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among others capitalists, scientists, inventors, and other leaders of human progress who might, if admitted, establish new businesses and create more jobs for American citizens. It is an unintelligent, drastic, sweeping bill, based upon prejudice rather than reason. The object of our immigration policy, as pointed out before, should be the selection of contributors and producers and exclusion of leaners and leechers. It is all very well for Senator Reynolds to say: "Let them go back to the other side." I do not think the Senator would enjoy it, taking his own situation, if he were subjected to any such requirement as that. If the man gets ready to send for his family, then we are going to tell him he cannot do it, although he has been working all that time. It does not look good to me as a fair basis of Americanism.

Senator STEWART. There might be a distinction between those who have been here for a short period and those who have been here for a long time.

Mr. TAYLOR. That is the point. It says "from now on." It looks pretty bad to me to say to a man, after he has been admitted to this country and worked for a considerable period of time, that he cannot bring his family.

Something has been said about paying taxes. These aliens have been paying taxes and helping to support the United States. It seems to me altogether unfair and unjust.

Senator STEWART. Why do these aliens not want to become naturalized?

Mr. TAYLOR. There are almost as many reasons as there are individuals. One fellow says, "My father did not want me to give up my citizenship.” Another poor, ignorant chap says he cannot learn to read and write; that he too old. I bave taught them when they were 65. Another fellow ways, “I think the British Government protects its nationals around the world better than America does. I think I will take my chances with British citizenship a few years longer.

I
go

to work on that fellow. S. 410 says in effect to all aliens: “No matter how long you have lived in the United States, or how hard you have worked, no matter how much you have contributed to the upbuilding of the country, if you are unfortunate enough to lose your job and have to be helped by public relief for an aggregate of 6 months or more in any 3 years from now on, you will be deported. After you have had public relief for 5 months and 29 days you can have your choice between getting a job, if you can, starving and being deported.” Is this a fair Christian or American attitude?

Senator REYNOLDS. Why has not that man become an American citizen? You have assumed that he has helped to build up the United States. If he is still an alien, why should our taxpayers support him?

Mr. TAYLOR. He has been a taxpayer.

Senator REYNOLDS. Why has he not made application for naturalization?

Mr. TAYLOR. There may be as many reasons as there are individuals as I said a moment ago. Some of them think that they cannot learn to read and write English, and do not think they have the time to go to school. They work day and night, and they just feel that they do not have the time.

Senator STEWART. How many aliens do you have in your county? Mr. TAYLOR. I have never made a study of that. We have in our

Of course,

files, in process of becoming citizens, covering 6 communities, the records of about 1,500 people, who are moving from the first declaration to final citizenship. We hold a reception every year for about 400 people who have achieved American citizenship during the preceding year.

We have been doing that since 1922. How many there are, I do not know. I know that in these 6 communities we have over 1,500, probably nearer to 2,000, people in that process. Those who are ready to take the next step, two or three times a year I invite them to come to our class. We run a class teaching them to write and read, and the principles of the United States Government.

Senate bill 411 is the silliest and the most un-American bill of the batch, as it is also the shortest. This is the exact wording of the bill:

To provide for the deportation of alien inimical to the public interest. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that any alien or group of aliens whose presence in the United States is inimical to the public interest shall upon warrant of the Secretary of Labor be taken into custody and deported forthwith.

Who is going to decide whether any particular group of aliens is inimical to the public interest? Does the decision rest with the Secretary of Labor? How is the phrase "inimical to the public interest" to be defined and by whom? Is the Secretary of Labor to be constituted prosecutor, judge, jury, and executioner all in one? If the unfortunate alien is to be taken into custody and deported forthwith, is he to be denied counsel and appeal to the courts? This bill is not an American statute, but a Fascist edict which makes the Secretary of Labor dictator over the lives and fortunes of a large section of our population, namely, the aliens who are estimated to number between three and four million.

Senator STEWART. What do you think we should do? Do you think this bill would be all right if it provided some means of determining who is inimical to the public interest? Mr. TAYLOR. Surely. Give them a day in court. Prove it accord

. ing to the rules of evidence. If you can prove that in court, under the rules of evidence, I would say it is all right. I would like to see the German-American Bund sent back to Germany. I say an American citizen working in this country and taking orders from Hitler should have his citizenship canceled. The same thing is true of the Communists. If Russia is such a swell country, let them go back there.

They will be glad to come back again to the good old United States.

I should like to read into your record a letter addressed to me under date of March 20, 1939, by Prof. Frank Kingdon, president of the University of Newark, Newark, N. J. It is as follows:

There are two phases of the problem of immigration which seem to me fundamental. One of them is to regulate immigration in such a way as to maintain an adequate balance among various groups and professions within our national life. The other is to provide here an adequate refuge for those who are being driven from their homes because they adhere loyally to that freedom which all of us love. It does not seem to me that these two phases are in conflict with each other, for I believe that a comprehensive immigration bill could be devised that would serve both of them.

The weakness in the bills suggested by Senator Reynolds is that they proceed from altogether too rigid an emotional bias and that they are conceived with only part of the whole problem in view. The essential provincialism which characterizes them can supply no sufficiently broad base for a comprehensive policy for relating immigration to our total population problem. He also ignores the responsibility of this country for the human beings cast adrift by contemporary tyranny. These fundamental weaknesses in his approach strike me as being more important than specific criticisms of the particular bills.

I should like Congress and the President to face squarely the complex task of finding a practical formula for immigration quotas, and at the moment I should like to have them declare unequivocally the position of this country regarding the admission of refugees. The first of these is a technical question but the second is a moral one.

Senator HERRING. The committee will recess until 2 o'clock tomorrow.

(Whereupon, at 6 p. m., a recess was taken until the following day, Thursday, March 23, 1939, at 2 p. m.)

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DEPORTATION OF ALIENS

THURSDAY, MARCH 23, 1939

UNITED STATES SENATE,
SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE COMMITTEE ON IMMIGRATION,

Washington, D. C. The subcommittee met, pursuant to adjournment, in the committee room, 412 Senate Office Building, at 2 p. m., Senator Clyde L. Herring (chairman), presiding.

Present: Senators Herring (chairman), Holman, and Stewart.

Present also: Hon. Robert R. Reynolds, a Senator in Congress from the State of North Carolina.

Present also: Mr. James L. Houghteling, Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, Department of Labor; Mr. Edward J. Shaughnessy, Deputy Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, Department of Labor; Mr. A. M. Warren, Visa Division, Department of State.

STATEMENT OF MRS. MARGARET HOPKINS WORRELL, REPRE

SENTING THE LADIES OF THE GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC

Senator HERRING. You may state your name and whom you represent.

Mrs. WORRELL. My name is Margaret Hopkins Worrell, and I represent the Ladies of the G. A. R.

Senator HERRING. You may proceed.

Mrs. WORRELL. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, I am here in favor of the Reynolds bills because the organizations which I represent, namely, the Wheel of Progress and as national legislative chairman of the Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic, representing about 50,000 members throughout almost every State in the Union, have passed resolutions which follow the provisions of these bills.

The first resolution I will read was adopted by the Wheel of Progress:

Whereas there are now on our relief rolls 1,000,000 aliens for which the citizens of this country are taxed: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved, by the Wheel of Progress and the League of the American Civil Service in joint meeting assembled this 27th day of February 1939, That we urge Congress to suspend immigration for 10 years; promptly deport all foreigners in the United States whose presence is inimical to the public interest; compel the registration of all aliens in the United States; prohibit the admission of refugees and propagandists entering the United States as visitors; deport all aliens whose presence in this country is a burden upon the taxpayer; restrict employment on public projects and in Government service to our own citizens; and strictly enforce all existing statutes relating to the deportation of illegal entrants.

173 139737-39

12

This resolution was unanimously adopted with applause. The next resolution was adopted at the convention of the Ladies of the G. A. R. in 1934:

Whereas a loyal, watchful, patriotic, energetic, and alert citizenship is most necessary to the preservation of this Nation; now, therefore, be it

Resolved, That the Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic in national convention assembled, urge upon Congress the enactment of a law making it a crime for any individual, group, or association to advocate or promote the overthrow of the Government of the United States by force and violence; the enactment of legislation for the registration of every and all aliens in this country with sufficient identification to insure their location at any and all times; the expulsion of all alien Communists in the United States and the strict enforcement of the criminal code of the United States prohibiting the use of the mails and of interstate commerce for transporting or delivery of any printed matter suggesting the overthrow of our Government, or the formation of any group affiliated with the Soviet Union or teaching communistic doctrine.

Doubtless you gentlemen know that alien-minded persons in this country are pretty well organized and the country has been and is being filled with propaganda, one instance of which was a lecture on "Education for Democracy” before the convention of school principals in Cleveland on February 25, 1939, by Lord Bertrand Russell, who declared that the American educators had gone too far in bringing the flag into school rooms and that there was "too much patriotism” and “too much respect for the flag.”

As I have heretofore stated, we are in favor of these bills, but I may suggest that in S. 407, page 6, after line 7 there be inserted:' "Deportable aliens whose country refuses them entry shall be deported to some island or other destination to be designated by the Board.”

Senator HERRING. Do you have any particular island in mind? Mrs. WORRELL. I thought the Philippines would be a good place.

Senator HERRING. Not so long as they are under our flag, if you consider them undesirable in this country.

Mrs. WORRELL. That is right. It is under our flag. I did not think about that. That was just the first thing that popped up in my mind when you asked me the question. You are right about that. But they should be deported to some island. We should deport them some place.

And in S. 408, page 1, after line 10, add: "and one representative designated by the Senate Immigration Committee and one by the Immigration Committee of the House."

This would raise the number of members of the Board to 7.

In conclusion I would say it is surprising to note the number of persons in this country that are guaranteeing the economic security of foreigners they desire to see enter this Nation and promising positions when there are millions of American men and women unemployed in the United States.

The question arises as to how long that guarantee would last. Are the guarantors prepared and economically able to support these refugees for the balance of their lives or will they be thrown upon the charity of our taxpayers or be placed in competition with our workers?

Let us follow the policy of other countries—take care of our own first and we can best do that by the enactment of these bills we have under consideration today.

I thank you.
Senator REYNOLDS. Thank you very much.

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