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an over-supply of descriptive detail. The application of common sense, with the use of guards, will make these machines safe, and it behooves the workman to appreciate this fact so that he will use the guards intelligently after his employer has gone to the trouble and expense of having them installed as a part of the plant equipment.

rated from the floss by the gin process. The oil that is manufactured from the seeds, and which may be responsible for the odor, is chiefly exported to the Straits Settlements. Because of the expense entailed in its manufacture, kapok yarn under present conditions cannot successfully compete with cotton yarn.

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Kapok from the Philippines

Rattan and Sea-grass Furniture TITE true kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra), the product

IIE trend of American taste toward the bungalow of which must be differentiated from that known

style of living is having a marked effect upon the as “silk cotton” and “tree cotton," terms

furniture industry of Hongkong and upon the monly applied to the floss of both the ('eiba and Bombas rattan and grass-twine trade of South China. The species, grows naturally and under cultivation in the Phil- increased exports from Hongkong of rattan and sea-grass ippines to a height of fifty feet or less. The trunk, which furniture, which commenced about two years ago, have is slender, usually bears stout, short spines and the

Teen continued in increasing proportion during the past branches, which are horizontal, produce distant whorls

year, and the indications are that the current season will which give the tree its characteristic appearance.

witness a larger demand than ever for such goods. ShipThe fruit, which contains the long, shining, silken

ments of such furniture and unmanufactured rattan to hairs of white or somewhat brownish color—the kapok of

the l'nited States during 1913 amounted to a declared commerce-surrounding mumerous black, globose seeds, is value of $180,459, of which $77,633 was of rattan and an oblong, five-celled, pendulous capsule about six inches

rattan furniture and $102,836 of "sea-grass” furniture, in in length and two inches thick. There are in tropical

which rattau and other materials also entered. The figures America eight species of the same genus (Ceiba), but

of the Ilongkong Chamber of Commerce show that shipthe product of these is generally considered inferior to ments to continental Europe increased almost 100 per that of the Philippine tree. Some forty-five or fifty other cent. during 1913 over those of 1912, while those to Great species are grouped in the allied genus Bombax, but the Britain were in still larger proportion. The demand for floss of these also is much inferior to that of the true

such furniture in South Africa has increased to such a kapok tree.

point that the leading Hongkong factory and exporting Because of the shortness and brittleness of the hairs, concern has opened a branch house in Durban and is kapok was until recently considered unfit for textile pur

making arrangements for a similar enterprise in Cape poses. However, it is reported that a process for spinning Town. Similar enterprises are also being undertaken in the floss into yarn has been recently discovered in Ger

various South American countries. The trade in such many and the texture of the finished product is said to goods with Canada has grown especially rapidly and is be of fine quality. Kapok is principally used, however, in now large in volume. Trade with the United States in mattresses and bedding factories, where it is employed as the near future promises to be on a much larger scale a filler for mattresses, pillows, cushions, etc. The floss

than ever as a result of the reduction of the tariff on also is used to some extent in the manufacture of band- furniture from 35 per cent. to 15 per cent. ad valorem. ages and life-saving appliances. In connection with the The chief interference with the further development of latter industry, the government restricted its use to the the trade at present is high freight. The ordinary freight product of the Java tree until 1912, when the Philippine charge on the average rattan or sea-grass chair made in kapok was found to meet the requirements.

Hongkong at present and shipped to either the United As a result of recent development in kapok cultiva

States or Europe is substantially 100 per cent. of its tion in the Philippines, the export of the floss is increas

value.-Geo. E. Anderson, American Consul. ing and is expected to become one of the important commercial contributions of the island possessions. Under Striking Changes in American Trade direction of the government and agricultural authorities,

URING the last third of century factory several plantations for its production have been estab

products have been steadily supplanting the lished. Kapok exports from the Philippines in the fiscal

products of the farm in the export trade of the year ending June 30, 1913, amounted to 245,409 pounds, United States. In 1880, agricultural products formed valued at $14,292, an increase of nearly 200.000 pounds $4.3 per cent. of the exports, and manufactures (excluas compared with the previous year.

sive of foodstuffs) only 14.78 per cent. In 1913, the proIn former years, much of the Philippine product was portion of manufactures in the export trade had increased exported to the Netherlands, but in 1912-13, kapok chiefly to 48.8 per cent., while that of agricultural products had was shipped to the United States, Germany and Aus

cropped to 46.1 per cent. With the increase in exports tralia. Complaints have followed the imperfect cleaning of manufactures there has been a steady increase in the of the Philippine fluss, but special attention is now given imports of raw materials for use in manufacturing. this process in the islands, where machines are now

These and other significant changes in our trade are available for the purpose.

analyzed in an interesting manner in the "Annual Kapok is said to be fairly plentiful in Western and Review of the Foreign (Commerce of the l'nited States," a Southern India and Burmah, but there the term is bulletin just issued by the Bureau of Foreign and applied to the product of both the Bombax and C'eiba Domestic Commerce. and none of the floss is exported. Kapok for the

The publication also contains a set of charts which export is packed in bales of 60 to 90 pounds, and prices graphically show the heavy increase in the American range from 12 to 131., cents a pound for floss of the export trade in several leading manufactures. Copies of finest quality, and 8 to 9 cents a pound for the uncleaned the bulletin (Miscellaneous Series No. 14) may be silk. The best quality is believed to come from the dis- obtained upon application to the bureau. trict of Japara, near Samarang, and the second quality from Batavia.

A PRETTY good factory rule to keep in mind is that you The peculiar odor which sometimes accompanies kapok can move material along six feet on a level floor while is said to originate in the seeds or other material sepa- you are moving it one foot upward toward a suud story.

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SILVERED PLATE

SKETCH SHEWING GLASS SUPPORT. ETC

SPLY

PLANOF INSIDE WITH TOP OPEN & GLASS LOWERED

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Description of a Well Authenticated Toilet Table Made by Sheraton and
Which May be Reproduced by the Amateur Who Will Follow Instructions

By J. H. RUDD
HE enclosed toilet table (details of which are resumed the use of the fine American hardwood report

illustrated) is copied from a genuine Sheraton that their largest orders have come from the Pacific Coast,
example. The date would be about 1790-1795. and that the demand out there has already reached the

This was the only type of dressing table in use proportions of a vogue. It is possible that the usual order until after the close of the Eighteenth century. Immedi- of things will be reversed, an dthat black walnut will ately under the glass in the center is a well with a thin work its way East instead of coming from the East to the vertical partition across, dividing it into two compart- remainder of the country. However, inasmuch as pracments. At the back of the side drawers are also wells tically every manufacturer of note is expected to include with hinged covers, which are flush with the top of the walnut in his July line, the chances are that stores in rails when closed. The

all parts of the counglass, when raised, can

try will be stocked up be moved forward or

with furniture made of backward as desired,

American walnut for the base board being in

the fall trade, and after

that it will be easy to a groove made by relapping the partition

determine in which secand placing a bead over

tion walnut furniture the top of the board.

is most popular. The The strut support

West has the edge in ing the glass is made

this respect just now, of three ply. The

but it is possible that base board is thinner in

the South or the North the center than at the

will take precedence sides to take in the

after something like thickness of the strut,

complete distribution thus allowing the glass

has been brought about. to lie flat on the board when lowered. The mir

Industrial ror can be adjusted to

Education various angles by plac

CROSS SECTION

IIE National Soing the bottom of the

ciety for the strut into the bevelled

Promotion of Incuts made in the base.

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dustrial Education has board. The slides which

just issued Bulletin No. support the top when

18, which contains all open are cased in and

the important addresses are prevented from

made at the convention being pulled out alto

of the society named, gether by dowels which

and of the Vocational run in a slot. The slot

Guidance Association, and holes are prepared

held in Grand Rapids, and the dowels placed

in October last. The in position after polish

report consists of 260 ing. If they are placed

pages, is admirably before polishing it is

classified and is quite difficult to make a clean

the most extensive and job of the corners. With

complete report which the top opened it makes

the National Society a convenient table for

has ever printed. Fully a lady and quite in

a week was devoted to keeping with the END ELEVATION

FRONT ELEVATION the meetings in condemands and style of

nection with the gathfurnishings prevailing today. It should be made in

ering, and some of these, outside the regularly promabogany with ebonized cock beads, handles, and paterae. grammed sessions of the association are not included.

But the big things of that great week are all included. The West and Black Walnut

The report is being sent to the members of the National HE East is usually looked to for fashion indica

Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education, memtions, in clothes, at least; but the West seems to

bership in which can be had on payment of $2 per have "put one over" on the effete section toward annum. The address by Prof. Charles R. Richards on the rising sun by starting the revival of black walnut “Ilow Shall We Study the Industries for the Purposes of furniture. Factories in the Middle West which have Vocational Guidance," has been put in a separate pamphlet.

END SECTION SHEWING GLASS RAISED

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FIQURED VENLER
GRAIN VERTICAL

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Dealing Vresis May be Propelled With Best Results Cards Should be Provided for Wheels

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de Asviation of German Engineers began Zeste ezin it speed tests of abrasive wheels. These Se spunered by Prof. Grubler, of Dresden. All SLR Ter innted to submit a 20 inch wheel to !! Il it hurt About 60 wheels, including sandari makes, were tested in this manner. Telt is 1 viele, demonstrated the entire safety of of wheels when properly used, for while the remang speed of a 20 inch wheel is 755 revoluer minute, the poorest wheel was tested at 2615 Lanas wire it burst. The best record was made 1 took amorindim wheel. This stood 4,340 revolu

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I ne tollowing suggestions are observed, accidents mnting vheels may be reduced to a point where

me a small factor to be reckoned with. allinding machinery is located where the anfeient light to enable him to see to do that every wheel in the plant is provided bed guard). There are a number of en several that are exceedingly worthy the wheel to be used is less than by the Elastic Bond wheel. If by a wheel with a wire webbing bene and thicker contain sufficient dry strength to warrant safety. ne viel in the arbor, examine it and - 105ked. This can be done best emeral rod through the arbor hole of to the ear and tapping the metal. If the wheel is sound 1 Telemag. I eracked, it will sound dead. mis nest is that while every manufacturer is wheel is perfect when it leaves the veis are often injured in shipment and toding after they have reached their final des

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Do Not Crowd Machinery

re a vial on the arbor. If it is too tight, ar the end with a pocket knife until it will go Theater veut foreing. See that the flanges are never fareter. One-third of the diameter of the sa sie d'ameter for the flanges. Flanges should *he mifef type, having their wheel contact at the

vur use a hammer to loosen or tighten a nut. Tighten a va poy moderately tight, tight enough to make sure wid not work loose, but never so tight as to cause asing train at the point of flange contact. See that wel rest is kept up close to the wheel so as to leave et the work being caught between the wheel and est, and I want to say right here, that more are due to work being caught between the rest wheel than from all other causes. After you Mered the wheel on the arbor, tightened the nut austed the tool rest, take hold of the belt and we've the wheel slowly by hand, to see if the wheel is If it wabbles sideways, take it off and bok at your wheel and flanges and see if there are any

I

FACTURER

AND

use.

lumps or foreign matter on the wheel or the flange, that and he then being assigned to the work which he is best are causing it to run out of true. Usually the trouble will qualified to do; care is taken that every new employe is be found to be foreign matter on either the flange or educated in how to do his work safely and every possible wheel and when the wheel is replaced, it will be found to opportunity is taken to keep "safety always" before every run true.

employe and to so fix it in his mind that it is not forIf your wheel runs out of true on the cutting base, gotten. chalk mark it and turn the high spot to the top, hold it with your left hand, now loosen the nut just enough to

Scheduling vs. Cost Findings allow the wheel to slip in the flanges, press down on the wheel, tighten the nut and nine out of ten cases, you T WAS with considerable interest that I read the have overcome your trouble. A good practice to follow article entitled, “An Antidote for the Cost Sysis to take a light cut off of a new wheel before using it. tem," in the March issue of The FURNITURE MANUThis should be done with a Huntington dresser. Set

ARTISAN. Mr. Upholt has the right your tool rest out from your wheel just enough so as to

theoretical idea as to the value of standardizing and hook the guide lugs of the dresser over the inside edge of scheduling operations, and his article shows that he apprethe rest, having the dresser just come in contact with the

ciates the difficulties of putting the plan into practical face of the wheel. Start up your machine, pass your

That it can be put into practical use is certain, dresser back and fourth across the face of the wheel,

because similar plans are in use in many plants. raising the handle enough to cause the dresser to cut. A Sifted to its basic principles the article advocates nothwheel cannot be brought back into round by holding the ing more nor less than a bonus, or a premium, system for dresser free in the hand. It is absolutely necessary to the payment of labor, and it calls for nothing that has use the rest to guide the dresser. The use of a bunch of not been tried and proved practical, if used with intelliwashers on an iron rod to dress grinding wheel should be gence. "Speedy" Taylor, F. A. Halsey, H. L. Gantt, and discouraged. In dressing wheels on saw gumming machin- many others, embody such features in their efficiency work. ery, a carborundum stick or Metcalf dresser will give the The title given to the article would indicate that the best result. When you have made sure that your wheel cost system is a poison, and that the "schedule" system is is running true, start your machine up. Always stand to a curative. I cannot agree with this as a whole, for in one side, out of line of the wheel. If the machine shakes these days of close competition the cost system is essenand rattles, examine your bearings. If they are in good tial to the welfare of any industry. It may be said that shape, the chances are the wheel is out of balance; take I am "begging the question," since the schedule system, it off and do not use it.

properly laid out, finally resolves itself into a cost system. If the foregoing suggestions have been followed and

I admit that, but ask, for the sake of argument, and in the the wheel has been running up to speed, and then later

hope of promoting further discussion, how the introducon, breaks, you may be sure that the wheel has been

tion of a schedule system will eliminate the irritation to injured. Speed of wheels, 5,000 ft. periphery per minute

the worker caused by the proper introduction of a straight is the standard wheel speed for grinding wheels and is

cost system. found to be the most practical for wood-working. The

Mr. I'pholt says, “Any scheme for checking closely the exceptions are cup wheels for knife grinding and saw worker's time is a continuous source of irritation to him. sharpening wheels. Cup wheels are run slower and many

No amount of explaining will be effective in changing the saw filers get better results running their wheels to 200 attitude of the average employe in this respect. This is revolutions per minute under the recommended speed. If especially true when a time recording instrument is used a wheel is too hard, it has a tendency to heat and case

for registering elapsed time, on cards, and this is the only harden. If too soft, it wears away too fast. Increasing

accurate way of getting at it." the speed of a grinding wheel gives it the effect of a In return I ask-if you set a specific task for a workharder wheel; decreasing the speed gives the effect of a man, and see how near he comes to the performance of softer wheel and makes it cut cooler, and will often stop

that task, is he not being checked just as, if not more heating and case hardening.

closely than, he would be in any other way? The average If you desire to cut down your grinding expenses, im

workman will be just as apt to resent being told to "do prove your finish and cost of production, secure the ser

this in two hours” as he will being asked, “How long did vices of the efficiency department of a good grinding wheel

it take?" manufacturer, and good means the best.

Again, the statement is made, “It is the business of the management to know what it costs to do any piece of

work connected with their line." What I want to know, Records of Accident Reductions

is how the management is going to know what any thing R. FRANCIS D. PATTERSON, director of the costs without some preliminary checking, and how it is Department of Sanitation and Accident Preven- going to be possible to set a schedule without some check

tion, of Harrison Brothers & Co., Inc., of Phila- ing. delphia, Pa., states that the reduction of accidents for Scheduling and standardizing operations is a great step the year 1913 compared with the average of the two toward higher efficiency, but no man wants to get carried previous years shows a reduction of 69.7 per cent. This away with the idea that the plan will eliminate any irritacompany employs about 900 employes. The business of tion if, through lack of foresight, the human equation is the company is the manufacture of paint, colors, varnish, not given due consideration. The man who works to white lead and chemicals, and in these industries there accomplish a set task is no more at liberty than the one are of necessity accident hazards which it is not possible who has bis time checked on a clock. If by the use of a to safeguard by mechanical guards. While mechanical schedule, or any other system, you can show the operator guards have been used wherever possible, the majority of that he, as well as the company, is apt to reap greater the reduction in accidents is attributed to the campaign benefits by making a change, he is quite apt to meet you of education which is always being carried on, the new part way. But in most cases you have to show him in employe being physically examined so as to know that good shape, or you will not get efficient service, no matter his health is first-class at the time of his employment what system you use.

CHAS. DUPREY.

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