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Aliens subject to warrants of deportation since July 1, 1930, whose deportation has

been impossible because of inability to secure passports for them-Continued

Country to which alien was ordered deported

Number
of pass-

ports
refused

from July 1, 1930, to June 30,

1937

Number
of pass-

ports
refused
fiscal
year
1938

Number
of pass-

ports
refused

from July 1, 1938, to Mar. 25,

1939

Total to

date

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23
1
1

2

16 2 2 6

1

1

30
2

Finland.
France
Free City of Danzig.
French India
French Somaliland.
French West Africa.
French West Indies.
Germany
Greece..
Guatemala
Haiti.
Honduras.
Hungary.
Iceland,
India.
Iran..
Iraq.
Ireland.
Irish Free State.
Italy
Latvia,
Lebanon.
Liberia.
Lithuania.
Madagascar
Malay Peninsula.
Malta..
Mesopotamia.
Mexico.
Netherlands.
New Zealand.
Nigeria..
North Ireland
Norway
Palestine
Panama
Persia.
Poland.
Portugal
Rumania
Scotland.
South Africa.
South Wales.
Spain..
Straits Settlement.
Sweden.
Switzerland
Syria...
Turkey.
Uruguay
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Venezuela.
Wales.
Yugoslavia

9

2

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278

30

358

50

1 20 1 2

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Mr. WILMETH. I wonder if we are receiving any from Russia.

Senator HERRING. The witness inquires whether or not we are receiving immigrants from Russia now?

Mr. WARREN. Mr. Chairman, we are receiving a certain number of persons from Russia under the quota.

Mr. HOUGHTELING. You must remember that the immigration quotas are based on the country of birth, not citizenship.

Senator HERRING. Of course your thought is we should protect ourselves against what we would consider unfair laws in those coun

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tries over there, by simply saying that if you won't take these back, you can't send any more in

Mr. WILMETH. Yes, sir; and that might affect the quotas.

Mr. HOUGHTELING. Somebody asked about how many we were receiving from the Soviet Union?

Senator REYNOLDS. The chairman asked the question.

Mr. HOUGHTELING. Yes; the table on page 99 shows the number last year we received, 917; the year before, 576, and so forth. That is not a large number, out of a quota of 2,712.

Mr. WILMETH. Now, gentlemen, in connection with our plea that a quota be put on the countries of the Western Hemisphere, we submit that Mexico and Canada are furnishing the United States more criminal aliens than all other countries combined. 102 of the Commissioner's report. Of 1,662 criminal aliens deported during the last fiscal year, 803 were sent to Mexico and 490 to Canada; while only 296 were returned to Europe. I think this makes rather a bad showing

And then, carrying that a little further, of the 9,278 deportable aliens who were allowed to leave the country at their own insistence, 4,801 went to Mexico and 3,695 to Canada; and only 782, to all other countries.

Senator HOLMAN. May I interpose a question, Mr. Chairman? Senator HERRING. Yes, sir.

Senator HOLMAN. I cannot follow the philosophy that it would be considered unfriendly on the part of our country to limit or put on a quota basis immigrants into our country from other nations of the Western Hemisphere; unless they are using us for a dumping ground. Because they naturally would want to keep their good citizens, wouldn't they? So I cannot follow and I don't know the reasoning as to why it would be considered an unfriendly act if we limited the population income from the Western Hemisphere, as it was represented here yesterday and even by one of the departments in a statement.

Senator HERRING. Mr. Warren is particularly interested in that phase.

Mr. WARREN. Mr. Chairman, I have some figures here which show the flow into the United States from the nonquota countries. Perhaps you would like it.

Senator REYNOLDS. The Western Hemisphere?

Mr. WARREN. The Western Hemisphere; and we give the nation of origin for these countries through February of this year; in other words, for 8 months of the year: Bolivia 5; Brazil 49, that is through January; Chile 43; Colombia 99; Costa Rico 47; Cuba, a larger figure, 359; and Dominican Republic 105.

Senator HOLMAN. May I ask this: take the Cubans; were those natives of Cuba?

Mr. WARREN. They have to be.

Senator Holman. Or were they just using Cuba as a stepping stone into the United States?

Mr. WARREN. No, sir; they personally have to be natives of Cuba; have to be natives of the nonquota countries.

Senator HOLMAN. Do you have a list of how many are using Cuba as such a stepping stone?

Mr. WARREN. No; because they are not charged against Cuba.

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Senator HOLMAN. You haven't that?
Mr. WARREN. No, sir; we have not.

Senator HOLMAN. I don't know anything about that, particularly, but I think there is a leak there.

Mr. HOUGHTELING. I have just been down there, Senator, studying that situation. And by “leak,” do you mean people legally entered, of illegally entered?

Senator HOLMAN. Well, just that there is some method by which they come to Cuba and then use that as a stepping stone into the United States, rather than coming directly here.

Mr. HOUGHTELING. Of course, if they are born in a quota country, they have to come in under the quota of the quota country; that is the law.

Senator HERRING. Mr. Commissioner, the witness says he can finish in 5 minutes, and let us take that up later.

Mr. WILMETH. Of the aliens deported in 1938, according to the Commissioner's report, 5,113, or 58 percent were returned to Mexico; 1,941, or nearly 21 percent, to Canada, and 1,574, or 17 percent, to Europe, and 265 or 2 percent, 2.9 percent to Asia.

We submit that there appears to be strong and cogent reasons for some curb to be placed through the immigration laws on some countries of the Western Hemisphere. The representative of the State Department, of course, did not have time to tell you how many are coming from Canada and Mexico; but he knew the total number, as we understand.

Mr. WARREN. I have those figures here.
Mr. HOUGHTELING. They are in the report, on page 97.

Mr. WILMETH. A good deal has been said about refugees. Our society, and I think I am speaking as representing a pretty good crosssection of the country because we have organizations in forty-odd States of the Union, and we are opposed to lowering the bars for the admission of refugees or refugee children. Now, that is a hard thing to say, about children; but nevertheless, we must protect ourselves and in admitting children we think that is an attempt to open the door for others. It looks that way to us.

And for that reason we are opposI want to thank the members of the committee for permitting us to appear on behalf of our society. We have no ax to grind in this matter; purely a patriotic duty of service on our part. We have no paid representatives here or lobbyists; we are here representing the native-born American people, and we include in that the naturalized citizens. We think the time has come when there is an urgent demand from the standpoint of economy and necessity for these laws to be revised, and for us to pay more attention to our own citizens and their welfare and their employment, and to afford relief to the taxpayers of this country, of this Nation, because these bills have to be paid by the taxpayers, of whom I am one.

If I had my way about it, I would go so far as to prohibit unnaturalized citizens or residents, unnaturalized aliens of this Republic to share in relief of other bounties which are being provided by the Government, both State and national. Since the beginning of this year, our own commonwealth has paid something like $100,000, just a little less than $100,000 in old-age bounty.

Senator HOLMAN. To whom?

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Mr. WILMETH. To aliens.
Mr. HOUGHTELING. May I ask —
Mr. WILMETH. I read that in a newspaper, now.

Mr. HOUGHTELING. I wanted to ask, have you any figure as to how much was paid in taxes—in sales tax and real-estate taxes and income tax and other forms of taxes—by aliens.

Mr. WILMETH. No; I have not.

Mr. HOUGHTELING. In fairness to the alien, it must be said that a great many of the resident aliens here are contributing to the taxation income of this country. It is not a question of a pure hand-out.

Senator REYNOLDS. Well, now, just a minute, Mr. Commissionermay I ask him a question, Mr. Chairman?

Senator HERRING. Yes.

Senator REYNOLDS. You say that those aliens are contributing to the maintenance of the Federal Government annually because or as a result of the taxes that they pay upon properties that they own in the United States, did you not?

Mr. HOUGHTELING. No.
Senator REYNOLDS. That is what you said, isn't it?

Mr. HOUGHTELING. They contribute an amount of real-estate tax, in that they occupy property and pay rent which enables the landlord to pay the real-estate taxes. And some of them pay Federal income tax.

Senator REYNOLDS. All right; now, if those aliens were not in this country, that property which they own would be owned by an American citizen, wouldn't it? If they did not own it, and it was not owned by aliens, it would have to be owned by an American citizen, wouldn't it?

Mr. HOUGHTELING. I'm not talking about ownership. If they did not occupy the property upon which they now pay rent, it might very easily be vacant.

Senator REYNOLDS. Now, that is another matter, but if the aliens do rent them, they have got to earn the money with which to pay that rent, don't they; and if their work keeps another man out of work, then the aliens are taking that work away from an American citizen, aren't they? That is right, isn't it?

Mr. HOUGHTELING. Not necessari

Senator REYNOLDS. Well, every alien worker in this country necessarily is taking the place of some American citizen, isn't he?

Mr. HOUGHTELING. Well, he may be a farmer; he may be tilling the soil, and he would not be taking the place of any other worker.

Senator REYNOLDS. Well, haven't we a surplus of farm products in this country?

Mr. HOUGHTELING. We have; but if each farm family consumed more of what each farmer produces—I mean, it is an interesting economic

Senator REYNOLDS. Just one question right there: Do you hold to the theory-of course, you know that we have in this country surplus cotton from which we could make clothing for many more Americans, and surplus wheat; I just mentioned those two, Mr. Chairman-but do you hold to the theory that it would be well for the United States to import, say, a million aliens to eat up that wheat and to use that cotton; do you hold to that theory?

; Mr. HOUGHTELING. No.

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Senator REYNOLDS. You don't?
Mr. HOUGHTELING. No.
Senator REYNOLDS. That is all. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Senator HERRING. Do you have anything further, Mr. Wilmeth?
Mr. WilMETH. That is all; thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Senator HERRING. Thank you; we are glad to have you.
Now, do you want to discuss, Senator

Senator REYNOLDS. Oh, Mr. Chairman, before Mr. Wilmeth leaves, I would just like to ask him this: You are the National Secretary of the Junior Order of United American Mechanics, aren't you?

Mr. WILMETH. Yes, sir.

Senator REYNOLDS. How many members of that organization have you in the 48 States of the Union?

Mr. WILMETH. We now have between 400,000 and 500,000 scattered throughout the 48 States and a ladies auxiliary of over 200,000.

Senator REYNOLDS. Thank you. That was all, Mr. Chairman. (Witness excused.) Senator HERRING. Do you want to proceed further with Mr. Houghteling, Senator Holman?

Senator HOLMAN. Are there other witnesses here? I don't want to hold them up.

Senator HERRING. Yes.

Senator HOLMAN. In the end, we will have an opportunity to discuss it.

Senator HERRING. Surely. Is Mr. Brunger in the room? Mr. Brunger was to be here today. Or we can hear anyone else you have, Senator.

Senator REYNOLDS. Mr. Walker, Mr. Chairman.

STATEMENT OF ROSCOE C. WALKER, STATE COUNCIL SECRETARY,

JUNIOR ORDER OF UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS, TRENTON, N. J.

Senator REYNOLDS. Mr. Walker is the Secretary of the Junior Order of United American Mechanics in the State of New Jersey.

Mr. WALKER. Right. My name is Roscoe C. Walker, Trenton, N. J. I have here, Mr. Chairman, my authorization to appear here, and some of the resolutions adopted by the organization,

Senator HERRING. We will place these in the record.

(The resolutions are in full as follows:) To Whom it May Concern:

This is to certify that at a regular meeting of the board of managers of the State Council of New Jersey, Junior Order of United American Mechanics, held on Saturday, March 18, 1939, Roscoe C. Walker, State Council Secretary was directed to represent the board of managers of the State Council of New Jersey, Junior Order of United American Mechanics at the hearing on the Reynolds immigration bills before the Senate Immigration Committee, at such time as it shall be called. Respectfully,

Roscoe WALKER,
State Council Secretary.

To Whom It May Concern:

GREETING: I hereby certify that the following resolutions were introduced and adopted at the Sixty-ninth annual session of the State Council of New Jersey, Junior Order of United American Mechanics, held in Atlantic City on October 12 and 13, 1938:

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