sash and door or furniture factory the friction load due to line shaft, countershafts, etc., varies from 40 to 60 per cent. of the average amount of power used, this friction load increasing with the number of machines which are in operation.
All users of wood-working machines are familiar with the mechanical troubles and losses of power due to belt drive, but few, however, realize the magnitude of these losses. A very interesting test is to take a tachometer and take the speed of the cutting head of a planer or other machine taking considerable power before taking a cut, then load the machine up to its normal capacity and watch the drop in speed. In many cases, as is well known, there will be from three to six different belt drives between the cutting head and the engine.
In a great many cases where motors have been applied to wood-working machines the easiest makeshift for driving the machinery through a motor has been used and the results consequently have not been as satisfactory as they should have been. The principal objection that has been raised to motor drive in wood-working plants has been the first cost. This objection, however, in a new plant which is being installed is not worthy of very much consideration if proper credit will be given to the electrical equipment for advantages gained in a proper layout of the machinery.
Things To Be Considered
In considering electrical drive for wood-working plants one must forget a lot of old-fashioned ideas and go at the matter systematically and with the intention of getting all of the advantages which are to be gained.
In making a direct comparison of mechanical drive with a motor drive, the losses will be as follows:
The above tests showing 40 per cent. friction loss were taken with no machines running and it is therefore impossible to tell just what the friction loss would be with the average load on. It would seem to us, however, to be fair to assume in a well-laid-out plant that the friction load would increase from 40 per cent. when the line shafts were running light, to 60 per cent. with the average load on. Further, it can be readily seen that it is necessary in a line shaft driven plant to drive all the line shafts for ten hours a day, while the load factor is only 25 per cent.
With the electrical drive starting at the engine shaft, as we did with the mechanical drive, we had first the efficiency of the generator of approximately 90 per cent. on an average load of 75 per cent. on the generator. This loss in the electric wiring can practically be forgotten, as the underwriter's requirements make the wire so heavy that there is practically no loss and on an average not to exceed 1 or 2 per cent. We then have the efficiency of the motors at an average of 85 per cent. We take
this higher efficiency for the motors for the reason that they are only supposed to be operated when they are actually doing work, assuming, of course, individual motor drive for each machine, this therefore shows a loss from the engine to the machine of 22.5 per cent. This loss, however, only goes on while the machines are actually working, and is cut out entirely as soon as the motors stop.
It will probably surprise a great many manufacturers to know how small a load factor they have on some of their machines, and we give the following example:
In a very busy sash and door factory there are 2,400 horse power in motors driving machines, with a motor for each machine, and from actual tests we know that not one of the motors was any too large for the work it had to do. While working, the average load on the generator for driving these motors was only 400 kilowatts, or approximately 600 horse power at the engine shaft; this shows that the machines were working at their full capacity 25 per cent. of the time. This plant was a manufacturing plant and did no jobbing work at all. The load factor was, therefore, 25 per cent.
In the earlier days the cost of power was not considered as a serious matter, but today, especially in cities where the by-product, such as shavings, sawdust, and kindling wood can be disposed of, a great many companies find it profitable to sell this by-product and buy coal, consequently the saving in power is a real saving of money-that is, to a certain point. It does not pay to economize in power beyond a point where you can utilize all of the exhaust steam, and the best balanced plant would be one wherein the power used furnished enough exhaust steam for the dry kiln and other heating purposes around the plant during the summer months, using live steam for heating purposes in the winter months, and such conditions can be obtained in a plant of reasonable size.
As to the question of purchasing electrical power from a central station, can say that this depends entirely upon the rates which can be obtained and as the cost of making power with one's own plant balanced, as stated above, is merely the fixed charge on the engine, generator, switchboard and power house.
Some Established Requirements
With a properly installed generating unit, comparatively little attention is required. A false idea is had by many as to the amount of attention and repairs required by an electrical equipment.
The following is the amount of help required in a plant which we have installed and which has been in operation for a number of years. The power equipment consists of:
Two 150 horse power boilers.
One 125 K. W. generator, direct connected to Corliss engine.
One 35 K. W. generator belted to the high speed engine. Switchboard and 60 motors varying in size from 1 to 25 horse power.
In the boiler room there is one fireman and a helper.
The engine room and all motors are taken care of by the chief engineer, the engine having a self-oiling system and requiring very little attention. In the factory they have one millwright who attends to the machines and oiling of the motors. This plant is properly balanced and there is no exhaust steam wasted.
A new company starting out and using less than 75 horse power can show some advantages in favor of purchasing their power until they have grown to a reasonable size.
As to the kind of electrical energy to be used, the alternating current is the only practical one for woodworking plants, as the alternating current motor is the simplest piece of machinery that can be purchased for this class of work. The direct current motor, with its brushes and commutators, furnishes too much of a fire hazard. There are two voltages to be considered, namely, 220 volts and 440 volts, and the voltage to be selected depends upon the size of the plant and the location of the various departments.
Advantages in general for the electrical drive are, therefore: First, a saving in power; second, a higher average cutting speed; third, saving in floor space; fourth, a much better lighted plant due to the freedom from overhead belts and line shafts; fifth, a saving in the cost of building.
In general the motors should be applied so as to drive directly to the cutting heads of the machines or as near as possible, in some cases it being practical to actually direct connect the motors to the heads of the machines. As an example of the floor space saving we will take an ordinary 2-head shaper with its counter shaft. This machine occupies a space of approximately 6 x 15 feet, and most of the motor-driven shapers which we see today simply have a motor either direct connected or belted to the counter shaft.
By using two vertical motors, one for each head, and allowing but three feet for centers, the floor space is cut down to approximately 6 x 7 feet. This method of drive we have used for a great many years and have found absolutely practical, though the short centers may look funny to people who are not used to them. We have, however, this identical arrangement in operation on shapers and other machinery requiring even greater power. The same advantages apply to slashers and cut-off saws, but there, of course, the vertical motor is avoided.
The question of how much credit to give to the electrical drive for floor space saved is a difficult one to put into dollars and cents. In one case that we can mention, a saving of at least 33 1/3 per cent. has been made, which if counted out in the cost of the building, would go a long way toward paying for the motors.
The artificial lighting of factories equipped with motor drive will be more uniform and result in better working conditions and at a smaller expense than to light a factory with only that amount of light which is absolutely necessary. The natural lighting will also be better because the machines, being independent of line shafts, can be so arranged as to receive this light advantageously, and the machines in the center of the floor will receive more light, which would not be obstructed by belts and line shafts and the churning of the dust-laden air resulting from these.
in search of cheap substitute for wood. If it proves practical, it may have an influence on cheaper grades of American furniture.
Metal Beds for Smyrna
HE American consul at Smyrna writes that persistent effort has been made with considerable success to introduce metal beds made in the United States into that country. He is very positive that a field of distribution awaits the American manufacturers. A dealer through whom the consul is working makes this statement of what needs to be done to establish permanently a market:
"One of the obstacles to the free importation of American bedsteads is that American makers do not seem disposed to make such alterations as would make the bedsteads suitable for oriental use. Before the formation of the English Bedstead Manufacturers Federation in the spring of 1912, American prices were considerably higher and any attempt at importation was doomed to failure; but since the Federation has decreed an advance in the price of the English bedstead, American prices permit successful competition if only American manufacturers can be induced to consider seriously the matters of packing, slightly altering, quoting prices, and making terms of payment to suit the requirements of the oriental trade. The writer is doing all in his power to bring this about, and in just so far as such efforts are successful, will it be possible to supplant the English makes.
"So far one shipment of bedsteads has been received from a Wisconsin manufacturer, and a second one is shortly to follow. In quality American goods compare favorably with English, especially the all-brass article because of its lighter weight than the all-iron bed. "The attempt to substitute the American for the English bedstead is still an experiment, and the question of its assuming much larger proportions in the near future will depend in a great measure upon the encouragement held out to the buyer by the American manufacturer.
"There is the further obstacle of the American manufacturers seemingly being unwilling to comply with the requirements of the Oriental market as regards mode of packing, quoting prices, and conditions of payment.
"European manufacturers quote c. i. f. Smyrna, allow credit to reliable commercial houses, and are packing six to twelve beds in a case (with absolutely no lost space) according to size of pillars, weighing from onehalf to three-fourths of a ton. American makers are not willing to furnish quotations c. i. f. Smyrna, but are quoting f. o. b. New York Harbor, are packing in cases which require much more space owing to the peculiar system they have adopted in constructing and delivering bedsteads for export (head and foot ends in one piece with the pillars and a spring in place of the ordinary slats), and leave it to the carriers to charge freight per ton of weight or measurement, as it best suits the interests of the latter. The result is that the buyer may have to pay a much larger amount of freight and is never sure of what the goods will cost exactly, or how the cost will compare with that of the goods supplied to him by the English maker, who is using a more compact way of packing whereby there is absolutely no lost space and is paying freight on the goods by weight, not measurement. "As regards payments, the best terms an importer may hope to obtain from the American manufacturer under the present system, no matter how good his commercial standing may be, is cash against delivery of the shipping documents sent by the shipper to one of the local banks."