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is being worked. Two sets of sectional feed rolls adjust themselves automatically three-quarters of an inch horizontally and one-quarter of an inch vertically, to provide for the variations in the stock that is being handled. The attachment is arranged for four rates of feed, easily controlled and, as in all similar machines, the working parts
hand planer, instead of to the floor, as is the case with the other machines shown. When it is desired to swing
are protected so that the operator's hands need never get in close proximity to the moving parts. The removable hood of metal which covers the feed rolls is seen in place in figures 3 and 4.
The next two figures, 6 and 7, show a type of feeder with one set of sectional feed rolls instead of two, as shown in the other roll feed type. Whereas, the former
machine mentioned has rolls with a corrugated surface, this one is fitted with the spur rolls, the spurs of which are easily seen in figure 6. The spur sectional roll is made equal in width to the hand planer to which it is applied. These rolls have spring pressures and are carried in a heavy housing on two uprights set into boxes bolted to the sides of the machine. The feed rolls are raised and lowered by the hand wheel process, and the power is transmitted to the rolls through spur gears, which are in turn driven by link chains and belt from the countershaft. It will be noted that this machine is bolted direct to the
invented for feeding stock over a buzz planer. The story of its origin may hardly be called romantic, but is none the less interesting. After several men had been mangled
The traveling bed is somewhat similar to the machine illustrated in figures 1 and 2. This bed is set above the jointer table, and is provided with feed and pressure fingers of hardened steel backed up by coil springs. These fingers exert an elastic and well distributed pressure on the board in front as well as in the rear of the knives. By regulating the height of the bed, which can be done without stopping the machine, the attachment can be set
to doing so that those not familiar with its operation will experience a delightful shock when they attach one to their hand machine. The attachments are made to fit any width of hand planer, and they soon pay for their installation, for they do just as good work as is done by hand and do it faster. As with the purchase of any equipment, the selection should not be made blindly, but a fair consideration given to the conditions and requirements of the plant. There is no furniture factory that is without a feeder attachment, but what would profit to some extent if one
were installed. It need not be a case of "Let the buyer beware," because the manufacturers of the machines described are ready to stand the expense of proving the efficiency and practical features of their several machines.
Save the man and save the dollar, is a pretty good slogan. This can be done with the automatic feeder jointer attachment, because it prevents jointer accidents and increases and improves the output.
CONSERVATION OF THE MAN
Why Not Give the Same Attention to the Man as to the Machine or the Animal?---Things Which are Overlooked in the Effort to Secure Efficiency
By C. M. MACKAY
N THESE days of strenuous effort to increase the efficiency of the factory force, there is one question that is receiving considerable attention in certain quarters; but this consideration is not as general as it ought to be. It is pretty generally recognized that the average workman is capable of accomplishing only about one-half of what he ought to be able to do. For this there is a reason, and it shall be the object of this article to try and find out the reason for this deficiency and try and shed some light on the subject of a more efficient man.
I have before me at the present time an address by the president of an agricultural college in which the speaker points out the wonderful advances that have been made in the way of increasing the efficiency of horses, cattle, sheep and other domestic animals, as well as the great increase in the productiveness of land within the last decade. For the purpose of a scientific study and research into what the speaker called, "Some Rural Problems," and for the purpose of spreading the information thus obtained throughout the land that it may come within the reach of all classes of society, millions of dollars are expended every year by the various countries of the world. All this in order that the land on which we live may be made more productive and that horses, sheep and other domestic animals may be better cared for, better developed and made more efficient and therefore more productive.
What does all this mean? What has been the result? We have, in this mad race for bread and milk, lost sight of the fact that "man cannot live by bread alone," and that he must have air, and books and plenty of other things in order to be a perfectly developed man.
Getting the Man's Interest
I go to the average mechanic's home in the evening and I find him, if he is at home and not reading a poultry journal, at the rear of his house in the poultry pen. I try to engage him in conversation regarding a nice flower bed which his wife was watering as I came in, but he is not interested. I speak of his three nice children who are outside playing. "I suppose they are like most other children," he says, and then lapses into silence, and becomes interested in the antics of a rooster at the far side of the pen. I attempt to open a discussion on questions of hygiene and the importance of observing some of the simple rules of health in the way of pure food and air and cleanliness for both parents and children, but apart from a slight frown denoting impatience, he is quite impassive and unresponsive. But the very moment I speak of the best kind of food for laying hens, his face lights up with a great light and he becomes interested at once. He can talk long and eloquently on the needs of hens, but knows nothing and apparently cares nothing for the needs of his children or of himself.
With such studied indifference to the welfare of the present and rising generations need we be surprised, or
wonder at the fact that the human race is only about 50 per cent. efficient. Nothing happens by chance. Everything has a cause. There is a reason for everything. There is a reason why so many children die before they are one year old. There is a reason why so many men die at the age of twenty, thirty or forty, while others live to be seventy or eighty. Is it worth while trying to ascertain the reason and effect a remedy? Or are our horses and cattle of more value than our boys and men? Why is it that men are so indifferent to their own welfare and so interested in some domestic animal? Why do our governments spend millions of dollars to teach the people how to improve the health and appearance and general efficiency of horses, how to get more milk from cows and more eggs from hens; but not a dollar for the acquisition and dissemination of information regarding the care of man, or for the solution of any of these great human problems arising from man's inefficiency. True we have our medical colleges, but these impart information only to a select few, and not to the general public.
The Ability of the Men
Notwithstanding the great advance made along the line of agricultural pursuits, the college president before quoted said: "There never was a time when instruction in farming was so much needed as at the present time." With how much more truth could it be said that there never was a time in the history of the world when instruction in the care and development of the human race was so much needed as at the present time; and there never was a time when less seemed to be available.
Every employer of labor is concerned about the ability of the men in his employ to properly conserve the material he uses and the machines he operates; but how many are concerned about the conservation of the operator. In many factories there are rules posted up for the guidance of workmen in the care of material and machines, but nothing to guide them in the care of the most valuable asset the factory has-the employe. If an engineer did not keep his engine clean and all the various parts nicely oiled so that all may work with the least possible friction, he would soon be discharged. But where is the employer who takes sufficient interest in his engineer to bring to his attention the vast importance of observing certain rules in order that every organ of his "fearfully and wonderfully" made body may properly perform its functions.
A teamster is taught the necessity of removing all the harness from his horses at night and giving them a thorough cleaning; but how many teamsters are taught that in the interests of their own health it is important that they do not sleep in any of the clothes worn through the day, and that it is equally important that their bodies be thoroughly cleaned before retiring for the night. If an employer saw his horses being brought from the stable
in the morning without being cleaned, he would make it his business to see that the teamster received some instructions regarding the matter. But what about the teamster who comes out unwashed and uncombed? Is no one sufficiently interested in him to instruct him in the importance of changing his habits?
Was Swift right in his "Gulliver's Travels" when, with his fine sarcasm, he tried to prove that man had become the slave of the lower order of Leings?
"Man is the most valuable asset in the factory." These words were spoken to the writer several years ago by a very successful manufacturer. "A man with a healthy body and mind is a wonder-working thing." If this is true, and if it is true is it not worth while for employers to place before their employes such information as is at the present time available for the preservation of the body and mind. On employers this duty must devolve. If it is not a duty they owe to those under them, then it is a duty they owe to themselves to preserve intact this valuable asset, man.
Care of the Physical Man
There is a way to feed a horse and there is a way to feed a machine in order to obtain best results, and the men whose duty it is to do this are taught how to do it. There is a way to feed a man; but when we see men stuffing themselves, paying little or no attention to the chewing of their food, returning to their work after dinner feeling worse than before they left off, one is liable to come to the conclusion that the men who know how to feed horses and machines do not know how to feed themselves.
The importance of carrying away all waste from the machine is fully recognized. In this age of high speed machines, if this waste were allowed to accumulate it would soon clog the machine and bring all its parts to a standstill. Men are like machines in this respect. The food we eat contains elements necessary to our sustenance. Part of it goes to make brain, part to make musele, part to make flesh, part to make bone and part to make blood. The balance is waste matter and passes away from the system, carrying with it impurities that have been thrown off by various organs. If this function is not regularly performed, the human machine, like the iron machine, becomes clogged, and the operating table in the hospital and the surgeon's knife are frequently required to bring the man around.
Bad Living Conditions
The conditions under which some men live in congested districts has created what is known as the housing problem. Whole families living in one or two rooms, cooking, eating, sleeping all together. Living under such conditions, the greatest asset any country can possess will soon be destroyed.
The conditions under which men live have a deadening effect upon the mind. They are more stupid than they out to Le. Such men working on dangerous machines do not fully appreciate their position, and the result is a much larger number of accidents than there need be. Safety appliances will not prevent such men getting injured.
Every accident that has ever happened might have been prevented. The cause of nearly every accident can be ascertained by a subsequent investigation. This means that had the cause been discovered and removed prior to the accident it would not have happened. Many accidents are attributed to carelessness, and this is thoughtlessness. Many do not think. Their bodies are sluggish and their minds are sluggish. They see the thing that is going to cause the accident; but things move along faster than the mind and the accident has happened before they realized the danger.
While considering the question of safety devices, let us not lose sight of the greatest safety device of all, and without which all other devices are useless. A quick, alert mind in a sound, healthy body will prevent more accidents than all the mechanical contrivances that can be invented. This does not mean that we should neglect these devices. Anything and everything that will minimize the possibility of accidents should be done. It is a case of, "This ye ought to do and not leave the other undone."
Some Points on Balancing Knives
T IS rather unusual to find good knife facilities in the general run of mills, but with a knowledge of the basic idea or principles of a running balance, anyone with the ordinary experience and some little ingenuity can keep his knives in good balance, and there is no doubt about this being a vital part of the work as far as good finishing is concerned.
A planer knife is not different from a molder knife, and one would not think of putting a wide and short knife on a cylinder to balance a long and narrow knife.
The same principle applies to a planer knife to the extent that a straight knife should be of an even width as its mate, even though it should not be of an exact width from end to end. In other words, if two knives are of an even thickness and length, though they be three inches at one end and four at the other, if both knives are so tapered in width, they will still be in a running balance, and would balance each other on a seale by dead weight, but would not balance each other if turned opposite ends on a lalaneing scale. Of course, any variation in width as extreme as this would be unusual, but it illustrates the principle of a running balance. Knives used on wide planers on which a good deal of narrow stock is run to one side of the machine are often found to vary as much as an eighth of an inch in width which is something any grinder can prevent. The writer grinds his knives on a common grindstone without any frame or fitting other than a seat holder, but the knives are kept an exact width from end to end (but the bevels vary, being longer at the ends than in the center, but on the same principle as a molder knife this does not offset the balance). If both knives are of an exact width and thickness and length, any variation from an exact width will not offset the balance if it is alike in both knives. There are times when I have to grind one knife to get it to balance, and I prefer to grind narrow slots on the back of the knife, near the cutting edge rather than to drill holes in the back near the heel. It does not affect the strength of the knife and being the farthest point of the travel, the centrifugal strain is grinding is done nearer the center of travel. But there greater and requires less to be ground off than if the is little or no reason for getting knives in this condition, and when it has been done, if it will be borne in mind that both knives should be exactly alike in shape, there is little difficulty in keeping them in a running balance, though they would not be in a standing balance in all positions-Disston's Crucible.