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For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Statement of Principles
of Internal Revenue Tax Administration
42152 1978-3 V.2
The function of the Internal Revenue Service is to administer the Internal Revenue Code. Tax policy for raising revenue is determined by Congress. With this in mind, it is the duty of the Service to carry out that policy by correctly applying the laws enacted by Congress; to determine the reasonable meaning of various Code provisions in light of the Congressional purpose in enacting them; and to perform this work in a fair and impartial manner, with neither a government nor a taxpayer point of view.
At the heart of administration is interpretation of the Code. It is the responsibility of each person in the Service, charged with the duty of interpreting the law, to try to find the true meaning of the statutory provision and not to adopt a strained construction in the belief that he is "protecting the revenue." The revenue is properly protected only when we ascertain and apply the true meaning of the statute.
The Service also has the responsibility of applying and administering the law in a reasonable, practical manner. Issues should only be raised by examining officers when they have merit, never arbitrarily or for trading purposes. At the same time, the examining officer should never hesitate to raise a meritorious issue. It is also important that care be exercised not to raise an issue or to ask a court to adopt a position inconsistent with an established Service position.
Administration should be both reasonable and vigorous. It should be conducted with as little delay as possible and with great courtesy and considerateness. It should never try to overreach, and should be reasonable within the bounds of law and sound administration. It should, however, be vigorous in requiring compliance with law and it should be relentless in its attack on unreal tax devices and fraud.
The Internal Revenue Bulletin is the authoritative instrument of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue for announcing official rulings and procedures of the Internal Revenue Service and for publishing Treasury Decisions, Executive Orders, Tax Conventions, legislation, court decisions, and other items of general interest. It is published weekly and may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents on a subscription basis. Bulletin contents of a permanent nature are consolidated semiannually into Cumulative Bulletins, which are sold on a singe-copy basis. Occasionally an extra volume of the Cumulative Bulletin is required for publication of legislative matters.
It is the policy of the Service to publish in the Bulletin all substantive rulings necessary to promote a uniform application of the tax laws, including all rulings that supersede, revoke, modify, or amend any of those previously published in the Bulletin. All published rulings apply retroactively unless otherwise indicated. Procedures relating solely to matters of internal management are not published; however, statements of internal practices and procedures that affect the rights and duties of taxpayers are published.
Revenue Rulings represent the conclusions of the Service on the application of the law to the entire state of facts involved. In those that are based on positions taken in rulings to taxpayers or technical advice to Service field offices, identifying details and confidential information are deleted to comply with statutory requirements. Rulings and procedures reported in the Bulletin do not have the force and effect of Treasury Department Regulations, but they may be used as
precedents. Unpublished rulings will not be relied on, used, or cited as precedents by Service personnel in the disposition of other cases. In applying published rulings and procedures, the effect of subsequent legislation, regulations, court decisions, rulings, and procedures must be considered, and Service personnel and others concerned are cautioned against reaching the same conclusions in other cases unless the facts and circumstances are substantially the same.
The regulations, rulings, decisions, procedures, Public Laws, etc., published in the weekly Internal Revenue Bulletins 1978-26 through 1978-52 have been consolidated and are published in Internal Revenue Cumulative Bulletin 1978-2.
Cumulative Bulletin 1978-3, Volume 2, is devoted solely to Public Law 95-618, the Energy Tax Act of 1978, and related Committee and Conference reports, which were not published in the Weekly Bulletin.
The Bulletin Index-Digest System, a research and reference service supplementing the Bulletin, may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents on a subscription basis. It consists of four Services: Service No. 1, Income Tax; Service No. 2, Estate and Gift Taxes; Service No. 3, Employment Taxes; Service No. 4, Excise Taxes. Each Service consists of a basic volume and a cumulative supplement that provide (1) finding lists of items published in the Bulletin, (2) digests of Revenue Rulings, Revenue Procedures, and other published items, and (3) topical indexes of Public Laws, Treasury Decisions, and Tax Conventions.
The contents of this publication are not copyrighted and may be reprinted freely, a citation of the Cumulative Bulletin as the source would be appropriate.
1954 Code Sections Added, Amended, or Repealed by Public Law 95-618
The following sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 are affected by Public Law 95-618. New sections added to the Code and repealed sections are noted as such. Code sections that are renumbered are listed and followed by the redesignated (Red.) Code section in brackets.