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[From New York Times, December 18, 1938)


Watchmaker, very good worker; German refugee; seeks position; fine references. SEdgwick 3-1400.

Austrian refugee, 28, single, textile mill experience, four languages, intelligent, accepts any position; low salary. B 417 Times.


Woman, young Jewish refugee, now here, housework by hour, willing, Washington Heights preferred. A. Kahn, 248 Audubon Ave.

Woman, German-Jewish, middle age; housework, part time; references. 612 West 112th St. MOnument 2-9161.

Young German woman, refugee, speaks English, wishes position as companion to lady; refined, reliable; references." D 102 Times.


German-Jewish refugee, now here; as general houseworker, must have knowledge of cooking; English speaking; references. 50 Riverside Drive (6D), call after 1.

HOUSEHOLD SITUATION WANTEDMALE German refugee, does any kind of work, experienced butcher. Write 3383 Broadway.

(From New York Times, February 8, 1939) Housekeeper, 10 months' experience here; German-Jewish; sleep out. 0 548 Times.

(From New York Times, February 14, 1939)


High type German refugee, now here; would do anything; highest recommendations. Simon Kaufman, 508 West One hundred and thirty-ninth, Apartment 52.

(From New York Times, March 12, 1939)


Jewish-German high school teacher, teaches French, Spanish, Portuguese, English, Italian, German, and translates. J 206 Times.

(From New York Times, Wednesday, February 15, 1939)


Maid, German refugee (here), English speaking. Bergner, BArclay 7-8280 (between 4-6).


Companion to lady, receptionist, young Viennese, attractive personality, languages, good background, beautician, sewing, cooking. SChuyler 4-9836. L. Than.

(From New York Times, February 16, 1939)


Maid, German refugee (here), English speaking. Bergner. BArclay 7-8280 (between 4-6).

HOUSEHOLD SITUATIONS WANTED-MALE Couple, German-Jewish; cook, butler, handyman; country or city. Call NAvarre 8-3562.

(From New York Times, February 17, 1939)



Maid, German refugee (here), English speaking. (between 4-6).

BArclay 7–8280 (From New York Times, February 18, 1939)


Refugee, now here, middle-aged, housekeeper or take care of invalid lady; small salary. Academy 2-5544.


Maid, German refugee (here), English speaking. Bergner. Barclay 7–8280 (between 4-6).

[From New York Times, February 20, 1939)


Chambermaid-waitress, experienced, under 35; refugee now here considered. Call 10-1 or evening, 1,165 Park Avenue (6B).

[From The New York Times, February 22, 1939)


Houseworker, German-Jewish girl speaks only German; small family; moderate salary. Call between 11-1 o'clock, Wadsworth 8-1169.

(From New York Times, Sunday, February 26, 1939)


Commercial-Miscellaneous Young man recently from Vienna, medical student, fine personality, willing do anything. Hisch, care Deutscher, 1020 Walton Avenue.

German refugee, now here, 32, Ph. D., thorough knowledge English and German stenography, seeks position as secretary. Academy 2-5544.


Nurse, German refugee, experienced, care of baby; light housework. Sieger. Schuyler 4-9360.

HOUSEHOLD SITUATIONS WANTED-MALE German refugee, now here, 32, Ph. D., boy student's companion, tutor. Academy 2-5544.

Couple, young, Austrian refugees, here; perfect cook, housework; handyman. H-394 Times.


F Germ refugee (here), mi lle aged, attractive, perfect cook, good housekeeper, seeks position motherless home. 150 West Ninety-fifth Street (Apt. 3B).

(From New York Times, Sunday, March 5, 1939)


Commercial-Miscellaneous Salesman, refugee now here, capable, intelligent; sell to retailers; commission; highest references; will travel. C-55 Times.

(From New York Times, Sunday, March 12, 1939]


Commercial-Miscellaneous Camp physician, German refugee, here, seeks summer position, with wife as camp mother; two children; no remuneration expected. Telephone Stillwell 4-3936.

Department store textile expert German-Jewish, age 30, 12 years' experience in large German department store concern, buying, selling, bookkeeping, organizer, 1-year American experience; will travel; modest salary; references. L-70 Times.

Who will give me a change? German refugee, 36, here, Ph. D., banking and real estate experience, special knowledge in dental and medical supplies, willing and capable to adapt himself to any business or trade, desires job with future. No canvassing. Starting salary secondary. Write 210 Times, 853 Columbus Avenue.

Young Jewish refugee, now here, actor, journalist, typewriting, shorthand, driver, good appearance, best references, thanks you for any job. X-2243 Times Annex.

Refugee, here 1 year; lived 5 years France; speaks three languages; willing do any work. Phone Edgecombe 4-8743.

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Young man, 27, German-Jewish refugee, now here; legitimate work. Lorraine 7-3217.

German-Jewish refugee, now here, experienced several lines, desires day or night position; will do anything legitimate; Saturdays off. Jacob, 1765 Davidson Avenue, Bronx.


Lady's companion-housekeeper, or care of child Competent houseworker, highly educated young woman, recently arrived from Germany; moderate salary. Virginia 7-3354, or J-248 Times.



Senator HERRING. Will you please state your name and whom you represent?

Mr. EMERSON. My name is Ralph Emerson. I represent the maritime unions of the C. I. O.

Senator HERRING. You may proceed.

Mr. EMERSON. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I intend to limit myself to one certain phase of S. 407 and our opposition to S. 410 and S. 411.

In general, speaking in behalf of over 200,000 maritime workers who are almost universally citizens of this country, we are in general opposition in principle to all these bills. There may be some merit in some things that have been said, so far as letting down the bars is concerned, and things like that; but we feel that on the whole there are sufficient statutes now to take care of the situation. We feel that, on the whole, the present administration of the Immigration Bureau, with which we come in contact a great deal, is handling the situation satisfactorily.

Senator HOLMAN. The C. I. O. is not an exclusive American organization; it is an international organization, is it not?

Mr. EMERSON. It is composed of a large number of organizations which have international unions.

Senator HOLMAN. In other words, you are speaking as an internationalist, not as an American.

Mr. EMERSON. I am speaking as an American.
Senator HOLMAN. I doubt it. Go ahead.

Mr. EMERSON. I am an American, very much so. Our specific objection to S. 407 will be found on page 4, section 3. We are not speaking in general for or against the bill, but simply take exception to that clause which speaks of an applicant for a visitor's visa having an intelligence test equivalent to the normal rating of American white stock. We object to that wording, so far as limiting the eligibility to white stock is concerned, for the reason that we have several thousand colored seamen. There are lots of people in this country, and perhaps some in this room, who entrust their lives to the hands of these people, and we feel that language should be changed to eliminate the word "white," and say "American stock.” After all, these Negroes are Americans.

In regard to S. 410 we take the position that we are saying to an alien who was formerly admitted legally into this country: "Now, we are going to punish you for a crime which was not a crime when you came in.'

After all, these aliens, or some of them, at least, will receive relief from somewhere. If we took the same position on everything else, we might say to people who came here many years ago under conditions then prevailing, and who do something that was at that time lawful, we should not say to them: “We are going to punish you for what you did today, although it was lawful when you came here."

For that reason, we cannot uphold the principle of this bill.

Senator REYNOLDS. Mr. Chairman, may I ask the witness one question? Senator HERRING. Yes.

Senator REYNOLDS. Do you know of any country in the world that feeds aliens as generously as we do in this country?

Mr. EMERSON. I know very few.

Senator REYNOLDS. I wish you would name one country on the face of the earth that will feed aliens as we do.

Mr. EMERSON. I will. I have been fed in quite a number of them myself. I was a seaman for a number of years.

Senator REYNOLDS. I have been in a lot of them, too. I want you to name one where they receive that kind of treatment.

Mr. EMERSON. That is correct. We have been treating them pretty good, and I think we should continue to do it, as long as it does not hurt our social and economic stability.

Senator REYNOLDS. Do you not think our social and economic stability is being affected when we have 3,000,000 people on the W. P. A., 13,000,000 out of employment, and when we have 26,000,000 working only part time?

Mr. EMERSON. I think it is, slightly; yes. After all, this country is blessed with most of the good things in this world.

Senator REYNOLDS. If we are, why should we give up those blessings to those not so fortunate? I am not so big-hearted and generous as you may be.

Mr. ÉMERSON. I am pretty nationalistic myself. The seamen's movement is quite nationalistic. They are trying to fill the 100percent American merchant marine. There are thousands of people who are in a pretty terrible condition in Europe.

Senator REYNOLDS. That is no fault of ours.

Senator REYNOLDS. We have not brought about that chaotic and unfortunate condition.

Mr. EMERSON. But what should we do with them? Senator REYNOLDS. Why should we do anything with them? They are not ours and it seems none of our business. Let Europe take care of its own people. We cannot take care of our own, to say nothing of importing more to care for.

Mr. EMERSON. It seems to me in the past, under both Republican and Democratic administrations, we have gone to the aid of nations in distress, such as China and Palestine, although we may be a sick nation ourselves.

Senator REYNOLDS. We are a sick nation. Let's cure ourself before we start on a crusade to cure all the other sick.

Mr. EMERSON. There is a human element that must be taken into consideration.

Senator REYNOLDS. Do you not think we should take care of our own people first?

Senator REYNOLDS. Before we take care of anybody else?

Senator REYNOLDS. Do you not think we should find work for our own unemployed first? Before we import any more unemployed?

Mr. EMERSON. Correct.
Senator REYNOLDs. Before we take care of Europe's unemployed?

In regard to S. 410, here is something that is water under the bridge. We say: "We admitted you legally. Under the law you were entitled to certain relief measures, but we are going to punish you now for it."

Senator Holman. We cannot enact an ex post facto law. Of course we know that.

Mr. EMERSON. Perhaps this bill was introduced for the purpose of taking care of the future. If the bill had stated that in the future that would apply, that might have some merit, that an alien could not be placed on relief when we had our own people suffering; but this applies to the past.

In regard to S. 411, that is a very broad measure, and we question just exactly what is meant by the words “inimical to the public interest." We would like to know what public interest these aliens are going to be inimical to. If we would say that "inimical to the public interest” meant some alien agitators going to come in and try to overthrow the Government by force or violence, that would be another thing

Senator Holman. Or create unemployment.

Mr. EMERSON. Yes. I do not know that the agitators would create unemployment.

Senator HOLMAN. We have it on the Pacific coast.

Mr. EMERSON. I do not think much unemployment is created through aliens.

Senator HOLMAN. Oh, yes.

Mr. EMERSON. If that were the case, there may be some merit in this bill. Is it not a fact, when you put the words “inimical to the public interest" in this bill, that certain people will take advantage of the situation so that they can use it for their own purposes? Sup

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