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Questions to discuss in your study group:

1. What are the principal kinds of taxes ?

2. In what way are the expenses of the Government our own expenses ?

3. Why should we be expected to pay for the services of our Government?

4. Give as many reasons as you can why you would not want to live in your own community if the people living there received none of the services of the Government.

5. Why are the Government units able to do so many more things for us than we could do alone

Complete each of the following:

1. The tax which we pay on our earnings is called an


2. When a person pays the Government a part of the money

which he has inherited from someone else, he pays

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3. The Department of our Federal Government in charge of all money matters is called the Department of the

4. Practically everyone who drives an automobile pays

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5. The fees collected at some canals, bridges, and ferries run by the State are called 6. States and counties issue

to hunters and fishermen for which they charge a

7. When a person breaks a law he may be punished by having to pay a

Some more words which the student should understand:

customs duties—taxes imposed by law on merchandise brought

into a country. deductions-amounts allowed to be subtracted. dependentspersons who depend on other persons to pay their

living expenses. dividendsamounts divided among owners of a company as their

share of its profits. grants-in-aid-money paid by the Federal Government to such

State governments as are willing to cooperate in relief and

welfare projects. inheritance—any property which passes to a person by law upon

the death of another person. interest

a fee paid for the use of money. luxuries—things bought for a person's pleasure and not needed

for actual living. tariffa list of different kinds of merchandise, with the rate of

tax to be paid for importing or exporting them. transactions-pieces of business completed.


How Our Government Units Work Together

“One Nation, Indivisible, with Liberty and Justice for All.”

-From the Pledge to the Flag.

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In the last chapter we discussed the cost of our governments' services and how we pay for them. In this chapter we shall find that our Nation is not made up of many parts which have nothing to do with one another. We shall learn that all parts of the Nation work with one another and for one another. The States cooperate with the Nation and the Nation cooperates with the States. The States cooperate with the cities and the cities cooperate with the States. It is because the several government units cooperate that our Nation is so strong and can render so many services to the people.



You will recall that at the very beginning of this book you learned that our country is made up of many groups and that these groups work together in order to get things done. Individual members of a family help one another as a group. Families in a neighborhood work together to make a better neighborhood. Different neighborhood groups work together to make a better town or city. School and church groups work together to improve the community life.

Our government units work together so that they can get their work done more easily and more successfully. They work together to build a stronger country for us. If this were not true, our Nation would fall to pieces—perhaps, into 48 independent States, or into thousands of uncon

"Tiş the Star Spangled Banner oh long may

it wave Oer the land of the free and the home of the brave"


"I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands: One nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."

Figure 55

Flag of the United States

nected towns and cities. But the towns, cities, States, and the Nation depend on one another in many different ways. They could hardly do without one another.

HOW THE NATION COOPERATES WITH THE STATES The National Government cooperates with the States in helping them with many of their problems. It cooperates in road building, in improving agriculture, in protecting natural wealth.

The National Government protects each State from outside invasions. It also helps to keep the peace if there is any outbreak of lawlessness which a State cannot control.

We have learned that the Federal Government has set up courts to which the States may take their disputes with one another and get a fair hearing and trial. The Federal Government guarantees each State a republican form of government. In turn, the State officials are bound by oath to support the Constitution of the United States.

As you learned earlier the Federal Government is bound by the Constitution not to exercise those powers which are left to the State governments and to the people. If it should overstep its power, the States could ask the Federal courts to stop it.

Turn back to the description of the work of the Executive Departments and independent agencies in chapters 23 and 24 (pp. 262 to 279), and you will be reminded that much of the work of government officials both at Washington and throughout the Nation consists of helping the States.

HOW THE STATES COOPERATE WITH THE NATION The States have charge of the elections at which Senators and Members of the House of Representatives are elected to the Congress. In general and within limits set by the Constitution, each State may decide what classes of persons may vote for these officials. If you will re-read the chapter which tells how the President is elected, you will see that the States play a very important part in his election also.

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