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INTERESTED IN TRAVEL AND TRANSPORTATION Various Government units are lawfully charged with considerable responsibility for the safety of travel in the United States and on the bodies of water that wash its shores, and the Government is therefore in close touch with many groups interested in transportation. All ships which operate in American waters must be inspected and approved by the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation of the Department of Commerce. Ships' officers are supplied with charts and maps prepared by the Navy Department.

Railroad, motor-hus, and motor-truck equipment must comply with safety standards set by Government units. The rates charged for various forms of interstate travel and transportation are determined by the Interstate Commerce Commission, so that the cost paid by the people for passenger, express, and freight transportation may be reasonable.

American citizens who wish to travel in foreign countries are given passports by the Department of State and are free to call upon that Department's consular officers abroad for information and help during their travels.


AND BUSINESS It is only possible to mention a few of the very great number of such contacts here. The Bureau of the Census, an agency of the Federal Department of Commerce, provides merchants and businessmen with much useful information. Besides its general census of the population taken every 10 years, it takes a census of manufactures every 2 years, and a census of agriculture and the electrical industries every 5 years. It also supplies at frequent intervals valuable official information about many trades and industries. The National Bureau of Standards in the same Department gives to merchants their correct weights and measures. The Federal Security Agency, through its Food and Drug Administration, helps manufacturers and dealers to handle only such food and drug products as come up to certain standards set by laws and regulations. The Bureau of Internal Revenue, through its Alcohol Tax Unit, regulates the manufacture of alcoholic beverages. The Department of the Interior, through its Bureau of Mines, helps the owners and operators of mines and petroleum (oil) and natural-gas properties to conduct their business safely and with as little accident and waste as possible.

In this chapter we have mentioned and described a few of the many contacts which Government units have with individual citizens and groups of citizens in matters having to do with their work, travel, business, money, and the everyday incidents of their lives. It is well to remember that, in all these contacts, a democratic government is trying to serve the people whom it represents and whose final authority gives it its right to exist. Government units in a democracy only make and enforce such laws as seem at the time to be for the good of the people.


Complete each of the following:

1. Two ways in which the Government units cooperate with wage earners in our country are:



2. Two ways in which our Government units cooperate with farmers are:



3. Two ways in which our Government units cooperate with those in charge of transportation are:


WORK PROJECT For several days try to learn some of the ways your different government units touch your life and direct your actions. Consider the streets you walk on, the food you eat, the water you drink. Talk with your neighbors about this. Then make a large chart something like the one below and fill in the blank spaces. Later you may wish to discuss your work in class.


How my governments PROTECT me:



3. Things which my governments INSPECT and REGULATE:




Things which my governments HELP by lending or giving money:



3. Things which my governments OPERATE or CONTROL:




Other services which I would like my governments to do:



Figure 57

Work Project: Services of Government Units

4. Two ways in which our Government units cooperate with the merchants are:



5. Two ways in which our Government units cooperate with investors and bank depositors are:

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1. How do the representatives whom the people elect to office know the wishes of their constitutents ?

2. Can you name some direct contacts which you have with officers of the Government ?

3. List some of the services which the Government provides for the people.

4. Can you think of some other services which you would like to have the Government perform?

5. Why is it better to have the Government perform certain services for the people than for the people themselves to do them?

Some more words which the student should understand:

conciliators—persons who meet with two disputing groups to try

to get them to agree, even though each group has to give up

something constituents—the group of persons who vote for and elect an

official to represent them in a public office.
cooperative—having all units working together to bring about one

financedfurnished with money.
safeguard-guard to protect safely.


Some Basic Principles of the United States Government



"Liberty and Union, now and forever, one, and inseparable.

-Daniel Webster.

You have nearly completed your study of the Government groups of which this great country is made up. You have learned (1) how our Government units get their authority to exist and do their work; (2) what their objectives are; (3) how they are organized and (4) how they keep contact with and cooperate with one another and with many groups of citizens in this country.

All of these factors in group living, as shown on the human hand in Figure 6, rest on certain basic principles and standards of our system of Government. These principles, therefore, have a direct influence on the authority, objectives, organization, and contacts of our Government units. Every new citizen should understand the basic principles of our Government, in order that he or she may know what obligations he or she has undertaken and what rights he or she has gained by taking an oath of allegiance and becoming a citizen.

Some of these principles and standards have to do with our Government organization and how it must be safeguarded to preserve our highly valued democracy. Others have to do with the relationship of the Government to each individual citizen and noncitizen.

In this and the following chapter we shall review many things which you have learned in the course of your study. We shall repeat many points to which you have already given much thought and discussion. For these principles

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