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ing complicated forms and showing strict economy in detail, with good proportion as the basis of the outline. After making the design in outline it should be transferred to the wood by means of a piece of carbon paper. There are several ways of obtaining effects in wood carving, each having their advantages and disadvantges, according to circumstances. Carved and pierced effect is obtained by cutting away the ground, leaving the pattern free. This method is invaluable in combining richness of effect with actual lightness of material. In pierced relief work the effect lies in the ordered spaces and interspaces. The principles that regulate piercing are constant. Thus, the pattern should be as distinct and clear as possible and to this end all oblique crossing and complicated details which tend to confuse should be carefully avoided. The pattern should be formal in character, not necessarily symmetrical, but well balanced. The edges of the pattern should be beveled at the back or rounded; this reduces the apparent thickness of the wood. When seen in certain positions, thick edges distort the lines. The example illustrated was used in a span-rail.

In some circumstances piercing is backed; the medallion illustrated is a specimen. The pierced pattern around the edge was sunk from the back thus:

to reduce the thickness and to throw dark shadows which increase the effect of the relief. This design

was based on the work of Early English period. The center is a reproduction of the fifteenth century Coat of Arms, and is cut from the solid, the ground being cut away, leaving the pattern in relief. This is the general method of obtaining effect in the solid. Relief in the solid can also be attained by "dishing out"—that is, the edge is hollowed as the circular piece decorated with the vine as motif. The grapes are executed in a very simple, flat manner, which is very suggestive and quite suitable for low relief.

Another example is shown cut from the solid in which the edges are cut square and the hop used as the motif. The modeling of the hops is quite in accordance with the treatment expected in wood with a coarse grain.

Another method employed to save expense which is not quite satisfactory, but which cannot be ignored altogether, is the fret-cut pattern which is applied to a ground and carved. The diamond with oak pattern is an example which is obviously stuck on. This applied appearance can be avoided by cutting out the ground and leaving a margin around the pattern, as shown in the upright rectangular vine panel. This would appear to most people as being cut from the solid. However, such subterfuges should not be resorted to except in a case of necessity. If the price paid for an article does not admit of carving from the solid, a plain space is more desirable in most instances than "stuck-on carving."

Carving should not be polished, but brushed in, leaving it dull, thus forming a pleasing contrast to the surrounding polished surface. Attempts to polish carving are generally unsatisfactory, as they leave it dirty and unfinished in appearance.

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sition. The saws were driven by an electric motor and produced fine boards, which could not have been made better by the finest steel saw. The veneers made in this way are said to be so smooth that the cabinet-makers can use them without further planing-Outlook.

TH

The Uses of Maple

HOUGH at one time in the early history of the country an average of six thousand maple trees were destroyed in clearing the ordinary New York or Pennsylvania farm, maple is today, according to the department of agriculture in one of its interesting tree bulletins, one of the most widely used and valuable native hardwoods. The wood finds place in an enormous number of articles in daily use, from rolling pins to pianos and organs. It is one of the best woods for flooring, and is always a favorite material for the floors of roller skating rinks and bowling alleys. It leads all other woods as a material for shoe lasts, the demand for which in Massachusetts alone exceeds 13,000,000 board feet annually.

Sugar maple stands near the top of the list of furniture woods in this country. The so-called "bird's-eye" effect, the department explains, is probably due to buds which for some reason can not force their way through the bark, but which remain just beneath it year after year. The young wood is disturbed each succeeding season by the presence of the bud and grows around it in fantastic forms, which are exposed when the saw cuts through the abnormal growth.

Maple, the bulletin goes on to say, is one of the chief woods used for agricultural implements and farm machinery, being so employed because of its strength and hardness. All kinds of wooden ware are made of maple, which holds important rank also in the manufacture of shuttles, spools and bobbins. It competes with black gum for first place in the manufacture of rollers of many kinds, from those employed in house moving to the less massive ones used on lawn mowers. Athletic goods, school supplies, brush backs, pulleys, type cases and crutches are a few of the other articles for which maple is in demand.

Seven species of maple grow in the United States, of which sugar maple, sometimes called hard maple, is the most important. The total cut of maple in the United States annually amounts to about one billion one hundred and fifty million feet.

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Varnishes in Germany

HE activity of German manufacturers of varnish and the development of the industry will make it difficult for American manufacturers to enter the German market under any circumstances, and particularly if they refrain from sending competent representatives of their own to this country. It is almost impossible to secure serious attention for manufactured products of any kind, particularly one of this kind, unless the intending exporter makes a personal effort to obtain business.

The German varnish industry began to develop about the middle of the last century and is now one of very large proportions. The manufacture of varnish includes two principal classes, in one of which are varnishes produced by dissolving resins in volatile solvents so that the coating of resin dries as soon as the solvent is volatilized, and in the other the resins are dissolved in oils, or more recently in benzine or similar substances, and fatty oils are used as a base instead of resin.— Robert P. Skinner, American Consul at Hamburg.

GERMAN COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS

How Associations for the Promotion of Trade and the Protection of Profits Are Organized in Germany and Encouraged and Supported by Government

G

ERMANY has two distinct classes of trade organizations-the official chambers of commerce and the independent, or free, associations. Although the constitution of the German Empire provides for federal regulation of trades and commerce and for federal legislation in all matters connected therewith, the German chambers of commerce are regulated by the various States comprising the German Empire and differ considerably in functions, authority, and constitution, according to a bulletin recently issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, at Washington.

There are a few more than 150 chambers of commerce in Germany, 90 in Prussia, 8 in Bavaria, 8 in Wurtemberg, 9 in Baden, 5 in Saxony, 7 in Hesse, 7 in AlsaceLorraine, and the remainder in other parts of the Empire. Practically the whole country is divided into chamber of commerce districts. The term chamber of commerce as used in Germany, however, does not mean the same as in this country. There is a difference in membership as applied to the right to vote and membership in the chamber of commerce proper. All firms capable of exercising the right of suffrage in the election of the chamber of commerce are members of the chamber of commerce organization, and they have the right to call upon the chamber of commerce for all its benefits, but only the elected members, a council consisting of a limited number, are called in Germany the chamber of commerce. Thus, while the chamber of commerce as an organization includes all the registered business men who pay a certain tax and have the right to vote, the term chamber of commerce in a stricter sense applies to what, in the United States, would be called the board of directors. The German chambers of commerce are not clubs in which membership may be obtained by paying a stated annual fee and they are not accessible to the larger membership, except in the course of business. In most States of Germany a special tax is levied on all firms registered in the district, and these have the right to vote for members of the chamber of commerce; in others the tax is based upon the income. Some States grant a government subsidy to chambers of commerce, which may be in the form of a fixed annual sum or the guaranty of part of the chamber's expenses. Thirty-three German chambers of commerce have buildings of their own.

Among the independent, or free, organizations are associations whose membership is recruited from specific industries; others combine a large number of trades; still others have been formed to combine all independent commercial organizations on a national basis. In all, there are about 600 independent associations in Germany, and the entire industrial system of the country is honeycombed with hundreds more of subsidiary organizations. These independent organizations closely resemble the commercial organizations of the United States in constitution and functions. There are, however, several features that at once impress the American observer, chief of which are the comparatively small income of the German organizations, the low salaries paid, and the subdivision of work among branch organizations. That an organization has only a small income does not argue that it is unimportant or uninfluential. Some German manufacturers' organizations of local or special character have no

need of an office or of a paid secretary. They meet in the chamber of commerce, and the secretary of the chamber gives part of his time, without compensation, to the actual business of the association. Again, the membership of some small manufacturers' association may comprise several men of the highest standing and influence who give their time freely and without remuneration to advance the common interests of the industry, and the expenditures may be for postage and incidentals only and give no accurate indication of the activities of the association.

How German organizations can secure the services of college graduates, in fact, of highly trained specialists, for salaries that would not satisfy the better grade of clerks in the United States, cannot be explained merely by the lower cost of living in Germany. The esteem and respect which attach to such a position, and, more than these, perhaps, the adequate arrangements for pensioning secretaries and other employes, and their families in case of death, may have something to do with the willingness of men of culture and experience to place their services at the disposal of commercial and manufacturers' organizations and chambers of commerce for salaries that to an American observer would appear inadequate.

The principal association in the German iron and steel trade has a secretarial force of only three men, but the conclusion that it is of small importance would be an egregious error, for it is one of the most important of this class in the Empire. The explanation of the small force lies in the wonderful subdivision of work among a mass of local organizations, each paying its own expenses, each attending to the details of the association's work in its district, so that the secretarial force of the central organization can limit its attention to correspondence and arrangements for the directors' meetings and annual conventions. Among 5,505 associations investigated, 5,204 were found to be without permanent business offices and 265 maintained permanent business organizations and offices of their own. Of these, only 151 employed a secretarial force giving the whole of its time to the activities of the associations, while 114 organizations availed themselves of the part-time services of secretaries affiliated with other organizations.

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The Seven Wonders

HE seven wonders of the world are:

The man who will work without being watched. A sales manager who doesn't think he pays the old man's salary.

A salesman who thinks that perhaps the quality of the material may have something to do with his making those large contracts.

A stenographer who knows punctuation, and will look in the dictionary when she is uncertain about the spelling.

A purchasing agent who doesn't think he does you a favor when he asks you to quote.

A new superintendent who will wait a week before installing a much better system than his predecessor's. A boss who acts as if he wasn't.

Equipment of the Sanders and the Preparation of the Stock---Some Things That Are Frequently Overlooked---The First of Two Articles on This Subject

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By A. B. MAINE

HE subject of sanding is so broad and so exhaustless that no attempt will be made in this series to consider the problem in its logical sequence from the time of the first sanding operation to the present day. The writer will endeavor, in a general way, to treat with the various phases of this topic that may be of interest to the furniture manufacturing industry today, without particular regard to the methods employed by past generations. Some, far too many, plants still employ methods that were used in the days of our great grandfathers, but the signs of the times indicate that these all will soon be discarded for better ways.

at the other end and only the finest material being sifted through. The sifted product is next passed through a series of vibrating separators, which determine the different sizes and extreme exactness and uniformity.

All kinds of sand and emery paper, and cloth are made in rolls as large as that used in the printing of a daily paper. The process is continuous to such an extent that while the paper is still coming from the roll at one end the finished product is being re-rolled at the other end. The first step in the process is the printing of the brand, which is done by passing through a roller press. The paper next dips into the glue, which is applied very hot, rubber buffers preventing its spreading to the other side of the paper. From this it passes under brushes which distribute the glue evenly. It next passes under a shower of grit desired, the surplus falling off by gravity at the first turn. A further application of a thin solution of glue gives an extra coating which thoroughly cements all the particles.

[graphic]

A. B. MAINE

The evolution of sanding machines has been so rapid in the past few years that a difficult problem is presented to the man who desires to put his plant on a truly efficient basis and for that reason machines will receive considerable mention in this series of articles. Forty years ago there were no sanding machines, and today their number is legion. Some are so similar that the writer often wonders why some manufacturers of these machines do not spend more time trying to evolve an absolutely new one rather than to find some little "improvement" that they can apply to another fellow's invention and claim that the new machine is the best on the market. The claim may be justified, but the chances are that the original producer would have perfected his machine to the same extent in a short time, and if the one who tried to bring out the other fellow's ideas in a new way had concentrated his energies towards the production of a radically different machine the probabilities are that mankind would have been the greater benefited. That for a gentle knock at the fellow who would recoil in anger if it was suggested that he rob a man at the point of a revolver, but who does not hesitate to rob by some infringement if he can get away with it. "Sandpaper" a Misnomer

In the general discussion of the sanding problem let us first take up the material and see how it is made. The term "sandpaper" is a misnomer, as sand is not used, the material itself being crushed flint rock, or quartz. Flint rock, when fractured, presents the sharpest edges procurable, whereas natural sand examined under a microscope will be found to have a rounded appearance, the cutting edges being considerably dulled by the action of wind and water. The "garnet" paper is made by the use of garnet ore, which is secured in the United States and abroad. It is not quite so sharp as flint rock, the particles fracturing at right angles, but the edges are more durable. In grinding the quartz, the material, in the form of large chunks, is first passed through crushers which are graduated to produce the desired grit. The material is then carried to the sifting rollers, which are in reality skeleton cylinders covered with fine bolting cloth. The material passes through the inside of these cylinders, which are placed at an angle, the large pieces passing out

Completing the Paper

From this the paper passes over a hot blast drier and is suspended in long loops, traveling slowly for a considerable distance, to be finally rolled into a finished state. If sheets are desired, they are cut by running the paper from the rolls through a cutter which drops them out, automatically counted, and delivered so that they may be easily assembled in quires and reams.

The cost of sanding in any plant is affected to no inconsiderable degree by the kind of material used, and the care taken to keep it in good shape and get the best results. Some concerns go on year in and year out using the same kind of paper and making no effort to find out whether or not they can reduce the cost by the purchase of other kinds. Naturally, if good results are being obtained with what is in use and the operators are taking kindly to its use, it would be folly to switch to another brand before its absolute value could be determined. Even by properly caring for the material that is liked, many dollars may be saved during the year.

Many Kinds

The various combinations of sandpaper are, apparently, as numerous as the sands of the sea. These combinations are caused by the somewhat different methods of making paper and the different materials that go into it, the innumerable substances used in glue, and the various methods of manufacturing. Experiments generally show that the lowest-priced product does not usually cost the least in the end. It has neither the wearing qualities nor the grit necessary for good work. In testing the product of one manufacturer against that of another, always bear in mind that the numbers/used by one may vary slightly from those used by another. For instance, one may make a "Number 1" that is as coarse as a "Number 112" made by someone else. So

you must make the grits identical to get a fair compari

son.

The writer once worked in a factory where the testing of this material was such a fixture that the operators learned that the best was none too good, and they were ever on the lookout for a lot that was not up to the standard. All paper not in use there was kept in a special store-room having a perfectly dry atmosphere and a temperature of 75 to 80 degrees. Thus the glue was not given a chance to absorb any moisture and the paper was kept in excellent condition. Rolls were stored on end rather than piled on each other horizontally. Spare belts were made up in advance and hung on pegs to be exchanged for old ones as necessity required.

Testing the Paper

When it comes to actual tests the strength and quality of the paper itself is first determined by tearing the paper from each edge. If it tears fairly straight in one direction it is of the kind known as cylinder and has the strength all in one direction, which is not an especially good quality. The best in paper for sanding products is what is known as "fourdriner." This will not tear straight from any direction since it has no grain, because the fibers are distributed in such a way that the strength is equal in each direction. Next a quantity of each of the kinds to be tested is taken from each roll, or package, and kept in the store-room for several days, until it is reasonably certain that all are in the same condition. They are then given the bending test. When bent, the paper should give a snapping sound and when bent sharply the particles should not, to any extent, loosen and drop off.

Some of each of the pieces are placed in a moisture box, made for just this purpose. While these pieces are in the dampness the work of trying out the dry ones goes on. Several blocks of the same kind of wood, which have been thoroughly dried in the kiln and planed, are fastened to a bench pitched to a sharp angle. The pieces of paper are fastened to small heads at the end of rods operated from the same crank. These heads drop over the pieces of wood and the machine is started. The incline of the bench allows the sand dust to drop off, and the pressure of each of the heads is the same. Thus it will be seen that the paper gets uniform work.

An examination is made at various intervals and the time that it takes to wear down to the paper itself is noted. Then a test is made on the same machine by rubbing two pieces of different makes together. The same brand usually shows most favorable under both these rubbing tests. The same process is gone through with the pieces that have been in the moisture box but

material and the other half of the other. Naturally both parts get the same work and an examination tells which is wearing the better.

This is the first of the articles on this subject by Mr. Maine. next one will appear in the July number.

P

Belonging to an Organization

The

LENTY of manufacturers have had trouble with the fake advertising solicitor or the real advertising solicitor for the advertising fake. That evil, like the evil of the little bunch of tickets to the Hod Carriers' ball (costing only $5), is always with them.

Another great abuse; it is the abuse of the jobbers' catalog. There are jobbers' catalogs which may justly claim that pages here and pages there in their eightpound volumes are worth the money, provided the price per page is not too high; but usually (as I don't hesitate to say) the price is far too high. And now and then it happens that the publisher of the jobbers' catalog, who may possibly be the jobber himself, tries to coerce the manufacturer into taking "advertising space" in that big book of his. The moment force is used, or is attempted to be used, then the proposition becomes thoroughly bad, and if the manufacturer thinks that he cannot, single-handed, resist this appeal, then he is indeed much to be pitied; he is about to be knocked down and dragged out and robbed. I have known of sums as high as $500 to be demanded, and sums as large as $250 to be returned, the sum of $500 then to be demanded still more boldly than before.

But the case of the manufacturer is not entirely hopeless if he belongs to a sufficiently strong organization in his industry. He can appeal to that, and if the members of that organization are only sufficiently sincere in going. after palpable abuses and in passing resolutions to the effect that they will certainly do it in concert, then the rest is easy. Your hold-up artist hesitates to go against the whole crowd. He has done it in times past, it is true, but where a group of honest, determined and decent men in an industry really conclude to oppose him cooperatively, he cannot last long.

This, by the way, is a hint, not intended to be especially gentle, to those benighted individuals, now adorning the manufacturer group in this country by being members of it, who can't see that there is any reason why they should become members of the organization in their industry. If they live long enough and continue in business, and if they ever take the time to read anything, they will find out in time that there was something after all in that fine old fable of the bundle of sticks.How.

in addition an examination is made to see how the glue Can You Do a Thing After Being Told Once?

has withstood the dampness.

Keeping the Tests of Papers

As before stated, the operators are watching for any falling off in quality, and if a complaint is made that a lot is not up to standard the tests are immediately made. Since records are kept of all tests, it can readily be seen that these examinations result in the selection of the best kind of paper for the several requirements. These same tests apply to cloth. The process of testing may seem foolish to many, but in one instance it was estimated that it cut down the sanding costs 8.1 per cent in one year, or at least was influential in producing this saving. It was in the factory of the Phoenix Chair Company that the writer learned a wrinkle that was new to him when it came to testing material used in making belts. There, when they want to test one make against another, they make up a belt in two equal parts, one half of one

Τ

HE employe who does a thing cheerfully and alertly after being told once is the employe who gets our money most cheerfully. He is the employe that we want to stick with us. He is the one that we are afraid will leave us because some other firm has offered him a larger salary.

We can easily fill the place of any other kind of an employe in our store, but we cannot easily fill his. If he should leave us it would put a temporary crimp in the business and a temporary crimp in our peace of mind, and we are not fond of temporary crimps. So we will keep our eye on this employe and for safety's sake keep his wages up to the limit of possibility. For he is the most profitable employe we have on our pay roll.

So, here's to him-to the employe who does a thing cheerfully and alertly after being told once. He is a genius.-Hardware Trade.

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