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ing being so much thicker at this point than the width of this hole, necessitated the use of a core to form it. At P, on C, Figure 5, is shown the core print for this hole. D is core box for the core. Note that this box is in halves and is shown apart slightly, showing the way it is split. E is the core, made in box D. You will notice that the ends of this box are open; this allows the core-maker to place one end on bench and ram the core sand in from the other. When it is ram
med full he smooths it off with his trowel, makes a sufficient number of vent holes, and it is then ready to lay on plate for baking process.
A and B, Figure 5, are two halves of core box for core L, which is for bushing pattern J K. This pattern, as you will note, is made in halves and has prints, P, at each end to support core. This pattern lying on its side in the mold necessitates having prints at each end, but with bushing pattern H, which is cast on end, only one print is necessary, as core I stands on its end in the mold. PS in the pictures indicates core prints.
Figure 6 is an angle valve body. E, with its attendants, pattern F, core G, half-core boxes C and D and mold and flask A and B. A is drag part of flask B, cope part. Note the gate hole in B, and the runner, leading to mold directly opposite in A. When the two come together the hole is directly above the runner. This allows the molten metal to drop through hole into runner
the defects before I point them out. To begin with, surfaces A will be the sides that come up when mold is complete, consequently the sides that go down next to follow board for the ramming up of drag or bottom half. This will not, of course, bring the parting between the upper and the lower part of mold on a straight line with joint of flask, but that makes no difference as the molder can make parting line drop below or raise above this flask joint inside of mold, to suit shape of patterns. This rise and fall, however, must be gradual (on the order of the
and then flow out into the mold.
Pattern F is in halves as is also the core box, and the impression is shown in the halves of mold. Notice the impressions left by the three prints on pattern F. This, as you will see, gives the core G three resting places. The core is made in halves so that one half can be made and dried and then the other made and pasted to it, and also dried. The loose pieces at H, in C and D, are made loose because they have a cut under surface to form a raised seat for valve. They come out of box with core, and can then be drawn back and removed from around it.
Figures 7 and 8 are edge outlines of journal box patterns that we received at one time to make some castings from. They represent the efforts of a carpenter who knew very little about pattern-making. However, they have the general defects always present when made by someone not familiar with pattern-making, and serve as good example from which to note corrections. Would have the reader look these over and see if he can detect
cause trouble? Look at points D, Figure 7, where the same conditions exist. Points D, Figure 8, are not so bad. These shoulders would be much better if made like the dotted lines show, having a little bevel. In Figure 7 that part of the mold between line G and II is a part of the cope or upper half. This is what we term coping down and lifting out. The holes at E and F for a half inch bolt should be nine-sixteenth inch at F and fiveeighths inch at E. If straight holes are wanted, they should be drilled after casting is made. If any holes are desired at any point where the hole is smaller than the thickness of metal through which it passes (as at G, Figure 8), they should be drilled.
Questions relative to the foregoing cheerfully invited. Same will be answered through the columns of THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURER AND ARTISAN.
The Orinoco Furniture Co., Columbus, Ind., has electrified its plant, retiring the steam equipment, in use since 1890.
VENEERING DEPARTMENT DETAILS
Buy the Best Stock Possible; See That You Get What You Buy---Selection of a Glue Tank---Cooking and Care of Glue---Woods Must be Understood
By ALEXANDER T. DEINZER
HE COMMON weakness of many furniture manufacturers, whether buying lumber, glue, varnish, veneer, or anything else, is to make a drive at saving money in the first cost, to try to buy it cheaper, to pick up bargains. Hundreds of buyers have been badly stung. I hope this statement is not misunderstood. If you can buy gold dollars for fifty cents you will do so, but be sure you are receiving gold dol
lars. If you thoroughly understand veneers and can safely pick up bargains, it will be to your interest to do so.
and you can tell within just a few minutes how many feet of each lot you have on hand. Simple? Of course it is. Besides the nicety of this system, it lends a great deal to general carefulness throughout the handling of the veneer. Try it and see what you
ALEXANDER T. DEINZER
The first thing of importance, and the thing that should dominate in shaping the purchase of veneer, is to get the best stock possible for the purpose in hand. Ruptured veneer is, in my opinion, expensive at any price. I have been told that some of the manufacturers receiving veneers with the fiber broken will run it through rollers to press the fibers together again. Veneer is thin, at best, and if subjected to sufficient pressure to force the broken fiber together again, the unbroken parts will be crushed and bruised in the process. You can buy ruptured veneer very cheap indeed, and there are furniture manufacturers in business today who are buying this grade of veneer and believe they are getting a bargain.
Space does not permit writing any more about the question of buying but enough information has been given to show how really important is the knowledge to select veneers.
Making Copies of the Veneer Order
A good idea in purchasing veneers is to make triplicate copies of the order. The original being handed to the salesman or mailed to the veneer company, a copy to the veneer inspector or the man having charge of the veneers and a copy retained in the purchasing department. In all cases keep the samples of the flitches you buy and compare them with the stock when it arrives. Have all the veneer inspected and measured as soon as received. A good idea is to give a lot number to each log and report this number to the cost department and to have all piles of veneers numbered, keeping an account of every pile as you would the lumber in your lumber yard. Whenever the veneer cutter takes veneer from the pile, he must report the quantity to the inspector, or, if the factory is large enough, the veneer should be delivered only when a requisition is presented. This requisition should bear the job number for which it is intended and is, of course, returned to the cost department. There are several advantages in using a system of this kind:
First-You know the exact amount of veneer required for the job.
Second-You eliminate waste, for your men know very well that they must account for every foot.
Third-You know when your veneer is running low and have sufficient time to order, not depending on Smith or Jones to report and possibly hold up the veneer room on account of delay in not getting the stock. Fourth-You have a perpetual inventory of all veneers
think of it.
There are many veneer buyers who will buy very narrow stock, saving a few dollars per thousand when they really require principally wide stock, or possibly both. You must remember that the great advantage in buying wide stock is in the beautiful figure effect. Again, it costs money to joint, match and tape
In our modest business we veneer many couch sides. These sides are usually 71 inches long by 534 inches, 612 or 912 inches wide. We buy veneers 12 feet long, 6, 7 and 10 inches wide, and have practically no waste. We all know that labor costs bring up the price of the furniture. Figure your labor, plus burden, plus waste, and you will find that the cost of matching and jointing narrow veneer is far greater than the small additional cost you would likely be compelled to pay for wider stock.
Study the conditions of your veneer room. You should be able to determine what you require and buy accordingly. There is one best way to do everything. If the manager, superintendent and foremen know "how" you can manufacture furniture at lower prices, increase sales, raise capital and earn profits.
The Ways of Winners
One hears so many furniture manufacturers say: "There is no more money in the furniture manufacturing business." If you should cite the cases of some of the successful manufacturers they will say: "Those people made their money years ago when labor and lumber were considerably cheaper than they are today." There are furniture manufacturers who are making money today but there are many who are losing money. The successful furniture manufacturer knows how to manufacture furniture at a profit and is doing so. Supposing our successful men, as, for instance, Messrs. S. Karpen, Macey, F. Stuart Foote, Henry Schuerman, Strudley, and Mallen, were turned adrift among strangers, without a dollar. Within just a few years' time these men would again erect factories and be the important factors in the furniture manufacturing trade they are today. And why? Because they thoroughly understand furniture manufacturing. They are alive. Forget that there is no money in the furniture manufacturing business. If you employ men who do not show results, engage men who can. If your equipment is not strictly modern, it behooves you to investigate some of the modern machines and see how greatly they increase production at a lower cost. Engage the very best men you can (regardless of salary) to take charge of your veneer, gluing, cabinet and finishing departments.
Until recently the glue tanks used in veneering, gluing and cabinet departments were the crudest, the meanest
and the most neglected in the long list of equipment required in a woodworking establishment. For years glue was heated in open pots, and we all know that evaporation weakens glue; makes it too thick for use, and also makes it very uneven in quality. An improvement in the right direction was to put a cover over the tank or glue cooker and to provide the cooker with a stirring rig. I have been asked at various times: "Is it well to stir glue while being dissolved?" There is no objection whatever to this method and, in fact, in many cases where the goods are used very heavy and in large quantity, agitation by paddles is often necessary to secure prompt and efficient results. The only objection I know of is that it raises scum and foam that otherwise would not be apparent, but this can always be overcome by the consumer using glue that works free from foam, whether agitated or not. In many furniture factories one will find the old style iron kettle. Iron equipment is expensive for the reason that it will not stand up with copper, brass or aluminum. Iron rusts, and the rust impairs the color and quality of the glue liquid, and copper, aluminum or brass are practically self-cleaning.
The Glue Tank
When buying a glue tank select one having a greater height than diameter. A high tank with a small diameter is decidedly preferable to a wide and shallow tank. You will appreciate that the stirring rig can work better in a tank where the height exceeds the diameter than in a tank being low and wide. It should have an air-tight glue chamber (to prevent evaporation) and surrounded by a water jacket, the water in the jacket being heated either by direct injection of steam or by use of copper heating coils. Some of the progressive factories are using electricity to heat their glues. Be sure you have a thermometer on the cooker and have this attached in some conspicuous part of the cooker so that the man preparing and cooking the glue can watch the temperature. Do not at any time permit the temperature to exceed 150. This is a great fault in most of the furniture factories. Time and again I have observed the temperature from 165 to 200. From force of habit I observe the temperature whenever I pass a glue cooker. It is very seldom that I find the temperature at 150, or below that point. One hundred and seventy degrees seems to be the favorable point with most glue men, Some of these fellows will tell you "It is not necessary to gauge glue heat; the glue will hold anyhow if it is a good glue. We don't care about your figures or methods, we get results 'anyhow,' don't we Fritz?" Ask them do the joints ever come apart: "Yes, but that isn't our fault; them there fellers in the office buy the glue and we aint to blame if it's no good." It is not uncommon to find plants in which glue is prepared by subjecting it to the direct application of steam. So many workmen labor under the impression that it is necessary to heat the glue at a very high temperature in order to dissolve it. This is a mistaken idea. If the glue has been properly softened, it will dissolve at a low temperature.
Testing the Glue
A thermostatic valve which operates automatically will keep the temperature in the glue chamber between 145 F. and 150 F. This apparatus not only prevents overheating, but eliminates the time and care of keeping the temperature where it should be. Again, this apparatus not only facilitates economical melting of glue, by preventing evaporation, waste, formation of scum, sour and dirty glue, but it also insures uniform "spread."
A few years ago I entered a furniture factory early on a Monday morning (I must not forget to say that this was during mid-summer). When I opened the door I was nearly overcome by an offensive odor which I recog
nized as coming from the glue room. The workmen did not care to work in that department. In fact, the workmen throughout the entire plant were very angry. found the man in charge of the glue room and suggested that he must have old glue in the cooker, some that had possibly been left there for a day or more. He said: "Yes, but the glue is no good or it would not deteriorate." I have found glues that will stand a lot of abuse. Nevertheless, every glue will decompose when left over night, especially over two hot nights and one day, as was the case above cited. Glue should be free from heat during the night and should not be mixed with fresh glue the next morning for full value will never be secured from the glue used that way.
Some manufacturers and glue users may say: "Glue is far superior in quality today to what it was fifteen or twenty years ago." This is true, hence your product should have been improved.
The Old Way
There are a few small cabinet shops where the old conservative cabinet-maker will use possibly a few pounds of glue every week. This glue is kept in an old-time glue pot (having a hot water container) and whenever the cabinet-maker requires glue, it is placed on the back of a stove, the water heated and the glue dissolved. No thought is given to the exposure of the glue to dust, ete. The brushes are dirty, the skin forming on the surface of the pot gradually accumulates and slowly decomposes. This may or may not fall into subsequent melts, thus contaminating them.
It is possible to save considerable of the accumulation and to work it up to good advantage in veneering. Detach scraps of dried glue adhering to the glue pot, cooker or glue spreader, examine them. If clean, place them in a kettle or cooker. After thoroughly cleaning, and removing all particles of glue, soften the selected pieces by means of heat, after adding a sufficient amount of water. You may also do this to dirty scraps, but it is best to re-heat them in a separate cooker, permit the dirt to settle and the supernatant glue may be used without risk. Should the glue, however, be sour, it is necessary to throw all pieces away. Remember, Mr. Reader, that glue is extremely sensitive to impurities. Cultures of germs are grown by bacteriologists in gelatine glue because they afford an ideal breeding place for germs. Keep your cookers, glue pots and spreaders clean.
There are a few manufacturers who will buy bone glues for veneering because they are cheap. Bone glues do not have the binding quality nor the lasting quality of hide glues. Climatic changes will soon weaken joints made with bone glues and no matter how dry your lumber and thoroughly the pieces were jointed, it will open. There are now many lines of trade where the use of bone glue is imperative to secure the thorough class of manufactured goods that modern merchandising demands. However, as stated, the furniture manufacturer should not use them.
Several furniture and piano factories are using mixed hide and bone glues. The jobber or manufacturer will take a certain percentage of very strong hide glue and mix with bone. Good results have been reported. One of the largest jobbers doing this has requested the writer to make some tests and report results. Have been too busy to do much work in my laboratory and do not intend to express an opinion until I have made thorough physical tests.
Some manufacturers will buy one grade of glue, using it for veneering as well as joint purposes, gluing oak, pine, mahogany and an endless lot of other woods with the same glue, using the same proportions of water and glue,
I care not what glue you buy, it is absolutely ecessary for your glue room foreman to understand the ferent textures of the different woods and to mix his es to meet the requirements as he understands them. When making this statement I mean a man who undersza is woods and glues. In mixing glues do not guess at the proportions of water and glue. Weigh the water ani glue. Mix up your proportions as you require them the different woods and do not trust this work to some rant, stubborn workman who could possibly not read name if he saw it in print, I have met too many Sach fellows in glue and veneer rooms. They may be good fellows to clean up in and around the factory, or e lumber, but they have not the ability to work in ainst-class gluing department.
Lumber Must be Right
In order to get good results in your glued up work var lumber must be dry. Not too dry, however, for you abi experience as much trouble as when not dry In the February number of THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURER AND ARTISAN, page 62, an article, "Fundamentals in Kiln Drying," appeared, of which I am the author. In this article many suggestions were made and reliable test methods given, which, if properly applied,
determine the dryness of your lumber. Right here is the first step in the right direction of perfect joint work. Your glue may be the best that money can buy. It may he prepared correctly. If your lumber is not in proper dition it will be impossible to make glue joints. You have all read time and again what overheated ank will do to veneered work. It is, however, not cmmon to find factories all over this country (includIng some of our very largest progressive plants) where the printed stock is heated so that it is very hot. The og is glued up and the glue room foreman cannot
stand why joints open. It may surprise you to earn that where stock has been thoroughly kiln dried, the ge is of the right quality and your stock has been
pod in a curing room in which the temperature does not drop under 70, it is unnecessary to heat such stock refore gluing. This is true, nevertheless. Your grandfather and mine would not think of gluing joints any her way than heating the stock. They could not afford w in those days, but we have better drying con
I Love this is not misunderstood. I do not say that mory furniture manufacturer can eliminate the expense waving his stock before gluing. I well know that of your factories are not heated over night and I mom of factories having no drying kilns where the stock
from the yard or shed, machined and delivered money ling department. Unless you have modern kilns, your futuries heated day and night, do not attempt to **YORK without heating. Our laboratory experirprising results. However, we have and the article is already so long ng more can be said about heating stock in this
rais, no doubt, read some of the articles conwus of the trade papers discussing straight Garner jointe. I supposed that every cabinet* d sporotic boy knew the kind of joint that Many men will argue that the *** umy kind of a joint. The writer has dont give jointing and has made a great
I am convinced, however, that the * the joint for long stock, but on very etra gut joint is more satisfactory. When **w** joint apply the pressure to the
center of the stock first. This is one reason why some experience trouble with slack joints.
We try to work up our waste very closely and use considerable 4/4 inch waste stock in couch leg back boards. These pieces are 10 inches long by from 8 to 9 inches wide. When the writer came to this factory he found that one man was employed gluing them by the old-time wedge system, and from 500 to 600 back boards were considered a pretty good day's work. He would heat his stock leisurely, walk to his glue bench, spread the glue by means of a brush, place the stock in the wooden clamps, handle the clamps, etc. This was an eye-sore to me and I decided to eliminate it. I had the stock machined with straight joints. Made a suitable bench which could easily be moved where wanted. I next designed a very small glue spreader, which was attached to the bench. I made another rigging to hold about 500 glued-up back boards. Instead of employing male help. I engaged two ambitious girls. I had no trouble in coaching these girls. I watched them very carefully, studied every motion they made and eliminated all unnecessary motions. Within a few weeks the girls would rub joint approximately 600 boards per hour. They could speed up to from 750 to 800 per hour. I did not expect them to do this and was satisfied with results. The girls enjoyed the work and made pretty good wages. Of course, the stock was brought to them and they did not have to handle the pieces after they had been glued and placed into the rigging.
The Automatic Glue Clamper
It is surprising to the man gluing his stock by the oldtime method to see the amount of work one or two men can turn out on an automatic glue clamp carrier. The Imperial people, of Grand Rapids, get as much work out of one of these machines as the average manufacturer will get from two, and why? The superintendent of this factory appreciates the possibilities of motion study. He resolved to apply some of these principles in his factory. He found splendid chances to apply these principles in his gluing department. Two men operate the machine and one man keeps them supplied with material and takes the material from the machine after being glued.
The average furniture manufacturer does not appreciate the value of motion study. Its value in cost reducing cannot be overestimated. Motion study, as a means of increasing output under the military type of management, has consciously proved its usefulness on the work for the past twenty-five years. Its value as a permanent element for standardizing work, and its important place in scientific management, have been appreciated only since observing its standing among the laws of management given to the world by Frederick W. Taylor, the great conservator of scientific investigation, who has done more than all others toward reducing the problem of management to an exact science.
Stubbornness a Check
One great trouble in some of the glue rooms is the stubbornness of the man in charge of that department. There are men who will have the stock glued up, regardless of how it is jointed. Question them about it and they will say: "We are employed to glue up stock, not to criticise or do the machine jointing. If the stock comes in imperfectly jointed that is the machine room foreman's headache, not mine. It is my business to turn a certain amount of work out of this department and I'm going to do it. Damaged and imperfect goods? What do I care; that's the old man's loss, not mine."
Time and again I have noticed jointed stock full in the center and open at both ends. This is another reason why so many joints open up. One will frequently see
cabinet-makers try to patch up the open ends, believing that they will improve the looks of the piece. When improperly machine jointed stock is delivered to the glue room, the man in charge should refuse it and report this to the superintendent. It is only a question of a short time when Mr. Machine Room Foreman will see to it that the stock is delivered as it should be and if the operator cannot do proper jointing he will engage a man who can.
Not long ago I perused an article in one of the trade papers by a man considering himself an authority on glue room problems advocating that joints be made with open ends for the sake of using two clamps. This man is a joke, and I cannot understand how he dared make such a statement. Would like very much to see some of his work.
The Continuous Feed Jointer Large capacity, when consistent with quality work, is always desirable in any machine. The continuous feed glue jointer requires no introduction, but I prefer the machine with adjusting table. There are two reasons why I prefer the adjustable table: First-The output can be increased, for it is possible to vary the cut by simply turning a small hand wheel. Second-One can set the machine to make slack center glue joints.
The automatic dovetail glue jointer is the most wonderful machine we have in the woodworking line today. One great cry I have heard all over the country: "The machine may be all right, but it costs too much money." I cannot understand how a large manufacturer can afford to be without one. From an economical standpoint, it saves lumber and from 40 to 65 per cent. of the glue ordinarily used in joint work. Again, you have many men handling the lumber, machining, etc., before the stock reaches the glue room. I know of concerns which are saving five men since installing the machine. I wish space would permit my citing some dovetail joint laboratory tests and the efficiency of the machine. However, we must briefly discuss some of the problems of the cabinet room:
Every cabinet-maker should have some knowledge of the rules of mensuration. The importance of this knowledge was pointed out in one of my articles treating on this subject. One great trouble in many cabinet rooms is that the work is done by the old rule-of-thumb methods. It is possible that Grandpa was a cabinet-maker, learned his trade in the old country under some stern "Meister." Those days they had no machinery and all work was done by hand. Possibly the father also became a cabinetmaker and the son was compelled to learn the same trade. They are all skilled workmen, but, Mr. Reader, we require more than skill in the successful factory. Go to your cabinet-maker and say: "John, I want you to figure the degrees necessary for hexagon, heptagon or octagon shaped table tops, posts or pillars." How many will you find who can do this figuring? If, however, these mitres are not cut correctly it requires a lot of hand fitting and this time costs money. If your cabinet foreman workman figures the degrees he can turn out his work mathematically correct. There is no fitting necessary. How important this knowledge is, is not appreciated by the average furniture manufacturer.
Work Should be Well Done
There are many machine room foremen who, in order to make a showing in their department, unload a lot of misfit work onto the foreman of the cabinet room, and considerable hand work is necessary. All stock should be perfectly machined. There should be no hand fitting nor hand sanding necessary. A good trim sawyer and boring machine operator is worth his weight in gold in the furniture factory.
So many superintendents will have the drawers of tables, desks, etc., fitted by hand. They will say: "Every piece of wood has different attributes." Very true, indeed. However, your drawers should be so perfectly machined that they will all fit properly, so that no hand work is necessary. No doubt many readers will not agree with me. Permit me to state that if your lumber has been properly seasoned, dried in a good, modern kiln, cured after leaving the kiln and the stock trimmed and bored by experts in this line of work, you, in a great measure, overcome the attributes of your lumber and can manufacture drawers at from 20 to 60 per cent. less cabinet cost than where the fitting is done by hand.
I know of a prominent furniture factory in business for more than forty years. They make medium grade tables and every drawer was fitted by hand, which was, of course, quite an expense. After convincing the manager that his cabinet work was costing too much money he decided to have this work machined so perfectly that no hand work would be necessary. What was the result? He reduced his cabinet drawer work over 50 per cent. on many of his patterns.
Where Black Walnut Comes From
URNITURE manufacturers who have been wondering, in view of the increasing popularity of black walnut, whether statements that the American wood is still being produced in sufficient quantity to take care of the demand are correct, will likely be reassured by the publication by the United States government of statistics covering 1912, the latest year for which figures are available.
The Census Bureau and the Forest Service collaborate i in the compilation of the figures, and their report shows that in 1912 43,083,000 feet of walnut lumber was turned out of mills in this country. As this takes no account of the log production which was used up by exports without manufacture, the statement of leading walnut men that the total production in this country is now about 50,000,000 feet a year seems to be well within the facts.
Popular impressions get abroad, and it is sometimes hard to correct them. The Middle West twenty-five years ago was producing the bulk of the walnut lumber, but the idea that the supply had become exhausted in that territory became current until it was believed by many otherwise well-informed people. The government census, however, shows that the states north of the Ohio river and south of the lakes are still producing the lion's share of the walnut manufactured in this country.
Ohio leads the rest of the country with 8,565,000 feet, while Indiana is second with 6,425,000 feet. Kentucky follows with 5,855,000 feet, but Illinois comes in next with 5,197,000 feet. Missouri, which has long been prominent in the walnut trade, had a total output in 1912 of 4,635,000 feet. Tennessee turned out 3,736,000 feet, and Pennsylvania 2,268,000 feet. West Virginia's record was 1,597,000 feet, and Virginia 1,123,000 feet. Other states produced less than a million feet each, but the production, while scattering, was substantial, making up the total which was quoted above.
The Marion Bench and Cabinet Co., of Marion, Ind., has been incorporated with a capital stock of $30,000, to take over the equipment and business of the Butler Stool and Bench Co. The plant of the new organization will be located in the former Harwood Bedstead building, and the officers of the company are: J. W. Wilson, president; Thad Butler, vice-president; L. W. Gillespie, secretary, and C. W. Henderson, treasurer.