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ARTICLE XI. The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

ARTICLE XII. The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;— The President of the Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted ;—The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.-The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

ARTICLE XIII. SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

SECTION 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

ARTICLE XIV. SECTION 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

SECTION 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

SECTION 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United tates, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

SECTION 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

SECTION 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

ARTICLE XV. SECTION 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

SECTION 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

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ARTICLE XVI. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

ARTICLE XVII. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six • years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

ARTICLE XVIII. SECTION 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

SECTION 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

SECTION 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

ARTICLE XIX. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

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CHAPTER II.

GENERAL RIGHTS OF ALIENS AND COMMENTS ON CONSTITUTION.

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The rights and privileges of aliens are defined and guaranteed in the United States by the Federal and State Constitutions, by statute law, by Treaty, by International law and by numerous customs and privileges assured to aliens in all civilized countrics from time immemorial, on the same footing as the nationals of the country, regardless of the existence of any treaty right of the alien and the country where he resides. For example, at the present time there is no treaty of any kind existing between the United States and Russia, still the subjects or citizens of Russia are accorded the same treatment and same privileges as the aliens of any other country with whom the United States Government has treaty relations. Furthermore, under the new Immigration Law, the United States Government has allowed a quota allotment to Russia on the same basis as to other nations, and the United States Consuls abroad will not grant a visa to any Russian subject unless he can procure a passport from the present government of Russia that he is in good standing.

These rights and privileges include personal rights, such as the right to dwell safely in the country, the general right to engage in any lawful labor, trade, or business, within the state, and the right of protection to person, reputation, and other relative rights, and property rights. In return for the protection given aliens, they owe a temporary and local allegiance to the

, country in which they reside, during the time of such residence.

In the United States, resident alien friends are entitled to the same benefits of the Federal Constitution as our citizens, under Article 14, which provides as follows: ". nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law; or deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” Note that it does not state in the quotation given that "no state shall deprive any citizen of the United States,” but "any person". Any person means any individual, regardless of his race, nationality, creed or color.

One of the principal reasons for our rapid advancement as a nation, is the guarantee under the first amendmer.t of our Constitution, which reads as follows: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof."

Religious freedom and tolerance is the best medium for the advancement of religion. Freedom of spiritual thought has developed a brotherly and harmonious spirit amongst our citizens. In no other country of the world are there so many churches and places of worship as in our country. No other country in the world has so many different religious denominations, creeds and sects. In no other country of the world are the religious views of the people so respected and protected as in our own country. This country spends more for religious and moral training than several other countries combined, and the wealth owned by our religious institutions exceeds that of any other country in the world.

We have found that under our system of government, religious freedom is functioning to the fullest extent. With such a diversity of religious thoughts, views, worship and denominations as we have, there is still no limit to our spiritual development and attainment. It is, indeed, gratifying to notice the peaceful and harmonious spirit prevailing in any foreign settlement in the United States, where aliens of different denominations, creeds and religions congregate and reside. It is even a common occurence to find, in many American homes, that members of the immediate family belong to different churches. This brotherly feeling has proven spontaneous, and invariably brings forth unstinted aid where blight, famine or catastrophe occurs. So our people, with their many reilgious views are bonded in one common thought to help one another. To the democratic spirit forever fostered and upheld by our government towards not only one, but towards all, religions and ideals, can be attributed that unity which spells "United" in our blessed United States.

The greatest obstacle towards the advancement of world peace and civilization has been the unity of church and state. Religious control by the government is a detriment and drawback to the spiritual welfare of the nation. In studying the history of the world, one can readily see that the countries exercising government control over the churches have made very little progress towards achievement and civilization. On the other hand, those countries that have separated the church from the state have become the greatest nations in the world. The fostering and advancement of religion can only be possible when no government control is exercised.

To me the Constitution of the United States is a sacred document. It is the greatest bill of rights conceived by any body of free men in the world.

Our Government is a representative democracy and a real democratic republic. It is unique, individual and original. Our system of government under the Constitution is sub-divided into three independent branches, namely, the Legislative, the Executive and the Judicial. The Legislative Department of our government makes the laws; the Executive Department of our government enforces the laws; the Judicial Department of our government interprets the laws. In my opinion, this system of government is the best under which any nation can enjoy the blessings of liberty and prosperity.

The fact that we became the greatest and the wealthiest nation in the world, under our representative democracy, proves that this is the safest system of government. No other country offers the friendly alien a greater opportunity to attain the highest achieve

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