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PART III

THE HISTORY OF FEDERAL SCIENCE POLICY

1787-1970

THE HISTORY OF FEDERAL SCIENCE POLICY, 1787-1970

CONTENTS

I. Highlights of Federal science policy from the Constitutional Conven- Page tion to World War II__

(A) From the Constitutional Convention to the Civil War..

1. Science in the Constitution__

2. The first decade of the Republic_

3. Scientific exploration..

4. Assistance for technological inventions_.

5. Establishment of the Smithsonian Institution_

(B) From the Civil War to World War I____
1. Morrill Land-Grant College Act...

2. Science during the Civil War..

3. Establishment of the National Academy of Sciences..
4. Centralization of Federal science__

5. The conservation movement_.

6. Federal involvement in public health.

7. Meeting the research needs of industry.

(C) From World War I to World War II..

1. Organizing to meet wartime needs.

2. Creation of the National Research Council_
3. Highlights of the 1920's and 1930's-
(a) The return to normalcy--

(b) The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921.
(c) Aviation, radio, social sciences..
(d) Science Advisory Board__.

(e) National Resources Committee_.
(f) Evaluation__.

II. From World War II to the present_

(A) World War II to 1950_.

1. Preparing for war-NDRC and OSRD.

2. Development of the atom bomb..

3. Postwar planning--.

(a) The Bush report_

(b) The Kilgore report_

4. The establishment of the National Science Founda

tion_.

5. Office of Naval Research_

6. The Atomic Energy Commission

7. Science and public policy-The Steelman report__.

(B) Highlights of the 1950-57 period.

1. Military research and development_

2. Health research_

3. The role of the National Science Foundation in science
policy planning---

4. International cooperation in science-the IGY.

(C) Post-Sputnik to the present__

1. Reaction to Sputnik_

2. Science enters the White House_

3. Congressional response to space age demands.

(a) Preparedness subcommittee appraisal of U.S.
position

(b) Space committees established...

(c) The Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space
Sciences--

(65)

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II. From World War II to the present-Continued
(C) Post-Sputnik to the present-Continued

3. Congressional response, etc.-Continued

(d) The House Committee on Science and Astro-
nautics__

(e) Senate Government Operations study of executive
reorganization for science_.

(f) Senate Subcommittee on Government Research..
(g) The House Select Committee on Government
Research__.

(h) The House Subcommittee on Research and
Technical Programs__.

4. Organization for the U.S. space program_
5. Policy aspects of government-university relations for
academic science_.

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(a) Support of basic scientific research by mission-
oriented agencies---

101

(b) Growth of the National Science Foundation
as reflected in funding history.

102

(c) Project system of support..

103

(d) Institutional support of science..

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(e) Federal responsibility for higher education__

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Sciences-

(f) Advisory role of the National Academy of

6. Emergence of new national problems..

7. Reassessment of the research role of the Department

of Defense_-_

8. Other recent developments--

Appendix 1: Published data on Federal funding for research and de

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velopment, 1902-1970__.

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