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and force the needle back and out at the top. Do not, under any circumstances, include a coil of the springs or the tying twine in one of these stitches. Stitch around the entire seat with stitches three or four inches long. Remove the slip tacks and add any needed stuffing to the edge formed by stitching. This makes a sort of roll around the entire seat, though it should be kept lower at the back than at the front. Keep this roll leaning out slightly at the top and tack the burlap permanently to the rails. Start from the middle of each rail in tacking and leave all corners until last, when they may be filled out with added stuffing, which is pushed into place with the regulator.
More stuffing is placed over this second burlap and rounded higher toward the center and front of the seat. Over this a layer of cotton should be spread and brought down and tucked under the edges of the stuffing. This is followed by a covering of heavy muslin, the edges of which are also folded under the stuffing. The muslin is then slip tacked to the back, stretched very tight, and slip tacked to the front and sides. Now remove the slip tacks at the back and regulate the edge, after which tack securely to the frame in the rabbet. On some chairs it is necessary to tack this to the top of the rail, as the rabbet is not deep enough to hold the covering and gimp when the muslin is tacked there also. When regulating edges, never put additional stuffing over the other stuffing, but push it in from behind or under the stuffing already in place. When the back edge is properly shaped and tacked, proceed with the front and side edges in turn, leaving corners, as before, until last. Cut a slit in the muslin so that it will open around the back leg and tack all corners. Do any final regulating at this
The tapestry or denim covering is applied in the same manner as the muslin. First slip tack at back and stretch to the front and slip tack there. Then slip tack the sides. This cover should be put on as firmly as possible and must have its threads running square with the seat. Stretch the cover down, smoothing out any wrinkles, removing the slip tacks to do this if necessary. When all is in position, tack with small tacks. The front corners should be carefully folded in and the back corners slit for the back post, and folded. The tacks used should be kept in a straight line so that they may be easily covered with the gimp. Trim off carefully close into the corner of the rabbet.
Space off and mark with chalk the points at which the tacks for the gimp are to be placed. Starting at the back post put gimp entirely around the left side, front and right side of the seat. Tack with small gimp tacks. Put another strip of gimp on the back rail.
Turn the chair bottom side up and cover the bottom, over the webbing, with black cambric, folding under the edges and tacking with very small tacks. This completes the upholstering. If directions have been carefully followed, an easy, durable seat should be the result.
E HAD something to say recently about the drastic coöperative methods-and the quite necessary and proper methods-adopted by the allied textile manufacturers to eradicate some of the graft in the sale and purchase of supplies. Andrew Adie, president of the United States Worsted Company, indicates in his annual report to the stockholders of that corporation that he has found the way practically to apply one of the remedies in his own works. He says: "As a result of our new investigations, and of the introducing of new methods in the purchasing of dye
stuffs, etc., the cost of dyeing and finishing has been reduced to at least 33 1-3 per cent. on dyestuffs alone. "In connection with this particular matter, we have sent out letters, and a form of agreement which has met with the approval of the largest dyestuff concerns, and the same has been executed. This agreement reads as follows:
"In consideration that the United States Worsted Company has given and intends to give some portion of its business to us, we hereby agree to pay to the said company the sum of five thousand dollars ($5,000), as liquidated damages, if any person directly or indirectly in our employ shall offer to give to any employe of said United States Worsted Company any gratuity, gift or present, with intent of influencing the action of such employe in relation to the business of said company.
"We further agree that our employes shall be notified forthwith that no such gratuities, gifts or presents are permitted, and that we have bound ourselves in the sum above mentioned to answer in damages for any such offer or gift by them. "Dated this.
"I am glad to report," Mr. Adie concludes, "that the quality and production now being turned out in the finishing and dyeing departments is good and the goods are being well received by the trade."-How.
The Furniture Exhibit at Panama
VERY variety of furniture manufactured in every part of the world will be exhibited at the PanamaPacific International Exposition, to be held in San Francisco in 1915, on a more extensive and complete scale than at any other exposition. These displays will include furniture used in the home, in the office, in the garden, in the theater and aboard ship. So complete will be these displays of furniture that it has been found necessary to divide them in the classification between five of the magnificent exhibit palaces of the exposition in order that every variety may be seen in the proper relation to its particular function.
The palaces to contain furniture exhibits will be those of Varied Industries, Transportation, Horticulture, Liberal Arts and Agriculture.
In the spacious Palace of Varied Industries there will be displays of fixed furniture used in buildings and dwellings and of all kinds of office and home furniture. Metal beds and gas fixtures also will be included with the exhibits in this palace and covering materials for furniture such as silks, cottons, and leathers also will be shown. Small fancy furniture will be shown with these exhibits.
Naval furniture as well as all varieties of ships' furniture will be exhibited in the Palace of Transportation. There will be an assortment of garden furniture such as chairs and specially designed seats shown in the Palace of Horticulture. In the Palace of Liberal Arts, furniture manufactured specially for theaters will be displayed.
Furniture for stables, barns and kennels will be exhibited in every variety in the Palace of Agriculture. In this palace there also will be shown every kind of wood used in the making of furniture so that the exposition visitor may gain a comprehensive idea of the material as well as of the finished product.
Construction of these exhibit palaces which are to contain furniture displays is progressing rapidly. The Palace of Varied Industries is nearly completed and all of the others are well under way. In fact, the rapid construction work on all of the exhibit palaces now assures the fulfillment of the early promise that the exhibit palaces will be completed and ready to receive exhibits by July 1, 1914, leaving eight months for the installation of exhibits before the opening of the exposition on February 20, 1915.
Being Used Successfully by Some Manufacturers and Have Advantages--Limitations Discussed---Merits and Demerits---How to Handle Successfully By EDWIN MAX BENNETT
Fate handed us the animal glues first, and we are only just getting so we can apply them with a fair degree of knowledge, so why should we marvel if the first applications of a new product did not result satisfactorily? Had the vegetable glue been discovered first the probabilities are that we would have been just as slow in recognizing the value of the animal product when it did arrive.
Perfection, in any line, is not attained in a day, and the vegetable glue proposition has proved no exception to this rule. There is no doubt in the minds of any one but what the producers of these glues have had, and will continue to have, disappointments in their attempts to attain absolute perfection in all applications. When all is said, however, the fact is that when this glue is applied in an intelligent manner to those operations recommended to its use, just as good and in some instances more satisfactory results are obtained than if the animal glue were being used.
The writer does not profess to know who first discovered vegetable glue, but he believes its practical demonstration came at an opportune time for the demands of the remanufacturers of lumber. The fast decreasing herds of cattle caused a shortage in the raw material from which animal glue is made, and as the ranges are settled the shortage is bound to become greater. Then, too, the growing scarcity of high grade solid lumber and the resulting increase in price has compelled a tremendous consumption of veneers, and their many advantages, besides that of economy, insure an increased demand for built-up stock, and so for glue. Therefore the fact that some substitute was found for animal glue will no doubt influence the use of veneers and the price of the finished products.
It is one of the peculiar characteristics of vegetable glue that it seems especially adapted for built-up stock and veneer laying. The writer knows of desk, case goods, kitchen cabinet manufacturers and others who make furniture of national reputation, to say nothing of manufacturers of flush veneered doors, who state that by the use of the last discovered product they have reduced their glue costs from 15 to 40 per cent. while making the same or a better quality of goods.
Cost reduction is only one of the advantages attending the use of this product. It is practically odorless, and since it is applied cold, the workman appreciates the absence of heat in its application. Of further interest is the fact that it does not sour on standing and so cause waste. The glue joint once made is said to improve with age, and heat seems not to affect it in any way. This last named quality does away with blisters if the glue is properly applied. The users of vegetable glues made
by reliable manufacturers find that the product runs uniform and they have to pay no attention to changing from one shipment to the next. In manufacturing it is claimed that the processes can be controlled more accurately than even the consumers' conditions of use and the stock to which it is applied. Every batch is brought to a specific standard in the making. When finished it is critically examined and subjected to trial before stocking for shipment. With such care on the part of the manufacturers, who realize that they have a reputation to make and sustain, it is not surprising that the product is making rapid inroads into the field once held solely by the animal glue manufacturers.
The furniture manufacturer, especially the one who makes his own veneered stock, will do well to investigate the merits of this product. He should, however, bear in mind the fact that he cannot buy a quantity and spread it as he has been spreading the glues he has been in the habit of using, but he must accept the coöperation of willing manufacturers who are glad to demonstrate how it is best applied. They gained their knowledge after many vicissitudes of fortune, and the probabilities are that with their specializing they will eventually bring their product to the point where it will be in even greater demand than is the glue that was first discovered.
Are Furniture Styles Changing?
PECIAL cable dispatches from Paris to New York papers state that Karl Freund, a New York antiquary just arrived, gives it out that an American style will be the outcome of an adaptation of certain features of two or more of the best seventeenth and eighteenth century styles which may easily be brought into graceful harmony, and that cultivation of this style "will take the place of the frightful disorder in internal furnishings prevalent in America for several years. The rage of rich men for antique furniture will soon be replaced by patronage of this American style." This comes under the head of "important if true." If Mr. Freund has private information, it is too bad he cannot particularize. There are no signs of all this visible to the naked eye of the ordinary observer of furnishings in America. But let us speculate on what may be possible. All will doubtless agree that the Mission style will make the strongest practical basis for an American style if we are to have one. Then let us see-seventeenth and eighteenth century. This would take in the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, as well as the Louis XIV. There might be a good chance of expert designers harmonizing the Mission, Elizabethan and Jacobean and bringing something distinctive out of it. Perhaps this is what Mr. Freund has in mind and perhaps it is furthest from his thoughts. Meantime the Mission, Craftsman, Arts and Crafts, Craftstyle furniture-all along the same lines continues to hold its own. fication of two years ago failed. so radically different might Review.
The "Flanders" ampliPerhaps something not succeed.-Carpet Trade
Necessary Machinery for a Well Equipped, Efficient Furniture Factory--Place of Different Machines in Factory Organization ---Second Article
By ALEXANDER T. DEINZER
EFORE satisfactory results can be obtained when sanding, it is necessary that the wood be properly surfaced. For this purpose cabinet planers and scraper are used. The knives on a cabinet planer should be ground to a bevel exactly suited to the kind and condition of wood being worked and should be kept at the cutting condition at all times by means of jointing. Modern machines have setting and grinding devices right on the machine. There are some very good cabinet planers on the market and it is to every furniture manufacturer's interest to purchase a good tool.
In our discussion of modern machines we must not forget the wood scraper. In preparing flat hardwood surfaces for the final finishing which, even under the most improved conditions, always requires a certain amount of manual effort, the vital point toward the reduction of cost is to reduce the hand labor to a minimum.
Handwork has become so expensive today that the manufacturer aims to produce quality equal to the best and most painstaking hand effort, and to do it in the least time that it can be done.
The wood scraping machine effects on a large scale what the cabinet-maker in finishing hardwood accomplishes with his hand scraper. The knife in a wood scraping machine is whetted sharp and the edge turned by passing a piece of hard steel along the sharp edge with sufficient pressure to turn the edge so that it will project about at right angles to the scraping plate.
A wood scraping machine equipped with this kind of a knife reduces to a mechanical performance an operation usually entrusted to experienced cabinet-makers, of skill and good judgment. It performs its work so that one of the most important and costly processes connected with fine finishing of flat hardwood is effected perfectly and in a fraction of the time formerly expended on this part of the work.
How the Knives are Held
The scraper knife in a wood scraping machine is held stationary in a cast iron knife stock, above the surface of which it slightly projects. Over this projecting edge the work to be scraped is passed at a speed of from 80 to 120 feet per minute, resulting in the removal of a continuous shaving which may be as thin as tissue or heavier than the thickest wrapping paper. Thus the machine does at one broad sweep what hand scraping could only accomplish by a multitude of short strokes; moreover, wood that has been passed through the wood scraping machine excels in beauty of appearance. The grain is brought out clearly and sharply in all its natural effect, without scratching, scoring, or marring the surface, tearing up the grain, rounding the edges, breaking down the ends.
The scraping machine has demonstrated to many furniture manufacturers that it is a money-saver and a profitable as well as an economical machine to operate. Flat veneered, as well as solid work, can be scraped on this machine and there is no operation that brings out the beauty of the grain and the figures as well as the scraping machine.
I have noticed that some of the panel factories have also equipped the scraper with toothing knives which they
use for roughing up cores for the foundation of the panel work and the veneers can be laid and glued to the best advantage.
As the scraping machine finishes or scrapes the material at the rate of 75 feet per minute, the daily output of the machine is much larger than that from any other finishing machine.
The furniture manufacturer not employing a scraping machine in his work does not appreciate what he has missed. A good scraping machine, when once installed, becomes indispensable. I have endeavored to show in actual figures the time a scraping machine will save. It will do more than save time, it will also save paper at the triple drum sander, and it can also be used to good advantage in making wide glue joints.
The manufacturer who installed his machines five years ago and has made no improvements since that time certainly cannot compete with his neighbor who is installing labor-saving machinery. The best of modern machinery, selected carefully to meet the requirements, will yield returns on the investment beyond any comparison with results from older machines. I made this same statement in my article which was published in the October, 1913, number of THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURER AND ARTISAN.
How to Use Sandpaper
Before discussing the modern sanders it may be well to briefly offer suggestions how to use sandpaper so as to obtain the highest efficiency. Thousands of furniture manufacturers use sandpaper simply because it is paperthey know nothing about paper and are satisfied if the superintendent or foreman pronounces the paper as satisfactory. I firmly believe that the first thing the furniture manufacturer should do when ordering sandpaper is to tell the manufacturer for what purpose he intends to use it, whether for a belt sander, a drum sander or a disc machine.
My experience has taught me that different kinds of paper (especially manufactured for these machines) should be used. We all know that the belt machines have made great changes in methods of sanding, and the furniture manufacturer should demand from the manufacturer of sandpaper stock that has a sharp cutting and uniform coating, one that will not scratch, fill or gum up. If your superintendent, foreman, operator, or buyer, for that matter, understands his business he can determine the fitness of the paper at a glance.
The manufacturer of paper should exercise great care in guarding his material, so as to eliminate all coarse particles and foreign substances, and should select nothing but the pure product. Great care should also be taken in selecting the paper, sloth and glue.
I have found manufacturers who became quite careless and were at various times compelled to return shipments. Only a few weeks ago we ordered canvas sand belt four inches wide, which we use in our toilet mirror factory. Owing to short turns in the shapes of these small mirrors it is necessary for operators to help the belt fit into the small rounded curves, and in so doing they must use their fingers on the back of the belt. We discovered that the belts to which I refer were covered
with garnet, which was very likely a result of rolling the belt before the glue was thoroughly dry, and the glue adhered to the under side of the belt, hence taking some of the garnet with it. I suggested this to the sandpaper manufacurer, and returned the entire shipment.
When you receive your sandpaper, place in a stockroom where the temperature is about 65 or 70 degrees, and two or three days before using, a sufficient quantity should be cut off and put in a dry place, where the temperature is about 80 degrees. The results obtained will depend entirely upon the operator of the machine, the machine, and the conditions of the stock sanded. Of course, judgment has to be exercised in the selection of the material, whether paper, cloth paper, or cloth; also whether flint, garnet or other abrasive is to be used, this being determined by the stock to be sanded.
Keep in Touch With Sandpaper Maker
If furniture manufacturers would inform the sandpaper manufacturers on these points, they would secure better results and save themselves considerable trouble and expense. Our neighbor is a sandpaper salesman—
a man who understands the business from A to Z. He is traveling for one of the oldest and largest concerns in the business. This friend of mine said to me a few days ago: "A great many times complaints are made on sandpaper when the fault lies entirely with the operator, either in the selection of the grades of sandpaper, or in the way the machines are set up."
It is not uncommon when visiting furniture factories to find cloth belts running over leather forms and the belts taken up just as far as possible without breaking, the tension being so great that it has a tendency to separate the bond that holds the mineral. Better results could be obtained by the use of a felt-covered wheel formed to shape desired and traveling at the same speed. On drum sanders a great amount of trouble occurs in putting on the paper, especially the coarse numbers, owing to the paper cracking. This can be easily overcome by a sander taking a paper and rolling the edge to be turned in, over a three-inch round iron bar. This makes the paper flexible and will obviate the difficulty. Flint Paper vs. Garnet
The question has at various times been asked, and I will endeavor to herein answer it: "How is flint paper as compared with garnet?" Flint paper, Mr. Reader, is adapted for use on soft woods or stocks full of gum, etc., while hard garnet is adapted for sanding hard stock.
I have never seen anything in print in any of the trade papers or otherwise regarding most efficient uses of sandpapers, and this information may prove of interest to the readers. In any event, if applied, will cut down your sandpaper bills and eliminate the trouble you may now be experiencing in your sanding department.
There are several very good three-drum sanders on the market. What features are of prime importance in a three-drum sander for furniture factory work? I am not a manufacturer of sanding machines, but I would answer this question saying that there are three: first, the accessibility of the sanding drums, which I consider very important and I believe superintendents will agree with me; second, the construction of the sanding drums themselves, their ability to carry the paper perfectly tight, etc.; third, the oscillating device, or mechanism, which causes the drums to forward and back across the machine as the work is passed over them-this to prevent scratches or otherwise marring marks.
I also favor a sanding machine on which the rate of feed can be changed instantly, adapting it to the finish you require on the stock you are running. In our line of work we have unexposed parts which do not require to be as finely finished as the exterior surfaces, and they
can be sanded at the fastest rate of feed. Again, wood of different textures may be sanded at different rates of feed and the same finish secured.
No matter what make of machine you are employing, it requires a good operator to get results. The three-drum sander is usually expected to turn out high-grade work and in return receives about enough thought and care to just keep it running. Again, the three-drum sander is expected to do the work of the planer.
In the alignment of feed and pressure rolls, many of the difficulties depend. A firm grasp of the pressure roll, thereby stopping the rotation, is enough pressure on the top chain of rolls for good work. So very few operators pay any attention to these facts. Remember that the sander is not designed to cut stock to size, but to produce a straight and polished surface. When you find that the stock is so uneven as to require an extraordinary cut, it is better to run it through twice. The principal cutting should be done by the first cylinder; the cut of second cylinder is for the purpose of taking out scratches left by the coarse paper of the first, whereas the last cylinder is only intended to polish the surface and should therefore not do much cutting, but fill the office of buffer or polisher.
Bed Plates Must be Uniform
It is almost unnecessary to state that the bed plates should be of uniform height. One, however, quite frequently finds operators who do not seem to know this or do not seem to know where to look for their sander troubles and to correct them. In our sanding department we use straightedges long enough to reach the full distance from feeding-in end to feeding-out end of the machine. As the feed rolls are higher than the beds, it is necessary to work at the ends of beds, as there is usually room enough between the hoisting screws and the ends of the feed rolls to use the straightedge. Knowing that the bedplates are as they should be, the feed rolls should next be adjusted. For this we use the same straightedge, setting the two outside rolls first. We test our drums by means of a short straightedge about 8 or 9 inches long. In case one end of cylinder should become lower than the other, it is only necessary to turn the screw which one will find on bottom of cylinder shanks, on most machines on right-hand side of machine. Turning the screw to the right will raise, turning to the left will lower the corresponding end of first and second cylinder; for third cylinder the movement is the opposite.
Your sander should be set level, and as the great weight of the same will cause the floor to settle, it should be re-leveled from time to time until the floor timbers become accustomed to the weight.
I have been asked a number of times: How fast should we run our three-drum sander? My experience has been that the countershaft on a three-drum sander should run from 500 to 575 revolutions per minute, depending, however, upon the make of machine, size of pulleys, etc. In the February, 1913, number of THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURER AND ARTISAN, I discussed the merits of the endless bed, as well as three-drum sanders. Where large surfaces are to be sanded, it is better to use a roll-feed sander. As already suggested in my articles, the ideal sander equipment, where a plant has sufficient work for two sanders, is the combination of a good roll-feed sander with the endless bed. We all know that the endless bed sander is ideal in sanding small pieces. The endless bed sander has no advantage over the roll machine when sanding large pieces.
Belt sanding machines are the latest mechanical sanders placed on the market. Modern belt sanders are a type of machine, the possibilities of which today are barely understood. You will find that the average oper
ator thinks he knows all about them. To watch an expert work on one is certainly interesting.
Regardless of the fact that there are a number of very good belt sanding machines on the market, it is surprising to see the number of cabinet-makers still doing hand sanding as they did fifty years ago. I see this time and again. If manufacturers would only investigate, they would soon adopt the latest ways of doing this sanding. The spiral belt sander is also a very ingenious device. In practice this machine has been found to take the place of from eight to ten men sanding by hand and, manufacturers tell me, that on special classes of work even higher efficiency has been shown, one concern reporting that their machine paid for itself on a single job of veneered doors which were placed in the Hotel Statler, of Cleveland.
The Automatic Spindle Sander
The automatic spindle sander is ideal in all that the name implies. I do not see how any chair manufacturer can get along without this machine. Perfect sanding of chair stock, or turnings of a similar character, can be sanded at the rate of 7,000 pieces per day of ten hours, doing very good work. One admirable feature of this machine is that all turnings are reached, all sharp members and all shapes of turnings are preserved perfectly. I have investigated the merits of this machine at some of the very largest chair factories in this country. Time and space do not permit the good things the manufacturers had to say about this machine. Mr. Miller, of the Hagerstown Table Works, Hagerstown, Md., claims that they are sanding six six-inch legs per minute, and better work than can be done by hand, with a saving of at least 50 per cent. in sandpaper. James Murphy, of the Murphy Chair Co., stated: "We would never go back to the old way of sanding."
The trouble with most furniture manufacturers is that they are too conservative. They hesitate a long time before introducing new methods or installing new machinery in their plants. Have stated this time and again in my articles.
Most of you remember the old story told time and again about Simmons' pin. For the benefit of the reader who has not heard this story, I will endeavor to relate it as briefly as possible:
One day Simmons saw a pin and remembered the old adage "See a pin, pick it up, and all the day you'll have good luck." He stooped to get the pin; his hat tumbled off and rolled into the gutter; his eye glasses fell on the pavement and broke; his suspenders gave way behind; he burst the buttonhole on the back of his shirt and nearly lost his new false teeth. But he got the pin.
Some furniture manufacturers remind me of Simmons. Many think they are economizing by not spending money for new machinery, and they have no time for later-day methods. These people find their economy about as profitable as Simmons' lucky (?) pin.
We know that it is almost an anomalous condition that an occasional plant makes money in spite of the fact that its machinery is far from modern, and its cost of manufacturing is necessarily much higher than it would be were the same work done under advanced methods. We have many factories in the United States and Canada enjoying a most splendid reputation for quality. The dealer willingly pays more money for their goods than he would for similar patterns elsewhere. He knows that the manufacturer buys good lumber, properly dries it, employs good, skilled workmen, and the finish is perfect. He also knows that the furniture will come properly crated and that should anything go wrong, the furniture
manufacturer stands ready at all times to make it right. In other words, the dealer is taking no chance and appreciates this. The furniture manufacturer, very likely, has a very good cost system. He manufactures goods at a profit. He will say to you: "I can't go wrong." I ask you, however, Mr. Reader, is it not an absolute fact that the furniture manufacturer would have a much more profitable business if his old equipment were replaced by the best that manufacturers of modern wood-working machinery have evolved for the various required purposes? A Tribute to Canadians
Some charges have in times past been preferred against our Canadian friends in the furniture manufacturing business. It has been, for instance, stated time and again that most of them swipe our patterns, and some people have said that the Canadian manufacturer cannot originate anything and is way behind the times. Permit me to state that I just returned from a trip through Canada, where I visited some of the largest factories. The man who says that the present Canadian furniture manufacturer is asleep, does not know what he is talking about. Of course, there are some way behind the times, but we have many in this country equally as far behind. Some of the plants I visited were equipped with the very latest designs of American wood-working machines. Never in all my experience did I receive a more cordial welcome than in some of these plants. I remember a certain plant where the executive heads got me into a corner and kept me busy for over an hour answering questions. Progressive? Indeed yes. Regardless of the fact that a certain manager of one of the large plants was very busy, he dropped his work and showed me the city; also introduced me to many of the prominent men we chanced to meet. The George McLogan Furniture Co., of Stratford. Ontario, does not have to take a back seat as far as machinery equipment is concerned. The Imperial Reed Furniture Co., of the same place, also deserves considerable credit. One does not run across men as broad and liberal minded as H. W. Strudley, the manager, every day. It was my intention to say something about lubrication, but the article is already quite long and I would cheat more able writers than I out of space. I will prepare an article along this line in some future number of THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURER AND ARTISAN,
Olive Wood of Commerce
IIE wood of the olive (Olea europaea), especially the root part, is beautifully clouded and veined, has an agreeable odor, and is susceptible of a high polish, which it retains. It is highly esteemed for these reasons by cabinet-makers, by whom it is fashioned into the finest work. It was of this wood, so hard and lasting and of such fine grain, that the Greeks sculptured their divinities before marble and ivory came into use. It is hard, heavy (about sixty pounds per cubic foot), strong, rather brittle, very close and fine-grained, and works and turns very easily, but splits badly or rather crumbles under the knife. It is light yellowish-brown with irregularly wavy dark lines and mottlings, especially near the root, and often resembles boxwood, but it is not so hard.
The pores, which are evenly distributed throughout, are very small and not visible to the unaided eye. The pith rays are very narrow, and cannot be seen on a radial or transverse surface except under the hand lens. The wood is used chiefly in turnery and carving for small articles, souvenirs, fancy boxes, paper knives, pen holders, etc. The olive wood is imported into Birmingham, England, where it is used so commonly for making mementoes of the Holy Land.