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vision gives the President great power in time of war or danger of war.

The President Has Authority to Deal With Foreign Countries Foreign nations look upon our President and his Secretary of State as the representatives of the United States who are responsible for establishing and keeping up friendly relations with other countries. The Constitution gives him the power to make treaties, to appoint ambassadors, ministers, and consuls, and receive foreign ambassadors and other public ministers. Here are some of the ways in which he deals with foreign nations:

1. The President with his Secretary of State carries on all our official contacts with foreign governments.

2. The President, through the Department of State, arranges for the protection of our citizens when they travel abroad, and protects foreign persons traveling in this country.

3. The President appoints officials (ambassadors, ministers, and consuls) to represent the United States. These appointments must, however, be approved by the Senate.

4. The President receives the representatives sent to our country by foreign governments. Through this power it is possible for the President to recognize or refuse to recognize a new nation or a new government.

5. The President with the help of his Secretary of State makes treaties with other governments. But no treaty is binding on the United States until it has been approved by a two-thirds vote of the Senators present.

6. The President may make "executive agreements” with foreign governments on matters which do not require the approval of the Senate.

7. The President may order our military and naval forces to any part of the world.

The President Makes Many Appointments

We have mentioned the President's right to appoint Supreme Court justices, Federal judges, ambassadors, and ministers. He also chooses the heads of the 10 executive departments which carry on the principal business of the Government and appoints many other persons to important Federal positions. (See Figure 50.)

However, we must remember that thousands of workers in the Executive Departments are selected through the civil-service system. This method of appointment requires them to pass an examination showing their fitness for the positions which they are seeking.

THINGS TO DO

Answer "yes" or "no" to each of the following questions:

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1. Is it the President's principal duty to make

laws ? 2. Can the President be removed from office ? 3. Are the candidates for the offices of President

and Vice President nominated directly by

the people? 4. Can a naturalized citizen become President of

the United States ? 5. Is the President's term of office fixed at 4 years

by the Constitution? 6. Does the President have the authority to call

special sessions of the Congress ? 7. Does the President have to get the consent of

the Senate to all his appointments ? 8. Must every bill passed by both houses of the

Congress be sent to the President to sign or

veto? 9. Can the President pardon a person who has

broken a State law ? 10. Is the President Commander in Chief of the

militia in peacetime? 11. Does the President have to share with anybody

else his authority to make treaties with other countries

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1 - The President

Qualifications:
(1) Natural born citizen of the

United States.
(2) At least thirty five years of

age when he Takes Office:
(3) At least fourteen years a

resident of the United States.
2-The Vice President

Qualifications:
The game as required for

the President.
3-The Cabinet Members

Qualifications:

None expressed in the law.
Duties :
To advise the President
and to manage their
respective departments
properly.

Figure 50
The Executive Branch of Our National Government

Some more words which the student should understand:

administered-offered with official guidance.
cabinet member-member of a council of executive officers.
ceremonya formal program on a solemn or important public

occasion.
conditional-not absolute, but granted on certain clearly under-

stood terms. inaugural address—the speech which is made by the President

when he has taken the oath of office.

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CHAPTER 23

How Our National (Federal) Government Is Organized

THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS (1)

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You have just learned how the President of the United States is elected and what qualifications are required for this high office. You have studied some of his powers and duties. You found that his chief duty was to use his executive authority in enforcing the laws of the Congress and in managing the National Government. Naturally, he must have help in so great a task. Among his assistants are the heads of the 10 Executive Departments and other agencies. You will read about 6 of these Executive Departments in this chapter.

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To help the President enforce and administer the Federal laws, the Congress has created 10 Executive Departments. It has provided that the heads of these Departments shall be chosen by the President and approved by the Senate. (See Figure 51.) These 10 Department heads form a council called the “President's Cabinet."

George Washington appointed only 4 Cabinet members at the beginning of his first term as President. As the services of the Government have increased, new Departments have been authorized by the Congress, until now there are 10 of them, as follows:

THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS

Year of its Department

Head of the Department creation by law 1. State --- The Secretary of State

1789 2. Treasury---- The Secretary of the Treasury ---- 1789

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