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Don't Take Chances With Glue Joints

Possibly an expert could make a good glue joint on a hand jointer. But could he make a hundred uniformly good joints?

Few users of glue joints think so.

Many high-class furniture manufacturers have proved the Berlin Continuous Feed Glue Jointer to be practical assurance of uniformly good, solid joints. Besides, it produces far more economically than hand jointers. Use the Berlin No. 213 Glue Jointer. It takes no chances.

The Berlin "213" Continuous Feed Glue Jointer is simple in design and operation. Put

any

two of your average workmen on it. They will easily joint as much stock as six men on hand jointers in the same time.

And every joint will be smooth, absolutely uniform. Berlin formed bits in special glue jointer heads, and the firm manner in which stock is carried through the machine by the endless feeding chain assures that.

The tilting head yokes, bed adjustment and the variety of formed bits possible will enable you to make straight, hollow, bevel or practically any style of glue joint. Investigation will prove to you the surprising flexibility of this machine. Several pieces of thin stock may be jointed at one time.

If the Berlin "213" Continuous Feed Glue Jointer will reduce the cost and improve the quality of your jointing, isn't it to your interests to thoroughly investigate its possibilities.

Mail us a card request for complete data

THE BERLIN MACHINE WORKS, Beloit, Wis.

Largest Manufacturers of Woodworking Machinery in the World

CANADIAN PLANT, WITH OFFICES

HAMILTON, ONTARIO

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THE THREE TYPES OF MANAGEMENT The Strenuous or Rule-of-Thumb Management---Man Who Works But Does Not Plan and Lead---First of a Series of Three Articles Under This Title By E. ST. ELMO LEWIS

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Vice President and Advertising Manager, Burroughs Adding Machine Company.

T IS important for us to recognize in the very beginning of any consideration of the question of costs, that a cost system does not unfold itself as a logical consequence of starting a business with a bookkeeping department. A cost department is an entirely different unit. A cost system is not based upon the pre-determined scheme of things which flow from one to another in an inevitable and logical sequence. A cost system is the reflection of a man's mind, of his manner of thought, of his education, of his sympathy, of his training and experience, of his ability to manage, to analyze, to synthesize, to coördinate, to harmonize, to grasp things in detail and in the large. We understand that cost keeping at its best is an efficient method of determining exactly what time, work and material is put into the production of any marketable energy, commodity

purpose of any cost-keeping system is to find measures for many things that can be measured by the ordinary bookkeeping processes, or by the mere senses of careful foremen, and thereby arrive at standards of usefulness

E. ST. ELMO LEWIS

or service. Do not make the mistake of thinking that manufacturing is limited to things that you can weigh on scales or measure with a foot-rule. The electric light company manufactures a product as well as the automobile manufacturer. The railroad company manufactures a product as well as the sugar refinery. The banker manufactures a product as well as the hat manufacturer. The department store manufactures a product, and so does the doctor, the lawyer and the advertising manager.

The mere fact that in some of these a definite standard of measurement has not been obtained, does not preIclude the idea that their work can and must be measured and its value approximated. Therefore, no man should adopt the attitude that they can't be measured. Some people think that advertising can't be measured. This is not because it can't be measured-it is because their education, their experience, has not progressed far enough to give them the ability to measure it. The savage seeing the lightning in the sky would probably find it impossible to imagine that the electric fluid could ever be measured, but it is being measured. The main

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and value and determine relative costs of production for guidance in forming policies.

If a cost system is a reflection of a man's mind, or of the minds of a number of men, it becomes very important to find out what kind of men they are.

There are three fundamental types of men in the world. There is the strenuous type, the systematic type and the efficient type. These types fall into divisions, determined by the methods they use and all of their mental and physical equipment. All these types are reflected in cost keeping systems. The strenuous man, for instance, is the hardworking type. He may be called the "sweat" type. His philosophy in life is embodied in "Do it now." He is a doer worker of muscular type. We have had thousands of them in our factories as managers. They are busy-busy-ness is business with them. They are the men who get down to the office at six o'clock in the morning and work until ten o'clock at night. They never think of the factory hygiene, of lighting, of plant planning, of functionalizing, of standards, of education. Their ideal is hard work. They take literally the proposition that man must gain his livelihood by the sweat of his brow. When everybody worked that way, of course, strenuosity was the order of the day. It didn't make any difference-the world was on a sweat basis. Then the man who was the most strenuous made the most money in feeding a hungry market. It was brute force-physical stamina-that won. One unskilled laborer was as good as any other unskilled laborer. But when skill came into competition with the man at the bench; when brains, forethought, planning and thinking came into competition with the strenuous manager, then came the demand for protec

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tion from without, and the outcry against competition. The purely strenuous type can be seen in a bookkeeper who works hard, who is loyal, but who fusses and fiddles over things, but the rule-of-thumb or strenuous man is the type that believes if he lowers his cost each month or each year, he has gained highest efficiency.

He maintains that his business is different from any other business. He thinks the only thing worth taking from anybody else is to steal a patent, or to steal a man who has shown that he can do more than anybody else. The rule-of-thumb man says, "Each man is different," that "You can't teach salesmen," that this man who is doing things so successfully has an unusual faculty possessed by nobody else.

His apprentices "learn by doing" (the good and the bad things); he hasn't any school of workmen (they already know). A school for teaching salesmanship would make him laugh-and yet he is buying his cash registers, his adding machines, his insurance policies and his loose-leaf devices, if he has any, from salesmen who have been taught in schools how to sell the product to just such a man as he.

The rule-of-thumb man never joins business organizations except to be a good fellow-he never makes a research to find out new things-he calls it "high brow theory." You can't tell the rule-of-thumb man anything, because you can't tell any man anything that he doesn't know.

The rule-of-thumb farmer plants by the almanac and reaps by the grace of God.

The rule-of-thumb mechanic has learned his good and bad methods by the side of an older mechanic, who learned his good and bad methods from another. Each loses a certain amount of efficiency in the process of learning. He doesn't study trigonometry or geometry. He doesn't care anything about such "high-brow stuff," but he is a loyal member of his organization and talks against capitalists "who don't do anything."

The rule-of-thumb employer cares nothing for coöperation. He sees nothing but competition. The only kind of organization he wants to belong to is an anti-union organization. He is an anti-laborer; he believes that you have to use the big stick, that you have to drive men instead of lead them because, "Well, you see, that's the way it always has been done, and my father did it that way."

The rule-of-thumb banker, the rule-of-thumb retailerall of them have ingrowing businesses because their education has never gone beyond the confines of their own particular experience.

They can imitate, but they can't adapt.

They don't really think about their business-they only think about the dollars and cents.

They don't think about men, but they think about machines.

Their costs are necessarily nothing but approximations, more or less distant, of an ideal set by the men who have worked under different conditions of a more or less distant past.

In such a plant you see "Do It Now" signs all over the place. In such places salaries are raised by the time clock and calendar. Such a manager has no methods of measuring men's efficiencies because he doesn't know what those efficiencies are.

His ideal of a cost system is a crude method by which the piece workers can be prevented from getting more than he thinks they are worth. He says no laborer is worth more than $2 a day because that's all he has ever paid, and he is perfectly satisfied if a salesman increases his business 10 per cent. a year in his territory. If his competitor lowers prices, he wonders where his competi

tors "steal" the raw material. "How long can he continue to lose money?" It never occurs to him that a man can beat him at his own game and make a fortune in the process.

He doesn't analyze his business and its possibilities to find out the real reason for his success or failure. He hasn't time. He is "too busy doing things.”

In the hiring of people, his ideal is to "try them outsee what they can do." The try and fail method is a gospel to him. He solemnly asserts that "you can't tell what any man is able to do." That other concerns are foretelling and finding out what types of men are necessary for certain jobs, are pre-determining what men will fit the jobs and then getting the men to fit the jobs, is a joke to him.

Of course, you can't tell him anything about it because he doesn't know anything about it.

He doesn't know anything about the idea because he has never seen it at work. If he did see it, he would probably dismiss it with "The employment manager was better than usual;" but as for finding law or principle in any course of action, he dismisses it with-"It is the man who is doing the work, and the man who is getting the results."

The rule-of-thumb manager prides himself upon "knowing his business." He never thinks of using outside counsel. If a man would suggest to this type of mind that there is a better way in which to grind a valve, his first question would be, "How many valves have you ground?" In other words, his attitude of mind is of the man looking in the mirror when he is looking for all the reason for success.

It is a type of mind of which we have had entirely too many, and which competition and the efficiency of skilled minds, applied to skilled work, is gradually forcing out of American business. These rule-of-thumb managers act as the priests of old, adopting a precedent as a sacred flame which has passed from hand to hand, from generation to generation, each keeping it inviolate, never changing it, until it becomes a sacred tradition before which youth, and skill and brains and power must bow in submission. The rule-of-thumb manager is always liability and never an asset. He may be popular, he may have succeeded, he may be succeeding, but just as inevitably as the sun rises, his day is done.

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Some Brass Bed Price Figures

BRASS bed manufacturer, going over the situation in his branch of trade the other day, voiced these facts and figures: "A brass bed manufacturer who makes 15 per cent. profit over and above his cost of labor and material and overhead charges is doing well, but few do this. There is a popular bed that nobody can produce for less than $7.50, by any effort, whatever the labor conditions, whatever the fluctuations in material. no not even if a manufacturer could steal his mounts. This $7.50 bed that costs that much to make, has been in some cases sold to dealers at $6.25, and thereafter sold by the retailers at $5.98."

"This must have been a leader, and a lot of profitable goods necessarily included in the order."

"Not at all. I admit that a big quantity of beds some time ago was bought by a dealer to close out a local stock, and some of it consisted of the pattern of bed I speak of. But I know of other instances where the price was met by other houses. And the price on this design is not an isolated case. There are others nearly as bad. You can figure out the end for yourself. It reminds one of the tailor who marked down all his big stock, each piece at a loss. When ruin was anticipated for him, he replied that it was all right. His profit would come from

his large sales. The brass bed situation would seem to be approaching a like condition."-Furniture Trade Review.

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"Safety First

VERY time the clock ticks sixteen times a workman somewhere in the United States is hurt in an accident which a proper supervision of industry, coupled with intelligence, would prevent. Every quarter of an hour a workman is killed. The continuous toll of the shops, mills and railroads in maimed and dying exceeds each year the total blood cost of the Civil War; it strikes into the life blood of one inhabitant in fifty and one worker in ten.

If it happened in one place at one time, humanity would be staggered. Because it is scattered, continuous and familiar it is tolerated, and the one who tolerates it the most is the one most concerned-the workman himself.

"Safety First" has become a national slogan. State after state has passed safety and compensation laws in the hope of reducing accidents. Other states are preparing such statutes, and even our National Government has considered the advisability of enacting safety regulations. The manufacturer, as a rule, is in sympathy with the safety movement, and installs all the necessary devices and machines for the protection of his employes. Then the man supposed to receive the benefit-the worker- is the first to break down the barriers of safety.

In the wood-working field, for instance, the operators of saws, buzz planers, or other machines equipped with guards, think that these devices retard progress and, especially if they be on piece-work, they immediately place the dollar above the life and slip the guards aside whenever possible. Or, if the operator be an experienced one, he looks with contempt on the safety guard as a contrivance for the novice. He has worked on the machine too long to get into trouble; why, it is a part of him, is the way he reasons until some day when in an instance of neglect he gets caught, and immediately places the blame for the accident on the employer.

It is one thing to install safety devices and another thing to get them used by the prejudiced employe. They should be used whenever there is the least opportunity, and if the operator neglects to use them after being warned to do so, there remains but one thing to be done -get a new man for that work. Stringent method to be sure, but it has to be used very few times before its effect is felt throughout the plant.

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Who Foots the Advertising Bills? OT I," says the Advertising Manufacturer. "My business can be run more economically than a little one-advertising makes business bigger and pays for itself out of saving in running and selling expense."

"Not I," says the Salesman. "I can sell more goods at the same expense to the house, therefore pay the house more profit and can earn more money myself."

"Not I," says the Storekeeper. "Advertising prevents dead stock failures-familiarizes my customers with the goods and makes quick, easy sales."

"Not I," says the Customer. "I find that I can buy advertised goods to better advantage than non-advertised goods."

"Not I," says Quality. "It costs more in advertising to get a customer to buy an advertised article the first time than the profit on it. The success of the manufacturer depends on the customer continuing to buy the article, and it must be right."

"I foot the bill," says Everybody and Nobody-"I,"

says Everybody, "because we all bear our share in earning the money by which business is carried on"-"I,” says Nobody-"because advertising is a labor-saving, money-saving method of selling goods and its cost is absorbed in the economical results it effects."

Chips and Shavings

THIS country employs labor-saving machinery to a greater extent than any other, yet laboring men and mechanics here get better wages and work steadier than in any other country.

WHAT Would you fellows who complain of the difficulty of sanding 1/20th face veneer say to the idea of sanding off the surface of face veneer 1/100th? That is what is done sometimes in the cigar box lumber trade.

CLIMBING over a pile of sawdust and shavings may not be much of a job, but it is not a much greater one to clean it up. Climbing over, however, is exertion doubly wasted, while cleaning up is a good job well done.

ENGLAND now has a process for fireproofing wood that is said to leave it still in good shape for cabinet work and natural finish. The report about it reads good till we come to the part that says it costs 73 to 85 cents per cubic foot.

BRITISH HONDURAS is one of our Southern neighbor countries in which effective advertising can be done in English, for a majority of people either speak English or read it. It is only a matter of time till more of these Southern countries will learn to read and appreciate advertising done in English, and then it will be easier all around.

FOR the twelve months ending with last December our total imports were $1,792,183,645 against $1,818,073,055 in 1912. The exports were $2,284,311,176 in 1913, against $2,399,217,993 in 1912. This is a splendid showing of exports. One unfortunate feature about it is, it consisted of $91,798,610 in gold, which is practically twice the amount of gold exported the previous year. Our imports of gold for the same period were only $63,704,832.

IF INSURANCE has to be carried at all (and it looks like throwing money away not to carry it) it is best to get it at once, for you do not know when the fire fiend will take a notion to visit you. In other words, get ready for a fire when there is no fire. The insurance people never relax their vigilance, as one often finds to his discomfort. One sometimes doubts the wisdom of having insurance, once he has the details of prevention according to the insurance requirements. If all would take the same care of plants as individuals as they are compelled to do as possible beneficiaries of an insurance company, there would be less fires and less expense. It is an axiom that insurance is a necessary part of every business.

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A Plea for the Railways

UT it must be a cardinal principle in dealing with honestly built and wisely managed railways that the investor, the shareholder, is just as much entitled to protection as is the wage-earner, the shipper, or the representatives of the general public. Unless the investor finds that he is to get a fair return on his money, he will not invest, and in such case not only will no new railways be built, but existing railways will not be able to repair the waste, the wear and tear, to which they are subject, and will not be able to make needed improvements. All governmental action, whether by legislature or the executive, should be conditioned by keeping in view this fact.-The Outlook.

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