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You see the Berlin Sander finishing stock economically for the popular Hoosier Kitchen Cabinets, in the plant of the Hoosier Manufacturing Co., New Castle, Indiana. Notice that they get full use of the entire width of the bed. They can do this because their stock is carefully sized, and because the "Berlin" is capable of very close adjustments - adjustments of feed and pressure rolls as close as 1-1000 of an inch.

Quality Sanding at Low Cost Demands a "Berlin"

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Proven Best Drums

The patented Spiral Drum, because of its continuous cutting surface, is recognized to give the best satisfaction where the finest finish is desired. We can, however, furnish a Straight-opening Drum, superior to other drums of that type because of its smaller longitudinal opening, and sectional automatic take-up device.

30 Years Developing

It has taken 30 years to bring Berlin Sanders up to their present state of perfection. We began with one type of sander. Today we build sanders for every purpose, and more of them than any other manufacturer. The simple reason is that Berlin Sanders give the finest quality sanding at the lowest cost.

Each drum of a "Berlin" can be ad-
justed separately or all simultaneously
with one hand wheel only. This hand-
wheel is located in the most convenient
place at the left of the infeeding end-
never hinders the making of an adjust-
ment, even when the bed is full of stock.
Let us send you complete information on a sander
suited to your work in particular.-Write today.

On the "Berlin" only, can the operator reverse the feed. He simply throws over a small hand lever, causing the stock


Largest Manufacturers of Woodworking Machinery in the World Canadian Plant,

Hamilton, Ontario

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Some of the Trade-Marks Now Being Used by Well-known Furniture Manufacturers, Together With Statements of Their Origin and Value to Users By C. P. McDONALD


O ASK a furniture manufacturer what he thinks of his trade-mark is almost synonymous with asking him whether or not he loves his wife. Most of them swear by their trade-marks, a few of

them swear at the laws governing their issuance, and occasionally you will find one who seems to have lost all confidence in humanity.

Taken in their entirety, however, it seems to be the consensus of opinion that the trade-mark and good business go hand in hand, and without the former the latter is uncertain.

For the true meaning of the word "trade-mark," we take the liberty of quoting the old reliable Century dictionary:

"A distinguishing mark or device adopted by a manufacturer, and impressed on his goods, labels, etc., to indicate the origin or manufacturer.

year 1908 this second trade-mark was slightly modified. "The original contained the word 'Macey' in heavy script, the words 'Grand Rapids, Mich.,' being shown in white letters in the black tail to the letter 'Y'. The first

revision was the simple word 'Macey' in script slightly more symmetrical than the original; and the final revision embodied the word 'Macey' in still plainer script, the word being surrounded by a plain black oval.

"Mr. Macey was born in Grand Rapids and lived there all his life. He died in 1904. For many years he was connected with the Bissell Carpet Sweeper Company, and it was while with this firm that he conceived the idea of selling desks by mail. In 1893 he left the Bissell concern and embarked in the mail order business on his own account. After conducting the business alone for a time, he incorporated the Fred Macey Company, Limited, which later was taken over by the Macey Company, a Michigan corporation.



The foundation of the protection afforded by the law to the owners of trade-marks is in the injustice done to one whose trade has acquired favor with the public if competitors are allowed, by colorable imitation of methods first adopted and continuously used by him for making his products recognizable, to induce intending purchasers to take their goods instead of his."

The purpose of this symposium is to give briefly the views of various furniture manufacturers on the value of recognized trade-marks to the maker, the trade, and the consumer, and to include, wherever possible, a short sketch of the originator of each imprint.

There are, naturally, a great many well-known trademarks, and it therefore is but logical to begin this narrative with a few curt expressions by E. K. Pritchett, secretary of the Macey Company:

"The original Macey trade-mark," said Mr. Pritchett, "was used by Fred Macey on desks and furniture sold by him. To give it a more distinctive form and to make it more adaptable to all classes of merchandise made by this company, th original was slightly changed. In the


"The Macey trade-mark has been used for upwards of twenty years. It is placed on all products of the Macey Company and stands as a mark of quality and integrity. It has been extensively advertised in connection with this company's advertising, being placed on everything the company produces.

"We believe that the value of trade-marks on furniture can not be too highly estimated. It is the stamp of individuality and gives the public notice of the class and quality of goods they may expect under it. It insures to them that the manufacturer once having established a reputation under his trade-mark necessarily will maintain the standard he has set. This is a protection to the public against fraud in quality and service.

"The value of the trade-mark to the trade rests to a large extent upon the fact that the consumer, knowing the trade-mark, purchases goods so marked with less effort on the part of the salesman because of a certain knowledge that the goods are as represented.


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"The value of the trade-mark to the manufacturer lies in the fact that it individualizes his goods, prevents piracy and misrepresentation from unscrupulous manufacturers, thereby furnishing an incentive toward the improvement in his line and maintenance of the quality of goods."

E. H. Outerbridge, treasurer and vice-president of the Pantasote Leather Company, directed the design of the trade-mark of that concern. It was registered in 1891 or 1892, and has been registered in the United States and in many foreign countries. Mr. Outerbridge was born in Philadelphia, in 1860.

Though not in the furniture business in the generally accepted sense of the word, the products of the company are largely used in the furniture business for upholstery


Mr. Outerbridge's views on existing trade-mark laws are shared in by many other manufacturers of various articles. He said:

"I believe there is no doubt as to the value of a recognized trade-mark, but the value would be greatly enhanced if there were not so many conflicting state laws referring to trade-marks which permit their misuse and misrepresentation; and to obtain punishment compels the production of a character of proof which it is almost impossible for the injured person or concern to obtain. Civil procedure against infringers of trade-marks all over the country, either by injunction or for damages, is impracticable and too expensive. Deliberate misrepresentation or substitution of spurious goods for those known by a registered trade-mark should in itself be a criminal act and therefore able to be reached in a prompt and inexpensive manner by making an example which would tend to prevent others from doing likewise.

"If a man's hen-roost is being systematically robbed, he does not try to stop the theft by getting out an injunction against the thieves or by civil procedure to recover the value of the property stolen. He sets a watch to catch the thieves, and when once caught, they are handed over to the criminal authorities. Incarceration in jail is a serious deterrent to other marauders. If the same law prevailed as to trade-marks, manufacturers and consumers alike would have a genuine, real protection-something which does not now exist."

"Some day," declared C. B. Hamilton, sales manager of the Berkey & Gay Furniture Company, "it well may be that we will look for the name of the maker on our furniture, as we now do for Steinway on a piano. When furniture is the concrete expression of an ideal, it should as well be signed as a painting, or a poem, or a statue. Only when it is so signed or accompanied by some identifying mark can the ultimate purchaser, unless he be discriminating, feel secure in his purchase, so clever are present-day imitators.

"The knowledge that certain dealers were merchandising on their reputation led Berkey & Gay to adopt a shop mark, which they inlay in every piece of their manufacture. This shop mark takes the place of their signature; it means identification and protection. Today salesmen show it before you ask to see it; they know what it stands for and recognize its worth.

"The idea of shop-marking our furniture, therefore, did not originate in the minds of the founders of the business-Julius Berkey and George W. Gay. As I say, this was forced upon us by the fact that what was purported to be our furniture was being sold by unscrupulous dealers who were trading on our reputation, and the primary purpose in putting the shop mark in our furniture was to offset this tendency. "From that step-which was taken about six or seven years ago-it was but a step further to popularize this shop mark by a national magazine advertising campaign. While the Berkey & Gay Furniture Company has advertised more or less for the last ten years, it is only within the last five years that we have used large space and a really aggressive campaign.

"We naturally take great pride in and place much value on our shop mark and inlay it in each piece of furniture we manufacture. The woman who purchases a piece of furniture from a retail store, when she pays a price that is worthy of the material and workmanship, is entitled to know that that furniture is well manufactured, is in design what it purports to be, and will be adjusted should it be different. This kind of a guarantee should go back further than the man who sells the furniture, and we believe the manufacturer therefore is responsible to the consumer for his product. Today, people who buy Berkey & Gay furniture know that it is protected by such a guarantee, and we believe this is of very great service to the consumer of this country."

Fred N. Tate, president of the Continental Furniture Company, High Point, N. C., designed and prepared the trade-mark for that concern. Mr. Tate was born

in Canada forty-six years ago. In 1902 he founded the Continental Furniture Company, and for fifteen years before that time had been closely identified with the furniture interests of High Point.

"Our trade-mark," said Mr. Tate, "never has been registered. It was adopted and first used in 1911. We affix it to the backs of all our furniture and it also appears on all our stationery.

"In my opinion, a recognized trade-mark is valuable in many ways. It usually


carries with it the assurance of high quality, which is an evidence that the manufacturer is not ashamed of his goods. It also helps to constantly keep before the buying public the name of the manufacturer and the quality of his product, and in a general way materially assists in establishing a line of merchandise.

"During the last twelve years we have more than doubled our capacity and resources and have conducted a fairly prosperous business. Our line is composed of medium and high-grade chamber and dining-room furniture manufactured in mahogany and quarter-sawed oak, and our trade covers practically all of the United States. We also enjoy an appreciable export business."

S. Webster Stone, of Grand Rapids, is responsible for the trade-mark of the Jamestown Lounge Company. For several years it has been used on the furniture made by this company-just how long, R. H. Cornell, the company's advertising manager, is unable to state.

"In my opinion," said Mr. Cornell, "a registered trade-mark is of value only when consistently advertised, to both the dealer and the consumer. Not until you have definitely impressed your trade-mark and the connection in which it is used upon the mind of the ultimate purchaser of your product, do you cash in on it. On the other hand, the trade-mark-especially a good trade-mark-is of infinite value to the manufacturer, the dealer, and the consumer. To the consumer, it is a guarantee of work well done, and insures satisfaction in the article in which he invests.

"To the dealer, it means added prestige and consequently increased business. It will pay any dealer to coöperate with the 'live' manufacturer by advertising that manufacturer's trade-marked product. To the manufacturer, it is an asset which, if operated at its full efficiency, will without fail bring a large measure of success. But these facts are true only through the consistent and intelligent use of white space in mediums of proven value.

"The Jamestown Lounge Company can not rightfully credit its trade-mark for its healthy growth-that is, not wholly because the company never has exploited its trade-marked goods as thoroughly as they really warrant. Our success rather is due to the uniformly good character of the sales force, together with a factory service which generally proves of value to the dealer."

The Globe-Wernicke Company-known throughout the civilized world for the quality of its sectional bookcases, filing cabinets in wood and steel, and stationers' supplies has not an established trade-mark. Its type line, however, "The GlobeWernicke Co.," has been indelibly impressed upon the memories of almost everyone who can read and write by reason of the company's consistent and everlasting national advertising campaigns. The origin of the type line is not known, inasmuch as the men who were connected with its selection are either dead or have severed their

active relationship with the company. Many years ago the executives decided to adopt a distinctive form of name plate. An artist was engaged to sketch several styles, from which one finally was selected. In giving his views on the value of a trade-mark, H. L. Martin, advertising manager of the company, said:

"What would be the result if every manufacturer making iron beds, for example, decided to attach his trade-mark to the product, and Adams, Brown, Chase, Davis, Evans, and so on down through the alphabet put on a trade-mark? Or suppose every silk manufacturer in the United States, France and Japan had his name marked on the selvage. Wouldn't it be rather a disadvantage than an advantage to the consumer who could not possibly be expected to remember the name? Whereas, she now has only to depend on her dealer's guarantee. If the goods prove unsatisfactory, he takes them back and it then is up to the manufacturer.

"The great advantage of the trade-mark comes to the leader who blazes the way and establishes his name first, and who continues to hold his prestige by extensive advertising of that trade-mark. Undoubtedly, the agency of the trade-marked line having a national reputation has been the one medium by which thousands of dealers have been able to establish credit at home, and it has made them successful in competing with the large mail order houses handling unidentified lines of furniture."

The Parkersburg Chair Company, of Parkersburg, W. Va., never has had a trademark because, as an official of that company puts it, "We never have been able to get one that seems at all suitable or satisfactory."

Another trade-mark whose origin and history have been obliterated by the passing of the years, is that of the Voss Table Company, of Louisville, Ky.

The trade-mark of S. Karpen & Bros., Chicago, was originated by Julius Karpen (deceased), and was first used on Karpen Guaranteed Upholstered Furniture in 1897. It never has been registered.

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"To a great extent the growth of the Karpen factories is due to the confidence which our trade-mark has created and established in the minds of the buying public." said one of the officers of the company. "It is an unrestricted guarantee of 'Satisfaction or Money Back,' and people recognize it as such and generally demand that the trade-mark be attached to the pieces purchased. The dealer who exhibits this Moon Desk Co.. Muskegon, Mich.

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