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lumps or foreign matter on the wheel or the flange, that are causing it to run out of true. Usually the trouble will be found to be foreign matter on either the flange or wheel and when the wheel is replaced, it will be found to run true.

If your wheel runs out of true on the cutting base, chalk mark it and turn the high spot to the top, hold it with your left hand, now loosen the nut just enough to allow the wheel to slip in the flanges, press down on the wheel, tighten the nut and nine out of ten cases, you have overcome your trouble. A good practice to follow is to take a light cut off of a new wheel before using it. This should be done with a Huntington dresser. Set your tool rest out from your wheel just enough so as to hook the guide lugs of the dresser over the inside edge of the rest, having the dresser just come in contact with the face of the wheel. Start up your machine, pass your dresser back and fourth across the face of the wheel, raising the handle enough to cause the dresser to cut. A wheel cannot be brought back into round by holding the dresser free in the hand. It is absolutely necessary to use the rest to guide the dresser. The use of a bunch of washers on an iron rod to dress grinding wheel should be discouraged. In dressing wheels on saw gumming machinery, a carborundum stick or Metcalf dresser will give the best result. When you have made sure that your wheel is running true, start your machine up. Always stand to one side, out of line of the wheel. If the machine shakes and rattles, examine your bearings. If they are in good shape, the chances are the wheel is out of balance; take it off and do not use it.

If the foregoing suggestions have been followed and the wheel has been running up to speed, and then later on, breaks, you may be sure that the wheel has been injured. Speed of wheels, 5,000 ft. periphery per minute is the standard wheel speed for grinding wheels and is found to be the most practical for wood-working. The exceptions are cup wheels for knife grinding and saw sharpening wheels. Cup wheels are run slower and many saw filers get better results running their wheels to 200 revolutions per minute under the recommended speed. If a wheel is too hard, it has a tendency to heat and case harden. If too soft, it wears away too fast. Increasing the speed of a grinding wheel gives it the effect of a harder wheel; decreasing the speed gives the effect of a softer wheel and makes it cut cooler, and will often stop heating and case hardening.

If you desire to cut down your grinding expenses, improve your finish and cost of production, secure the services of the efficiency department of a good grinding wheel manufacturer, and good means the best.

D

Records of Accident Reductions

R. FRANCIS D. PATTERSON, director of the Department of Sanitation and Accident Prevention, of Harrison Brothers & Co., Inc., of Philadelphia, Pa., states that the reduction of accidents for the year 1913 compared with the average of the two previous years shows a reduction of 69.7 per cent. This company employs about 900 employes. The business of the company is the manufacture of paint, colors, varnish, white lead and chemicals, and in these industries there are of necessity accident hazards which it is not possible to safeguard by mechanical guards. While mechanical guards have been used wherever possible, the majority of the reduction in accidents is attributed to the campaign of education which is always being carried on, the new employe being physically examined so as to know that his health is first-class at the time of his employment

and he then being assigned to the work which he is best qualified to do; care is taken that every new employe is educated in how to do his work safely and every possible opportunity is taken to keep "safety always" before every employe and to so fix it in his mind that it is not forgotten.

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Scheduling vs. Cost Findings

T WAS with considerable interest that I read the article entitled, "An Antidote for the Cost System," in the March issue of THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURER AND ARTISAN. Mr. Upholt has the right theoretical idea as to the value of standardizing and scheduling operations, and his article shows that he appreciates the difficulties of putting the plan into practical That it can be put into practical use is certain, because similar plans are in use in many plants. Sifted to its basic principles the article advocates nothing more nor less than a bonus, or a premium, system for the payment of labor, and it calls for nothing that has not been tried and proved practical, if used with intelligence. "Speedy" Taylor, F. A. Halsey, H. L. Gantt, and many others, embody such features in their efficiency work.

use.

The title given to the article would indicate that the cost system is a poison, and that the "schedule" system is a curative. I cannot agree with this as a whole, for in these days of close competition the cost system is essential to the welfare of any industry. It may be said that I am "begging the question," since the schedule system, properly laid out, finally resolves itself into a cost system. I admit that, but ask, for the sake of argument, and in the hope of promoting further discussion, how the introduction of a schedule system will eliminate the irritation tc the worker caused by the proper introduction of a straight cost system.

Mr. Upholt says, "Any scheme for checking closely the worker's time is a continuous source of irritation to him. No amount of explaining will be effective in changing the attitude of the average employe in this respect. This is especially true when a time recording instrument is used for registering elapsed time, on cards, and this is the only accurate way of getting at it."

In return I ask-if you set a specific task for a workman, and see how near he comes to the performance of that task, is he not being checked just as, if not more closely than, he would be in any other way? The average workman will be just as apt to resent being told to "do this in two hours" as he will being asked, "How long did it take?"

Again, the statement is made, "It is the business of the management to know what it costs to do any piece of work connected with their line." What I want to know, is how the management is going to know what any thing costs without some preliminary checking, and how it is going to be possible to set a schedule without some checking.

Scheduling and standardizing operations is a great step toward higher efficiency, but no man wants to get carried away with the idea that the plan will eliminate any irritation if, through lack of foresight, the human equation is not given due consideration. The man who works to accomplish a set task is no more at liberty than the one who has his time checked on a clock. If by the use of a schedule, or any other system, you can show the operator that he, as well as the company, is apt to reap greater benefits by making a change, he is quite apt to meet you part way. But in most cases you have to show him in good shape, or you will not get efficient service, no matter what system you use. CHAS. DUPREY.

WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION LAWS

What is Being Done to Reduce Harrassment of the Employers and Protect Employes When Accidents do Occur and Safety Appliances Fail to Protect

W

By G. D. CRAIN, Jr.

WORKMEN'S compensation has passed the theoretical stage. It is no longer worth while to debate the question from an academic standpoint, nor to inquire whether compensation laws are proper. The fact is that they are here in many states, and coming in the remainder, and the manufacturer of furniture must prepare to operate under them. The question he is now chiefly interested in is what kind of law is best and most equitable, and just how it will affect his business.

to exceed a given amount, however. This maximum amount is $3,000 to $4,000. In case of the death of the workman as the result of injuries, those who receive the indemnity must have been dependent upon him. In some cases it is provided that a lump payment be made; in others, that weekly amounts be paid out as in the case of temporary disability.

The advantages to the workman from a system of this kind are obvious. "The law's delay" is never more in evidence than in a case where the victim of an industrial accident is waiting for his suit for damages to drag its way through the lower courts and then be decided by the supreme tribunal of the state. Sometimes a new trial is ordered or the judgment reversed. In any case, owing to the unfortunate system of "contingent fees" used by many practicing lawyers, the amount recovered by the workman himself is small. And it is never secured in time to be of service when it is really needed-immediately following the accident.

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GEO. D. CRAIN, JR.

In the first place, while the institution of a compensation system usually adds to the cost of conducting the business, and therefore puts the manufacturer, to that extent, at a disadvantage with competitors in other states, the rapid spread of sentiment in favor of laws of this kind means that in the comparatively near future all of the states will have such laws, and thus everybody will be on the same footing. This must be qualified, however, by the statement that there is a wide difference between the provisions in one state and in another, and what is needed most at present is uniformity. As the operation of compensation systems in this country is still in an experimental stage, for the most part, standardization of the laws will be accomplished, probably, only after the test of time has demonstrated which features are best.

The basis of the compensation system is, simply stated, this: The workman receives compensation for injuries received while engaged in his regular employment, fixed by a schedule which insures the payment of indemnity during disability. A corollary of this is that the manufacturer, who, in states where the compensation system has not been instituted, can still rely, for the most part, on the common law defenses of voluntary assumption of risk, contributory negligence and fellow-service, loses these defenses, and must pay without question, the question of "Whose fault?" having nothing to do with it. Ordinarily but two exceptions are made-drunkenness and willful self-infliction of injury being the only bars to recovery. The Indemnity Provided

The amounts of indemnity provided vary, according to the individual laws; but, roughly speaking, the indemnity provided during disability, either temporary or permanent, is 50 per cent. of the workman's average weekly wages, not to exceed $12 a week, and usually with the minimum limit $5 a week. Under this plan there is assurance that the workman will be given a sufficient amount to enable him to tide over the period during which his family is without his service, and thus the suffering which it is almost impossible to avoid otherwise, is eliminated. Provisions are, of course, made for prompt medical attendance, and as the report of the accident is submitted at once, the indemnity is usually forthcoming without delay.

For permanent disability or death, it is usually provided. that the workman or his dependents receive the maximum weekly indemnity provided for temporary disability, not

The employer likewise benefits. As stated, provision for workmen's compensation usually means an increase in the cost of insurance. This is always the case if the insurance is placed with a stock company, for the reason that the rates of the latter are based on losses under a limited employer's liability system, where the common law defenses referred to above may be pleaded. Several hundred per cent. in rates must be made to cover the additional losses which must be met, as no defense can usually be made.

Bound to Relieve Distress

But the additional expense is worth while. The furniture manufacturer never cares to see his employes suffer needlessly, and though it is sometimes necessary, on account of policy provisions and for other reasons, to refuse to provide aid, the manufacturer is nevertheless bound to spend a good deal of money to relieve those whose distress has been occasioned by accidents in his factory. This expense, added to what is paid out for liability insurance, makes the burden considerably more than it appears to be.

Besides, the constant worry and irritation caused by having to go to court at the call of the ambulance-chasing lawyer, who will take any kind of case, no matter what the facts as to responsibility may be, is done away with when certainty and exact liability take the place of uncertainty and unlimited liability. The latter feature must be considered, also. While the knowledge that $3,000 must be paid out if a man is accidently killed or permanently disabled in the factory is not altogether pleasant, it is not so unpleasant as having a judgment for many times that amount rendered by a jury with a prejudice against corporations. In states where no compensation law is on the books, there is usually a statutory or constitutional provision that no limit may be placed on the amounts recoverable for industrial accidents.

The insurance feature is one of the most important

details of a compensation system. The law usually provides an optional arrangement. In a number of cases the state undertakes to handle the insurance, fixing the rates, collecting the premiums and awarding indemnity; but with few exceptions this system is not made compulsory, and the manufacturer may insure his liability in some other way if he so desires. The other methods include giving bond or satisfying the state of the financial ability of the manufacturer to pay; insuring in a stock company approved by the insurance department, or insuring in a mutual or interinsurance organization.

State insurance has been getting a stronger hold on American citizens during the past few years. While sentiment among most business men is in favor of encouraging individual enterprise, the fact that the state, by eliminating the profits of the insuring companies, can write the business at a lower rate, makes this system attractive to many. On the other hand, objectors point out, putting a large fund into the hands of a board appointed, usually for political reasons, is an unwise step. The state provides insurance either in one way or another in Michigan, Ohio, Oregon, Washington, West Virginia and Kentucky. The law of the latter state has just been enacted, and has not yet gone into effect.

The Large Payments Necessary

covering all of the employes; but it is just as easy to handle the matter within the factory, and, of course, the insurance can be provided more cheaply when this is the case. Having an arrangement of this kind not only relieves the employer of the necessity of making provision out of the company's funds for such of his men as are hurt, but also insures every man being taken care of adequately and systematically. Another advantage is that those who are taken care of by some system or other are less disposed to sue for damages than if no plan for extending relief had been provided.

Accidents are a necessary feature of the generation, transmission and use of power, and the operation of machinery, and even under the best conditions they are practically certain to occur. They should be considered as a part of the manufacturing cost, paid for, and passed on to the consumer as a portion of the overhead expense. Certainly the individual victim should not have to carry the burden alone, nor does the furniture trade desire that he do so.

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A Tag for Unsafe Appliances

N INNOVATION of the Avery Co., Peoria, Ill., consists of a linen tag to be attached by safety inspectors to unsafe appliances, the lettering, in

The large payments which are necessary under compensation systems suggest that employers might organize red, being as follows: mutual companies to handle their liability. Mutual fire insurance companies have proven their worth, and there is no reason why liability should not be handled in the same way. A larger organization would be necessary, of course, and some obstacles would be raised by reason of the varying conditions prevailing in the several states. However, this is an idea which could be worked out without much difficulty, probably, and furniture men should consider it, whether they are operating under compensation laws or not.

Manufacturers in states where compensation statutes have not been enacted should keep on the qui vive during the legislative sessions, in order that they may prevent legislation of this kind from going through if it is not fair and equitable. In some states laws have been put on the books which are unjust to the employers; and in others, possibly, the workmen have not been given a fair deal. The claims of the latter, however, are usually considered more carefully than those of the manufacturers, since the laboring men control more individual votes than the manufacturers. In view of the ultimate enactment of laws of this kind, it would probably be a good plan to initiate such legislation, as those who proposed compensation would certainly have more influence in determining the conditions under which the system should be operated than those who either opposed such bills altogether or took no active part in pushing them.

Laws in Many States

Indicating the rapid spread of workmen's compensation, twenty-five states now have such laws, and many others are proposed. The states which are under compensation systems are Arizona, California, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia and Wisconsin.

Anticipating to some extent compensation regulations, many employers have found it worth while to install insurance systems in their plants, whereby, as the result of payments made weekly by employes, a fund is provided out of which indemnity is paid to those who are hurt. In some cases an insurance company writes a blanket policy

O

DON'T USE IT!

UNSAFE

Don't Remove This Tag
Under Penalty of
Discharge

By Order of

Date

SAFETY INSPECTOR

The tag is placed on an appliance as soon as it is found to be unsafe and remains attached until the defect is corrected.

A

How He Got Even

TRAVELING salesman who stuttered, spent all afternoon in trying to sell a grouchy carpet buyer a lot of rugs, and was not very successful. As the salesman was locking up his trunks the grouch was impolite enough to observe in the presence of his clerks: "You must find that impediment in your speech very inconvenient at times."

"Oh, n-no," replied the salesman. "Every one has his p-pe-culiarity. S-stammering is mine. What's y-yours?"

"I'm not aware that I have any," replied the buyer. "D-do you stir y-your coffee with your r-right hand?" asked the salesman.

"Why, yes, of course," replied the buyer, a bit puzzled. "W-well," went on the salesman, "t-that's your p-peculiarity. Most people use a t-teaspoon."

REASONS FOR EFFICIENCY EXPERTS

Routing of Material---Too Close a View and Thorough Familiarity Sometimes Responsible for Errors in Judgment---Two Schemes Illustrated By M. A. OLIVER

J

UST as man often reaches the physical condition where he requires the services of a physician, SO a factory often comes to the point where it requires the attention of a specialist. If man obeyed all the proper laws of nature the chances are that he could do without the doctor's services, and, if the factory had always received proper treatment there would be some question as to the necessity of the services of the efficiency engineer. Taking conditions as they are, however, the scientific treatment of factories is as essential today as is the scientific treatment of human ills.

This is especially true in the furniture making field since competition is so keen that a penny saved is truly a penny earned. Now, if it were possible for one man familiar with the factory conditions to do nothing but study the problems there he might improve things to some extent, but the man from outside, who has prescribed for other conditions can diagnose the case better and in far less time. He may be more expensive, if first cost is considered, but he is worth the price, if he knows his business, and there are many who do.

The writer is one who believes that, today, the true efficiency engineer can make a better showing in woodworking plants, as a class, than in any other manufacturing business. The operator may be involved to some extent but, if for the sake of absolute harmony as is sometimes the case, it seems desirable to eliminate him from the question, a consideration of operations and equipment needs only to be attempted. These properly solved will place the factory on a higher standard of productiveness.

For instance, in a factory making piano cases, the square pillars were ripped out on circular saws, squared up two sides on the hand jointer, the other two sides finished on a surfacer, the piece then band-sawed to shape and finally sanded. The saw marks were fairly deep and the sanding operation alone cost about two cents on each pillar. After some study the operations were changed so that the rough squares coming from the rip saw were put through a four side moulder. A slight change in the design of the pattern was made to work it to advantage on the moulder, but the change made a more graceful looking pillar.

Reducing the Waste

The shaping on the moulder cost from one to one and a half cents per pair as against three to five cents for band sawing. The hand planing operation, costing a half cent per pair, was eliminated entirely. The moulder left the job so smooth that the sanding cost was reduced from four cents to one cent per pair. Three machines did the work of five at a greatly reduced cost.

Another factory using mahogany which cost about two hundred dollars per thousand, or twenty cents per square foot, found that the cut-off saw was taking out one-quarter inch of kerf. A little figuring showed that every time a three-inch plank was cut off, one cent and a quarter went to saw dust. A thin blade was secured which reduced the waste one-half. This led to an examination of the rip saws, and here again the waste was cut more than, than one-half by substituting band rip saws for the circulars. So much for operations. Similar conditions exist in most furniture

factories, which would indicate that a specialist can be of service.

Now consider the problem of arrangement. The question that confronted the expert was a jobbing shop, doing all kinds of work from merely dressing lumber to the manufacture of furniture. No stock work and the long narrow floor space with only one entrance complicated the problem and made a back haul for shipment necessary. The old arrangement of this shop is shown in exhibit I, only the more important machines being designated.

The class of work demanded the following general arrangement; ample space in aisles and around the machines, a roughing machine group, a finishing machine group, a group for miscellaneous work, and a fitting and assembling space. In the instance under consideration the standard process was (1) jointing, (2) ripping, (3) cutting off, (4) moulding. By drawing a pencil mark on exhibit I from the entrance to machines numbered 2, 3, 4, and 5 the reader will get an idea of how the stock had to travel back and forth before going to the benches. Bad Features

Notice some of the details of inefficient arrangement. The cabinet makers' benches were little used and occupied space which could have been used for raw materials, but the roughing machines were on the opposite side of the building. The direction of feed of different machines was incorrect. There was no wide lane for trucks, in fact not many trucks either. When it is considered that the cost of picking up and putting down lumber is fifty cents, or more per thousand, the loss will be more fully appreciated. The molders were on the wrong side of the rip and resaw. The two surfacers were widely separated, the smaller being as far away from the benches as it could be placed. Shapers and mortisers were on opposite ends from tenoners and it was usually necessary to climb over stock to make the often needed trip between these machines.

The fitting up saws and dry box should have been adjacent to the erecting space. Another shortcoming was the lack of a band saw and bench hand planer and jointer for the use of the cabinet makers. A striking example of incorrect location was the sander, set off in a corner, so surrounded by other tools as to be almost invisible and feeding right against the wall. The principle underlying causes of these conditions were haste and confusion of original installation and shortsightedness in not correcting them before they became worse.

What the Engineer Found

The efficiency engineer that was called in found some favorable conditions. The heating, lighting and ventilation were good; there was a big floor space and most of the machines were driven by individual motors. Exhibit II shows how the equipment was rearranged after the specialist had made a careful study of the conditions. This arrangement was, so far as possible, based on the department system. The machines were arranged (1) in groups, located with reference to each in respect to the class of work required; (2) individually, with reference to their work in the group. This gave the general arrangement previously referred to; (1) roughing, (2) finishing, (3) fitting up, (4) jobbing tools. All machines were

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1-Entrance and exit. 2-Jointer. 3-Self-feed rip saw. 4-Cut-off saw. 5--Molders. 6--Band-saw. 7-Band re-saw. 8 Roll feed sander. 9 Tenoning machines. 10-Dowel machine. 11-Glue spreader. 12-Belt sander. 13 Lavatory. 14-Rack for moldings. Drying box. 16-Work benches. 17-Glue pot stand. 18-Shapers. 19--Mortisers. 20- Cabinet surfacers. 21-Planer and matcher.

this point. Notice under the new arrangement the wide aisle, the length of the shop and the ample trucking space between machines, enough to accommodate two trucks at each, one to bring the stock and the other to be loaded right from the machine.

Two groups of machines are belt driven, each group having its own motor. The one consists of lathes, dowel, plug machines, etc., and the other of block-making machines. All other machines have individual motor drive. Consider briefly the various groups. The roughing group comes first-the jointer feeding to the rip or the cut off saw and the band resaw is clear of both. This group feeds into the moulders, matchers or surfacers. From these it goes, without back tracking, either to the assembling benches or to the jobbers, i. e., the shapers, tenoners, mortisers, borers, another jointer, dado machine,

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15

concerns and individuals allied with the industry, gave a substantial start that has developed into a crystallization of the most comprehensive, attractive and result-producing form.

Details of exhibits are slow in forthcoming, due largely to the process of preparation and the prospective exhibitor is more or less unwilling about claiming things that might not be shown or outlining original plans and devices that are intended as surprises and naturally withhold until the opening of the Exposition. The initial Exposition opens at the Coliseum, Chicago, April 30, and continues until May 9, and during this time it is expected a number of important regular or special meetings of various trade organizations will be held. The Northern Hemlock and Hardwood Manufacturers' Association will have its convention on the opening day. The National Lumber Manu

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Surfacer. Lavatory. 15 Shapers.

7- Molder. 8-Band rip saw. 9-Tenoners. 16 Mortisers. 17-Dado machine. 18

facturers' Association will hold its annual convention on May 5 and 6. In this connection the Lumbermen's Association of Chicago has appointed a special committee to arrange details for their participation, in a sense acting as host to the great number of lumbermen and representatives of the affiliated branches of the industry, while the women visitors will probably be entertained by the ladies of Chicago, who are related by marriage to the industry. The New York organizations have not perfected their plans, but it is understood they will take the same action and have official representation in the Exposition. At Chicago Tuesday, May 5, has been designated as Chicago Day, when the local interests will dominate the program.

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