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What are the objectives of our government groups ? All of them have the general purpose or objective of operating for the good of the greatest possible number of the people of the community. For example, the general objective of a city government is to make life safer and more orderly for the people living in the city. But, as a part of this general

, purpose, there are many other more simple objectives which give real meaning to the general one.

What will the government do to make life safer and more orderly for the people living in the city? Certainly the people will want their community to be a healthful place in which to live. Therefore the government will have as part of its general objective the protection of the water supply and the taking away of waste and garbage. The people will want the city to be an attractive place in which to live. Therefore another part of the government's objective will be to maintain clean streets and well-kept parks. Certainly the people will want their city to be safe to live in. Therefore a part of the objective of the government will be to provide police protection for life and property. Many other objectives may be added to these. As we shall see later, sets of objectives like these are to be found in any one of the government units. All of them have the general objective of serving the people. The government constantly makes laws and rules to limit and regulate our activities for the good of ourselves and our neighbors. The government gives us all sorts of service which we cannot get for ourselves. But for the moment it is enough to know that (1) government in a democracy is intended to serve us, and not just to order us around, and that (2) its first objective is the greatest good of the greatest number of its people. We will discuss the objectives of our government units more fully later in our work.


Questions to discuss in your study group:

1. Give as many reasons as you can to show why people, from very early times, have lived in groups.


Consider some of the new stores, buildings, roads, bridges, schools, churches, and other improvements which have been built or made recently in your own or a nearby community. You may include those in nearby towns or cities if you are familiar with them. Who had the authority to build or make them, and where did they get their authority? What purpose or objective will each serve in the community? See how fully and completely you can make a bigger chart like the one below. If several persons in your study group work on this project, it will be interesting to compare and discuss your work after the charts are completed.

[blocks in formation]

2. As you come and go about your work for just one day, see how many examples you can notice of people working or playing in groups. Discuss these in


class group. 3. In what way does every citizen in a democracy, have some authority?

4. In a democracy, why is it important that we do not give any one person too much authority?

5. Select any one of the groups to which you belong. Would you say that the authority within this group is (1) democratic? (2) autocratic? (3) oligarchic? Why?

6. Why does every group have some objective or purpose in life?

7. Are all group objectives for the good of the people? Can you give an example of a group which has a bad objective? Why should people learn something of a group's objective before joining it?

8. What do you consider the main objective of the group of traffic policemen in your city? What do you consider the main objective of the staff of doctors and nurses in your local clinic? Are these pro-social objectives ? Why?

9. What is the objective of your class group? Is there any delegated authority in this group?

In this chapter we have used some interesting words. Every student should be sure that he understands the meaning of each of them. Discuss them in your study group and use them in sentences. Be sure you include the following:

activities—things which persons or groups of persons do. assign-set apart. authority-power which must be obeyed. autocratic-governed by the power or authority of one person. basic at the foundation or base of. candidates-persons seeking office. chairman-person who takes charge of a meeting.

clinic-an organization of doctors, usually connected with a hos

pital or medical school, which gives free examination and

treatment to sick or injured persons. committee-group selected to do a special piece of work. confusion-disorder. contacts-places where things touch. control-power of directing or guiding persons or things. decisions-acts of deciding, or statements of what has been

decided. delegate-pass on to others. democratic-governed by the power or authority of the people. dictatorship-autocratic authority given to a chosen leader, usu

ally for a limited time. disagreement-failure to agree. discussion-talking things over. existkeep on living. factors—things which work together to get results. features important and noticeable parts. garbage-worthless food matter. improvement—that which increases a thing in value or quality. oligarchya government in which a few people have the final

word. operate-do work. orderly-peaceable, free from sudden change by violence. political parties-organized groups which urge certain ways of

running a government and try to get their own members

elected to office. programs-orderly arrangements of things hoped or planned to

be done. promote-raise from one grade to another. protectiona guard or defense against danger or loss. regulatemake rules for, or do a thing according to rules. representatives-persons chosen to act for a group. responsible-ready to answer for one's acts. responsibility--readiness to answer for one's acts; or a call to

duty which must be answered. riot-uproar. service-a useful thing to be done or given. servicesreligious meetings for the purpose of worshiping God. standards-fixed rules or measures. system-an orderly arrangement. worship-pay honor to God.


Ways in Which All Our Groups Are Somewhat Alike (2)

"Certain basic processes run through all of our groups.”

We have considered two of the ways in which all of our groups are like. If they are to get things done, they must have (1) authority to direct their work, and they must have (2) objectives (purposes) for which to work. Let us see in what other ways our groups are similar.


THROUGH IT TO CARRY OUT THEIR OBJECTIVES In every group (except the kind which stays together only for a short time) there will be some sort of organization. It is through organization that a group operates (works) for its objectives. No matter how good the objective of a group is, it usually cannot be carried out without organizing, that is, dividing up its work among group members.

In different groups, the form of organization may differ greatly. Even a group which has a very simple objective, like going to a picnic, does not carry out its objective without some organization. A few members get together to decide where the group will go. Someone is responsible for the food, and someone looks after the transportation for getting there and back. Even a general store in a village often has a group of persons organized to operate it. Someone owns the store or perhaps someone rents it. There is a head man in charge, and there are one or more clerks. Each does a different part of the work in the organization, so that the service to customers will be prompt and intelligent. In a school organization there is usually a school board and there are teachers and pupils. Perhaps

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