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THE PROBLEM OF THE LATE COMER

Usually Employe Who is Always Behind Time is Victim of Habit---Some Corrective Measures Which May be Employed---Promptness Cultivated

By C. M.

HERE is the foreman who has not been confronted with the difficulty of solving the problem of the late-comer? The problem presented by the man who persists in getting to work just in time to be late has in some shops been partially solved by the use of time clocks. But there are some men who come late in spite of the time clock. The loss of fifteen minutes' time does not prevent them coming two minutes late. If a man works on a machine, the time of the machine is of more value than the time of the man, therefore to have the machine idle for fifteen minutes or half an hour in order that the man may not be paid for five minutes more than he works, is not true economy and does not, therefore, solve the problem of the late-comer.

Some years ago, when the writer was foreman in a certain shop, a man came to us to seek employment. This man had the reputation of always being late for work. When the factory whistle would blow he would be about three hundred yards away and at the first sound he would break into a run and arrive in his department just after the other men had nicely settled down to work. The foreman he had been with before coming to us, we afterward learned, had unsuccessfully exhausted every method known to him to break up the habit. For some considerable time, I, too, thought him beyond redemption and was about to give up when, one morning, I saw him sneaking in. He knew that I was aware that he was late, but he wanted to get to his bench and start work before coming in contact with me. He seemed to think that all danger was over if he could only do that. This inspired me with a new idea. If I could so arrange things that this man would have to come in contact with me before starting work every time he was late I believed the habit could be broken up.

I was in the habit of going through each department immediately after the whistle blew, and I informed the men that any who were not at their bench when I passed through would not be credited with time until they reported to me in person. I was not supposed to credit them with time unless I had personal knowledge that they were on the job, and I could not know that they were on the job, nor when they started, if I did not see them.

At first this man tried to ignore the rule. The following morning he was not at his bench when the whistle blew and I made it a point not to go near his bench for an hour. When I did so he was there and I said to him in a surprised tone of voice: "When did you start? I did not see you here when I passed through at 7 o'clock."

"I started about a minute after seven," he replied. "I have no knowledge of that," I replied. "You know the rule that a man coming in after the whistle blows must report before starting work.”

MACKAY

fixed things up all o. k. and the problem of the late-comer was solved.

But it was not the loss of a few hours' pay that solved the problem. That merely showed him the necessity of reporting. What did the work was the fact that he had to face me every time he was late. And it was not because of what I would say to him that he dreaded to report, because I never did more than look at my watch then look at him and tell him to go to work.

Why did this man come late? It was habit. He got in the habit of hanging 'round home until a certain time and although he knew he would be late and would have to sneak in the shop, he did not seem to have the power to break it off. To the man who is in the habit of getting to work on time it seems to be a silly thing for a man to talk about it being hard to break off the habit of getting there late. But it is hard just the same. It is such an easy thing for the punctual man to be on time that he cannot understand how a man can do otherwise than be on time. But nearly everything we do is the result of habit and it is as hard to break off a bad habit as it is to break off a good one.

Some men cultivate the habit of neatness. They are neat about their person, and neat about their work, and they cannot understand how a man can be anything else, and it disturbs them to see a man careless about his work. Other men fall into slovenly habits and although they sometimes feel that it would be to their advantage to be more careful, they lack the necessary element in their makeup which enables one to be neat and tidy because they have never cultivated it.

When the writer was at college he was taught, or forced, to acquire a habit that has clung to him ever since that of punctuality. We were told to consider punctuality in all things as a part of the curriculum. Be punctual in entering the class-room and punctual in leaving. There is a time for everything and everything should be done in its own time.

I remember a boy in a shop where I once worked who dropped his tools at the first sound of the whistle to quit and was always the first to get out of the shop. The foreman noticed this and called him aside one day and said it looked bad to see him leading the line of men out of the shop every quitting time. It would be better to wait a minute or two than to drop his tools at the first sound of the whistle and then get out.

The boy answered: "I start with the first sound of the whistle, why should I not stop with it?" And all the foreman could say was: "It looks bad."

That was bad advice the foreman gave that boy, and if followed would lead the boy to practice deception. The intention was to have the boy try to create the impression that he was so interested in his work that he was in no hurry to leave it. Every man or boy should be ready to quit his work when the moment to quit arrives, because every moment of everybody's life has its own duties and obligations, and if a man lingers a moment longer than necessary at one thing some other thing is robbed of that much time. Every man should leave his work when leaving time arrives and if he does not, and makes it a point to remain a few minutes after,

Something like this happened two or three times, and when pay day came and the man found his pay two or three hours short of what he figured on he began to see that we meant what we said. There was a little fireworks over the time shortage, but a firm hand in a velvet glove

he does it either from a motive, or without a motive, neither of which is commendable.

No man should go through life aimlessly. Everything a man does should be done for a definite purpose, and according to some well-defined plan. We have all heard of the cabinet-maker who was making a judge's chair for a court room. A fellow workman thought he was as giving more attention to details than was necessary and inquired the reason. The reply was: "I intend to sit on this bench myself some day." And he did, and in after years became one of the foremost judges in the land. He had a definite object before him.

This is an age in which if one would succeed he must live the "strenuous life," but this strenuousness may be relieved somewhat if one will, as far as practicable, take some system into his life. Have a time for everything. Take the great financial magnates of our day-men who are connected with scores of enterprises. These diversi

fied interests could never be looked after except according to a plan. So much time for this and so much for the other, and each in its appointed time. Let every

man be punctual in attending to the small things and use them as stepping-stones to the higher things of life.

The Law of It

Validity of Sunday Transactions

An order for goods taken by a traveling salesman on Sunday is not invalid on that account, if it is accepted by the seller on a week day. (Alabama Supreme Court, Wheeler vs. Krohn, Fechheimer & Company, 64 Southern Reporter 179.)

Wrongful Competition With Own Corporation

One who has become an officer and director of a business corporation may be enjoined from setting up a competing business in such a way as to imperil the success of the company. (New Jersey Court of Chancery, Hussong Dyeing Machine Company vs. Morris, 89 Atlantic Reporter 249.)

Conclusiveness of Bill of Lading

A recital in a bill of lading that the freight covered by it was apparently in good order when received by the railway company is not conclusive, and it is open to the company to show that it was in fact in bad order. (North Carolina Supreme Court, Lyon vs. Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, 81 Southeastern Reporter, 1.)

Duty to Warn Employe Against Danger

A furniture manufacturer owes a duty to warn inexperienced employes against recurrence of dangers which have arisen in the work, if he does not know of them, as where the treadle controlling the power of a machine had caught under passing trucks. (Michigan Supreme Court, Berkey vs. American Seating Company, 146 Northwestern Reporter, 247.)

Deduction for Defective Quality of Fixtures

A purchaser who claims a deduction from the price of fixtures, on account of their failure to come up to the requirements of the contract under which they were sold, has the burden of showing the extent to which he is entitled to a deduction. (Georgia Supreme Court, Muller vs. Ludlow-Taylor Wire Co., 81 Southeastern Reporter, 127.)

Rights Under Contracts of Apprenticeship

An apprentice, who was discharged for neglecting his duties because his employer refused to pay him larger

wages than were called for by the contract of apprenticeship, was not entitled to recover an additional daily allowance which the agreement called for in the event that he should perform his part of the contract for the full term of apprenticeship. (Michigan Supreme Court, Lepan vs. MacKinnon Boiler & Machine Company, 144 Northwestern Reporter 693.)

Authority of Shipper's Agent

When one authorizes another to ship property belonging to the former, he is bound by an agreement made by the latter with the carrying railway company that its liability, in case of loss of, or injury to, the shipment, shall be restricted to a stated amount less than the actual value of the shipment. (Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, Johnson vs. N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. Co., 104 Northeastern Reporter, 445.)

Individual Liability of Public Committee

A committee of citizens who contracted with a furniture manufacturer for use of furniture, etc., during a Confederate Reunion, the manufacturer knowing that the only funds available for payment were derived from popular subscriptions and a public appropriation, are not individually liable for a deficiency of funds to pay the agreed price of the service. (Arkansas Supreme Court, Little Rock Furniture Manufacturing Company vs. Kavanaugh, 164 Southwestern Reporter, 289.)

Effect of Orders for Goods

If a clause in a printed form for the order of goods, stating in effect that no representations have been made by the salesman except as noted in the order, is stricken out, it will be presumed that other representations have been made and the buyer will be permitted to show other statements. An order is not binding upon the seller until accepted by him, but the acceptance need not be signified in writing. (Indiana Appellate Court, King vs. Edward Thompson Company, 104 Northeastern Reporter 106.)

Remedy Against Buyer for Breach

When one who has contracted to buy goods which have been specifically identified announces in advance of shipment by the seller that he will not accept delivery of the same, on the terms agreed upon, the seller is entitled to hold the goods subject to the buyer's order and sue for the contract price, plus the cost of caring for the property, or he may sell the goods to the best advantage for the buyer's account and recover the excess of the agreed price over the contract price. (Wisconsin Supreme Court, Haueter vs. Marty, 145 Northwestern Reporter 775.)

Validity of Workmen's Compensation

The provisions of the Illinois Workmen's Compensation Act are not unconstitutional as amounting to class legislation. And, since the law is not compulsory against employers, they cannot assert that it is invalid because it provides for arbitration of disputes which ordinarily can be settled by the courts. Nor is the provision which requires an injured employe to submit to a physical examination to determine the nature and extent of his injuries unconstitutional as an invasion of personal rights. Finally, it is held that the provisions of the law which make a claim against an employer on account of an injury a preferred claim, and which limit the right to compromise such a claim invalid as abridging the constitutional right of liberty to contract. (Illinois Supreme Court, Deibeikis vs. Link Belt Company, 104 Northeastern Reporter 211.)

A FIRST LESSON IN PATTERN MAKING

Things to be Observed in Making Patterns---The Molder's Methods Must be Understood---The Use of Cores---When Castings Can be Used for Patterns

T

By JOHN W. WOLFENDEN,

Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Railway Shops, Nashville, Tenn.

HE purpose of this article is to elucidate some of the first principles of pattern-making that will serve as a "first aid" lesson to the planing mill wood-worker. Generally there are men employed by planing mills that are sufficiently capable of making plain patterns and numerous instances arise where a little knowledge of pattern-making will be very valuable to him, and will save considerable expense to the proprietor in not having to secure the services of a regular pattern-maker. It is therefore only necessary that he acquire a knowledge of these first principles to be able to make plain patterns. But, of course, when it comes to complicated patterns the proprietor should seek the services of a regular pattern-maker, for though he may have a first class cabinet-maker in his employ, on work of this class, he will most likely spend a great deal of time where it is not necessary, and the whole job will prove more costly in the end than if a pattern-maker did the work. This, I know from experience, as we receive a number of patterns that require nearly as much time to put them in shape so we can cast from them, as it would to make the whole thing if made by a patternmaker.

Some of my readers, among the class for which this article is especially written, might ask the question, why is it necessary to have patterns? That we may be understood, let it be known that we are considering patterns that are used by the molder to make molds for castings. Castings, as we all know, are made by molders in the foundry. This being true, the next question would be, how are they made? The definition of the word pattern, when related to foundry practice, given us in the dictionary, will most likely answer the question: "A pattern is a full size model, around which a mold of sand is made to receive the molten metal."

This definition

conveys the information that castings are made in molds, said molds made in sand, said sand packed around patterns to give the mold the desired shape. While the foregoing is the regular order, the reader must not get the impression that it is the only way, for in a great many cases, especially where thousands of small articles are made, they are molded in permanent molds where neither sand nor pattern is used, but the shape of the casting is imprinted in the substance forming the mold and means provided for opening the mold to get the casting

out.

An Old Art

The practice of making castings in sand has prevailed from time immemorial, and it looks very much like it will continue until time shall be no more. In making castings in sand it is necessary that some means be provided for shaping the mold in the sand that the molten metal entering same may assume the desired shape before returning to the solid state again.

a few things about foundry practice that will serve to construct for the mind an open pathway that will lead it more readily to a better understanding of pattern-making. As before stated, the common practice is to make castings in sand; the most common sand used is a fine sand called molding sand, and a coarse sand for making cores. The fine sand is used to bed the patterns in, the coarse sand for cores to make holes, cavities and recesses where necessary. There are other kinds of sand in use, but they belong to the more intricate work, and will not be considered in this article. The molding sand is fine, and of such a nature when tempered right by the molder that it will leave a nice, smooth mold when the pattern is withdrawn. (The tempering process is simply to add a sufficient amount of water and thoroughly mix.) We are all conversant with the fact that dry sand will not retain any shape into which it has been pressed, but a little water added imparts an adhesiveness that causes it to stick together until broken by some external force. The Important Consideration

The most important principle in pattern-making is to construct a pattern so it can be withdrawn from the sand without tearing up the mold. In ordinary foundry practice molds for castings are in two parts; the upper part called the cope, lower part drag. The flasks in which the sand is packed around the pattern are open frames of either metal or wood, and are provided with flask pins so that they always return to the same relative position with each other when removed and replaced. The mold in two parts is necessary on account of the fact that the pattern has to be drawn out to allow metal to fill its place.

The foregoing paragraph will answer the oft-repeated question of what becomes of the pattern when the metal runs in. It is not burned up, as some suppose, but has been removed before the mold was closed up for another or succeeding molds if more than one casting is wanted. It may be surprising to some to know that thousands of castings are made off one pattern, its life depending upon the treatment it receives at the hands of the molder. We have patterns in our pattern storage that long some of them last. They, of course, are only used were made during the Civil War and you can see how

occasionally.

The order in which the molder handles a pattern to make a mold from is to lay it down on follow board, having determined the side that goes next to the board, which side is up when mold is complete, then he places around the pattern on the board, the bottom or drag part of flask, with flask pin lugs next to board so that when the drag is rolled over the pin lugs will be up. The drag is then rammed full of sand around the pattern. After it is rammed full and struck off even with top of flask frame, the bottom board is then layed on. At this time we have the follow board on bottom, and bottom board on top of drag or lower part of flask. In this position they are clamped together and rolled over. The clamps are now removed, the follow board taken off, and we have the part of the pattern that was lying next to follow

I will take up a few of the jobs that are most likely to be met with and explain how to proceed with the patterns. However, before taking up the subject of patternmaking proper, will explain, for the benefit of those readers who do not understand anything about molding,

board exposed. The next step in order is to place on the top part or cope frame of flask-this part carries the flask pins which fit into holes made in drag. The cope is then rammed full of sand, at the same time a round stick is rammed up in this part to form, when removed, a hole through cope to allow the molten metal to enter mold. After the cope is rammed up it is lifted from drag, laid to one side until pattern can be removed from drag, and runners made from mold to point where gate or hole comes through from top. After this procedure the cope is replaced on top of drag, the two clamped together, and the mold is then ready for the metal to be poured in.

There are a few other necessary adjuncts well known to the molder in the foregoing procedure, but they will serve no purpose in this article and are therefore left out.

The reader, to understand how to make even plain patterns, should familiarize himself with the order in which molders proceed with their work.

The Use of the Core

As the use of cores is very little understood by the ordinary mechanic, I will explain their use in this connection, as this is one of the prime factors in patternmaking. The word core, when applied to foundry work, has a different meaning than when applied to other branches of mechanical art. That is, an understanding of the meaning of the term as applied to one does not convey an understanding of the same term as applied to another. We are all familiar with the word core when applied to the different fruits that have them, but when it comes to the mechanical arts we have to be informed as to its meaning. While the word core primarily means the center or central part of anything, in molding this is not the case, for often times there are more cores on the outside than in the center of a casing. But the term core as applied to foundry practice means a baked body of specially prepared sand, formed the desired shape by

some

means (most generally in a box whose internal shape conforms to external shape of core). This sand packed in said box while damp, is removed on drying plate and placed in oven for the baking process. Speaking of cores reminds me of a joke I played on an old fellow who was the floor sweeper in our shop a number of years ago. I happened to have a round core on my bench for some purpose at one time when he was near. I called him over to look at it. I picked it up and showing it to him, said: "Did you ever see any dynamite?" With wondering eyes, a grave look on his face, and a hushed voice, he said: "Is that dynamite?" He seemed very anxious to get away until I told him what it was.

Why the Sand is Coarser

The core sand is a much coarser sand than the molding sand, and has to be so on account of the gases that form when the molten metal surrounds the core. Being course, it forms, when packed in a core box, small minute air cells and passages which convey the gases to large vent holes made by the core-maker with a wire, said vent holes conveying the gases to outer edge of core where provisions are made to further convey it off through the mold between the upper and lower part of flask or some other more convenient place to atmosphere. Ordinary river sand is used in many foundries, but a coarser grade gives better results. Core sand when being prepared for core making is first sifted through a riddle to get out the gravel and other foreign substances. It is then mixed with some kind of an ingredient that will give it more adhesive power, causing the grains of sand to adhere to one another better. There are different things that might serve for this purpose. Until of late years common wheat flour was used to a great extent, but now various kinds of core compounds are extensively used. After the sand

C

has been prepared, it is placed in core box, packed in tight, vented properly, shook out on drying plate, and baked in oven as before stated. After the baking it can readily be handled without breaking. Deeming the foregoing relative to the making of cores to be sufficient, will take up their use.

How Cores Are Used

Cores are used to form holes, cavities and recesses in castings to conform to various designs, and to serve various purposes. The most closely associated thing to

core is its core print. Every core has its core print, which is necessary to locate, sustain and hold the cores in their proper place. When one contemplates making a pattern they should look the casting over carefully and see how the pattern can best be placed, which side up and which down, so that the cope or top part can be lifted off without tearing mold, and also see if the pattern can be drawn from lower part of drag without tearing up the sand in it. There are a great many instances where the casting can very easily be fixed so that it will serve as a pattern, even though it be broken in several pieces. It is a very easy matter for the molder to lay these pieces together in the mold and produce a whole casting.

The use of a casting to serve as a pattern can be determined by noting the shape and seeing if there are any projecting parts that preclude the possibility of the casting being drawn from the sand in any way without tearing it up. If there are projecting parts they might be easily removed by hammer and cold chisel or other means, and a loose wooden piece the right shape substituted and located in the right place by loose dowel pins. This allows the molder to ram them up in their proper place on pattern and remove the pins so that the main part of pattern will be free to move away from these loose parts, leaving them in the mold to be drawn in at proper angle after main parts of pattern has been lifted out. Or these projections could be covered entirely with a core print which should extend to top of pattern. A core box should then be made the size of this print and the projecting part made of wood placed inside in its proper place. All holes that have been drilled or tapped in casting that is to be used for pattern should be plugged with wood. Other holes, if having considerable taper in the right direction, can be left as they are. The casting should be filed up nicely to insure it slipping out of the sand.

Work for Flat Surfaces

In making a pattern or preparing a casting for use as a pattern, work with the idea in view of the greatest amount of flat surface being up in the mold unless there are other features in the shape that prevent it. There is no fixed rule relative to this, for it often happens that it is much easier to have least amount of flat surface up. The shape alone determines this. Imagine yourself bedding the pattern in the sand with top side exposed. Study the situation closely and see if there is anything that projects that would pull the sand up with it. Would like to correct some impressions that exist in the minds of some mechanics who know what pattern-making is, but know little of the character of the work. I have often had men ask me if I didn't have to be very particular to get the exact shape and size of the casting in the pattern. To this I would answer, in a certain sense, yes, and in a certain sense, no. We have to be particular about some things and others not so particular. There are very few instances where exact shape is required, and when the exact size is demanded, allowance is generally made for the casting to be finished in machine shop to exact size.

In pattern making, as in every other trade, the work

has its limits of variation. Would venture the assertion that the fine watch and instrument maker has his limits of variation. When it comes to exactness, it is something that is very hard to get. If the reader doubts this statement, would like for him to try and produce a perfect cube out of wood about 12 inches in size. This means that the sides must be perfectly square with the sides adjacent thereto, and that it must measure exactly the same between the six opposite sides, and the same across the corners. Don't depend upon your rule for these measurements, but get a pair of outside calipers and try across the sides. In squaring up, you obviously must have a perfect square, which is not often found. Hold up to the light and see if you can see any light under the blade. I am here reminded of a wager that I accepted from a friend some years back. He said he would buy me a hat if I would make a block that was perfectly square. He said it was impossible, as though there was something in nature that prevented it. I promptly refuted this and said I was satisfied I could make the block. After working on the job at odd times for some weeks, I finally succeeded in getting a block with all sides perfectly square with each other, but got tired of trying to get the block a perfect cube and gave it up. Pattern Makers Successes

The secret of the success of a great many patternmakers lies in their ability to discern between the particular and non-particular phases of their work. A great many pattern-makers waste a great deal of time fitting templets to different sides of castings they are making pattern for, when the exigencies of the case do not require it at all. A pattern that will very likely be among the first to be needed in a planing mill is one for a pulley bushing; these being subjected to constant wear, will have to be renewed in course of time. There are two ways of making a pattern for a bushing, the preferable way depending upon the size and length thereof. One is to split or make the pattern in halves along its central axis, having prints at each end to support central core, and cast it on its side. The other, making pattern solid with print at only one end and casting on end. These patterns can be turned up by the wood-turner.

After

Prepare pieces for turning patterns in halves by getting them out about 1/4 inch wider than size you wish to turn them, and half this width for thickness, and about 2 inches longer than length of pattern and prints (would here pause to say that length of prints for split pattern should be somewhere near their size in diameter, but pattern which is cast on end about half of their diameter will suffice for their length). Fasten these pieces together at their ends by some secure method. About the best means at your command will be by putting a screw at each end. Even up the ends of the two pieces thus screwed together and place in lathe with lathe centers coming in the point. This will give you, when the pattern is turned, two perfect semi-circular pieces. turning they should have holes bored and dowels placed at each end to keep the halves properly matched together. These dowels should be about the length of their diameter, having a rounded point, and should be loose enough to allow the two to be taken apart freely. Don't do as most of the inexperienced generally do-turn the pattern up out of a solid piece and take it to a band saw and split open. This takes out the thickness of saw cut and therefore makes it out of round, in addition to the most likely thing of getting off the central axis with the cut. A pattern thus made puts one-half in upper and one in lower part of flask. the parting line running through the center. This facilitates molding, and is the reason why it is so made. Let the reader understand that any num

ber of loose parts of the pattern can be either impressed in the lower or upper part of mold. Do not get the impression, however, that because they are loose in the pattern they will be loose in the casting. It will be like the Irishman's wasp, "You will find him all right in the end." All parts united. I get amused at men sometimes when they see a pattern for a certain casting that they have ordered a pattern for. As the old fellow says, "They get wool gathered." They want to know why this and why that, until you have to teach a few lessons in pattern making.

I would suggest that before you make a pattern for a bushing you consult the foundryman from whom you expect to get your casting. It might be possible he has what you want in his stock of patterns. Bushing patterns are very common in the foundry and all of them have a stock of various sizes on hand.

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