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For many years the people of this country have wasted their forests, the soil in which food can be grown, and the minerals under the ground. Today State governments and the National Government are trying to stop such waste. Among other things they are cooperating to

1. Set aside or buy timber lands for State or National forests and regulate the cutting of trees on them.

2. Plant trees to take the place of those cut down, blown down or burned.

3. Prevent the washing away (erosion) of the soil. 4. Set aside and manage State and National parks. 5. Protect wild birds and animals.

6. Keep the soil fertile by teaching farmers how and when to plant crops and how to use fertilizers.

7. Provide for the wise use of water power in rivers and streams.

8. Regulate the development and removal of underground deposits of oil, coal, and other minerals.

9. Carry water from rivers and lakes to irrigate (put water on) lands which have before been too dry to grow crops.

10. Educate the people of the country so that they understand how large an interest they have in these natural riches and how they can share in protecting them.



Usually when persons wish to form a private company to do business they must get a charter (permit) from the State in which they wish to have their principal office. From time to time these companies may be asked to make reports to the State showing the condition of their businesses. A State charter gives the company which holds it the authority to have its head office in that State and to do its work there and elsewhere.

State constitutions usually give State governments the right to supervise and inspect conditions in mines, factories, and other places where citizens work. The States may supervise and make certain rules for the transportation lines within their borders; for telegraph, telephone, gas, water, and electric companies serving their people; for banks and insurance companies to which citizens may entrust their money. The purpose of these laws and rules is to protect both the citizens who are customers of these companies and the citizens whose money is invested in them.


WORKING CONDITIONS OF ITS CITIZENS The States pass many laws for the welfare of their citizens under the authority usually known as their “police powers.This means the power delegated to a State by its people to protect their lives, health, and morals and to provide for their safety, comfort, and convenience. The States use their police power when they pass laws forbidding all sorts of gambling and lotteries and when they prohibit or regulate the sale of liquor. Under the police power the States have sometimes passed laws regulating the hours of labor of women and children and protecting workers from dangerous conditions. Such laws include factory rules which require proper air supply, lighting, toilet arrangements, fire protection, and the guarding of dangerous machines. In case workers are injured at their work, many States have made legal provisions by which those workers receive pay for the injury. States often set up special agencies to help employers and employees settle their differences by peaceful methods.


Questions to discuss in your study group:

1. Find out about and discuss some of the State institutions in your State. How many of the following are there in your State which are kept up by the State?

1. Colleges and universities.
2. Prisons.

3. Schools for the deaf.
4. Schools for the blind.
5. Schools for training teachers.
6. Hospitals.
7. Homes for the aged.
8. Homes for orphans.

9. Institutions for the insane. What purpose is served by each of these institutions ? ?

If it is possible, arrange for field trips to several of them. Study the objectives of each institution visited and discuss your findings in


group. 2. Discuss any improvements which your State has helped to make in the transportation system of some nearby community. How have these proved useful to the citizens of the State ?

3. While every citizen has the right to own property, in what cases may his right to use it as he pleases be limited ? Do you think this is important for the citizens of the State? Why or why not?

4. Why is it important to every citizen in the State that surgeons, dentists, and druggists should be required to take out State licenses?

5. In what ways do the licenses which the State issues to owners of motor cars act as a protection to you and your friends

6. Is there any program in your community which is a part of the State's program to protect the natural riches of the Nation? How are these programs valuable to the individual families in the community or State ? Some more words which the student should understand:

allot-give a share of something to.
charitable-doing good to those in distress.
erosion—the wearing away or washing away of soil and rocks.
experiment stations-places where new ways of doing things are

officially tested.

fertilizers—material which makes the soil more fertile and feed's

the plant life in it. insurance companies--businesses which contract to pay money in

case certain events occur, as fires, accidents, deaths, etc. investedused money to buy some other kind of wealth. irrigatesupply farm lands with enough water to make plants

grow. morals—personal conduct as to right and wrong. scientifio—based on knowledge and system. timber lands—lands on which trees are growing thickly. toll—a fixed charge for some privilege, as of traveling on a road

or bridge. transportation lines-companies which operate vehicles or ships

to carry persons or goods. tuberculosis-a disease, usually of the lungs.

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How Our State Governments Are Organized

“Each State has a constitution which provides for the general organization of the State government and which is the highest State law."

You have just read about the many services which our State governments do for us. Many officials and their helpers are needed to do these things, and they must have some kind of an organization through which to do their work. So each of our 48 States has its own plan of government. This chapter will tell us about the organization of our State governments and how the organization operates.

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Each of the groups of people who gathered to write a State constitution faced problems which were peculiar to their own State. Some had to consider how the State would set up governments for large cities; but all had to consider how the State would set up governments for towns, counties, and other local units.

Our 48 States are very different from one another. They vary greatly in population and in area. On the one hand we find Rhode Island with a land area of little more than 1,200 square miles, and on the other hand we find Texas with a land area of about 266,000 square miles. In population we find Nevada with only about 110,000 inhabitants and New York State with over 13,000,000. Some of our States contain mostly farm lands; others contain great industrial sections. Yet in our United States Senate all States have equal representation. And in their




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