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Here are some of the groups of which all of us are likely to be members in our daily lives :

1. Some of these groups are connected with the ways in which their members earn money. Sometimes we refer to these as the business groups or work groups. Among them we find the groups of people who work in mines or factories or stores. We find groups of farmers who grow things from the earth. We find groups of bankers, of school teachers, of railroad workers, and of many other kinds of workers. Everyone who earns a living belongs to some business or work group.

2. Another set of groups are closely connected with the homes of America. These are our family groups. There are millions of families in this country. We depend on families to bring up the children of our Nation and train them to be good citizens. We expect families to guard the health of their own members. In this task the families are aided by health groups, such as hospital workers, doctors, and nurses. They are also aided by the play or exercise groups, such as hiking clubs and other kinds of athletic clubs.

These family groups are parts of larger groups. A number of families make a neighborhood, a number of neighborhood groups make a larger community, many communities make a State, and 48 States make up the United States.

3. A third set of our groups are the religious groups. They help us to learn the true values of life—what is right or wrong--and about unselfishness and the best way of living. This set of groups include the priests, ministers, pastors, and teachers of all the different kinds of churches, parishes, and synagogues, their workers, and the members of their congregations, organizations, and schools. Nearly all of us belong to one or more of these groups.

4. We call another set of groups the education groups. Their purpose is to teach people how to live better, with more wisdom and good judgment. Of course, many other groups help to do this, but the education groups have it as their chief objective. This set of groups include the teachers and students of our schools, colleges, universities, Americanization schools, and other kinds of training classes. They also include reading groups, and groups to study music, painting, poetry, and other forms of art. You probably have a number of such groups in your own community.

5. Another set of groups are occupied mainly with government. We call these our government groups.

In these groups we can place every person who helps to manage or has any part in the government of any township, town, county, city, or State, or of the whole Nation. Most of these groups are parts of larger groups. Some one has said that in our group life we live in “wheels within wheels." Look at Figure 4 and you will see how our smaller government groups fit into larger ones. Many townships make up 1 county. Many counties make up 1 State; 48 States together make up the Nation known as the United States; and about 60 nations make up the world community.

You can probably think of many other groups of which you or your friends are members. If you can, please make a list of them, and of what they do, to be talked over in your class. Be sure to keep the list, as you may be able to add many things to it when you have finished the next two or three chapters.

THINGS TO DO

Questions to discuss in your study group:

1. Why did the early settlers come to this country to make their homes ?

2. What did they bring from their home lands to add to the new country?

3. Look at the map facing the first page of your book. Find the State in which you live. In what part of the United States is it located ? In what part of the State do

you live?

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4. What does the quotation at the beginning of this chapter mean?

5. Name all the groups you can remember which exist in your local community. To how many of them do you belong? Are you the leader of any of them?

6. Can you think of any groups which you would like to have added to your community? How do you think they would help the families of the community?

7. Can you think of any groups you would not want added to your community? Why not?

8. What kinds of work do the people in your community do? Try to make a complete list of the work groups in your community. You might begin by learning the kind of work done by each member in your study group.

9. Name the education groups in your community. Remember that your own class is one of them. What do education groups try to do?

10. Are there any music, painting, or other art groups in your community? What do these groups try to do?

11. Name at least three of the government groups of which a citizen may be a member. What do we mean by saying that in our government groups we live in “wheels within wheels”?

12. What do we mean by saying that America is made up of hundreds and thousands of groups? Are they all of the same size? Are they all good ? Do they all work together?

Words* which the student should understand:

In this chapter we have used some new words. Each student should be sure that he understands the meaning of each of them. Discuss them in your study group and use them in sentences. Be sure you include the following list:

*Difficult words, which are printed in italic type in this chapter, are explained at the end of the chapter simply and in the sense in which they have been used in our discussion. A similar list will appear at the end of each of the chapters which follow.

Americanization-plans and ways which help foreign-born per

sons to become good American citizens. anti-socialagainst the good of the people. citizen—a full member of a city, State, or Nation. citizenship—membership in a city, State, or Nation. civic-interested in the good of a city or community. classifydivide into classes. communitya group of people living together who have some

common interest; usually it is the good of their own neighbor

hood, city, or State. congregations-groups of people who come together for religious

services. counties-parts into which a State is divided for government

purposes. criminal groups-persons who join to do bad actions which are

against the law. customs-common uses. discuss—talk over. education-teaching and learning. government—the persons who have charge of the public business;

and the organization which they manage. hospital-a building in which sick persons are cared for. interests-special things which a person or group likes. italio type-printed letters which slope to the right. judgmentchoosing between right and wrong. local-closely connected with one place. manage-carry on. member one who is part of, or has a share in, a group. membership-a position giving a chance or right to share in a

group. nationalbig enough for the whole nation. neighborhoodplace where people live close together; every

thing near you is in your neighborhood.
objective-purpose or aim,
opportunity-chance to better oneself.
organizations-groups working under clearly described officers

for particular purposes.
problems-questions to be answered.
pro-socialfor the good of the people.
religious beliefswhat we believe about God.

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