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It is generally agreed that the community must take care of those sick, aged, or helpless persons who cannot take care of themselves. It must provide for the care of the insane, the feeble-minded, the orphans, and the poverty-stricken. It must keep a watchful eye on juvenile delinquents—boys and girls who are beginning to develop wrong habits—to prevent them from becoming criminals.


Most of our older cities have grown without any careful plan for the future. Today we are learning that a wellthought-out plan is a fine thing for the welfare of any city and for the health and comfort of its citizens. There is a real need in every city for a group of people who will make plans for the growth of the city many years in advance. Such a planning department can also arrange for immediate improvements. It can consider new and better ways of obtaining a water supply, disposing of sewage, beautifying the city, and improving the streets. It may plan for new public buildings or for a new airport. It may plan for better location of railroad tracks. It sometimes divides the city into zones for the purpose of keeping the factories and business buildings out of home districts. Sometimes the zoning of a city makes it necessary for citizens to give up the full right over their own property, for the benefit of all the people of the city. For example, a person owning a home in a residential section will sometimes not be permitted to rent it as a store or factory, because a store or a factory in a district of homes will often spoil the whole neighborhood.

You will want to find out whether your city has a planning or a zoning commission.


The people of a large city are likely to become unhappy and unhealthy citizens if they live among narrow streets and crowded blocks without any chance to get pleasure from wholesome exercise in the fresh air or to relax and have a good time among their friends after work hours. So modern cities very often provide parks, gardens, and playgrounds for their people. They often have community swimming pools, carefully inspected and kept clean. They often provide public libraries, museums and art galleries. Many modern cities have public golf courses and community centers. These things all help to make a city a happier and healthier place to live in. Your group will want to discuss the play places of your own city, if it has any; or, if it has not, why not?



In some cities there are "public utility” companies which supply gas, electricity, telephone service, and streetcar or bus service for private profit. The city must take the responsibility of regulating the private companies to make sure that the people are fairly treated. Other cities own and operate their own public utilities. It will be interesting to learn to which group your city belongs.


A city government can only fulfill its true objective by doing services for its people. Naturally, the city needs an able and active government organization for these purposes. In our next chapter we shall study the organization of the city government itself, in order to see how all this work is done.


Questions to discuss in your study group:

1. What are some of the things which any person living in a city can do to prevent dangerous fire ?

2. Why is it important for the city health officers to fight contagious diseases ? Is it anybody else's business if you catch a contagious disease ?

3. What does your own city do to prevent contagious diseases

You be the judge:

CASE 1. Mrs. Jones, who lives in a city apartment, has a small daughter very ill with scarlet fever. One morning a neighbor calls and learns of the child's illness. She asks Mrs. Jones to call a doctor at once, because of the danger of contagion in the building. Mrs. Jones refuses, saying she does not want her family to be quarantined. She asks her neighbor to say nothing about the case. What do you think the neighbor should do? Suggested field trips:

1. If you live in a city, your study group, or a committee appointed from it, should learn how garbage, trash, and other waste is treated. Visit the garbage-disposal plant.

a. Learn how the garbage is collected.
b. Learn how it is disposed of or destroyed.

c. What purpose does the garbage disposal plant serve? Do you think it actually helps the families

in your neighborhood ? 2. If all your study group cannot visit the city waterworks, elect a committee to do so.

a. What purpose does the waterworks serve? How does it help the families living in the city area?

b. How is the water purified ?

c. Where does the city get its supply of water? 3. Have you ever thought about the museums, libraries, art galleries, and other educational centers in your city ? Perhaps your leader can arrange for you to take a field trip to some of these places. When you return discuss the purposes of these interesting places. In what ways was the trip helpful to you? 4. Other places you might visit and discuss:

a. One or more of the large schools or universities. b. The department of your city government which supervises the cleaning and repairing of streets and roads.

c. The planning department of your city government.

Some more words which the student should understand:

art galleries-buildings or rooms in which paintings, statues,

and other works of art are shown. community centers—buildings, rooms, or open spaces where the

people of the community can meet for community business or

pleasure. contagious—likely to spread easily from one person to another. disinfect-purify or make free from germs or contagion. disposing-getting rid of. drainage-system for carrying away waste water. experts—persons who are widely experienced or thoroughly

informed about some particular thing. explosives—substances, such as gun powder or dynamite, which

cause a violent bursting. feeble-minded-persons whose minds are weak. filter-strain through something which will remove impurities. gallons-liquid measures, each containing 4 quarts. garbage-disposal plant—a place where household refuse is gotten

rid of. issuance—act of giving something out officially. juvenile delinquentschildren who do not obey the law. materials-substances. museums-places where collections of curiosities or objects of

interest or works of art are kept to be seen. physicalrelating to the human body. "public utilities-services furnished for public use, such as gas,

electricity, telephone service, or bus and streetcar service. quarantine-keep persons or places separated because of the dan

ger of spreading disease. residential-used for homes. sewers-pipes or other drains for carrying off water, sewage or

other waste. vocational training-training for different kinds of jobs. waste material-worthless matter.

waterworks—a system by which water is furnished in large quan

tities, usually to a town or city. zones-areas, divisions of a city in which the kinds and uses of

buildings are strictly limited.

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