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SPECIAL OUTLINE FOR A PROPOSED SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF IMMIGRATION, AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL POPULATION-DETERMINING FACTORS, IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE SINCE 1492, PREPARED BY HARRY H. LAUGHLIN
I. The problem. This problem calls for a study of the biological processes involved in the repeopling of a major geographical division of the world, with special reference to race and hereditary quality. The repeopling of the New World has taken place within the last 400 years. The fact that this has occurred during the most recent centuries, and during a time when historical records were more accurately and numerously kept, and more carefully preserved, than during any other equal span of history, makes this research feasible. There is in existence a great quantity of available material in the fields of statistics, anthropology, biology, geography, and history. These data, however, have never yet been collected, coordinated, and analyzed in such a manner as to trace, as this outline contemplates, the development which has led up to the present populationcomplex in the Republics and Dominions of Pan America.
II. The essential factors.-Beginning with the racial, statistical, and geographical status and tendencies of the native population of the Western Hemisphere in 1492, each of the following processes should be measured and checked statistically, geographically, and racially, generation by generation, from the discovery to the present day.
These primary factors which have evolved the present population complex of the New World are as follows:
1. Human migration.-(A) Immigration into the Western Hemisphere, (a) number, (b) sex, (c) age, (d) race, (e) hereditary qualities, (f) date, (g) port of departure in the Old World, and (h) port of arrival in the New World, for each group of immigrants (voluntary or forced) into the New World, military and nonmilitary immigrants.
(B) Emigration from the Western Hemisphere.-(a) Number, (b) sex, (c) age, (d) race, (c) heredity qualities, (f) date, (g) port of departure in the New World, and (h) destination in the Old World, for each group of emigrants from the New World.
(C) Intracontinental migrations. The movement, beyond the normal range of mate selection, within the Western Hemisphere, of each migration group of persons, recorded by (a) numbers, (b) sex, (c) age, (d) race, (e) hereditary qualities, (f) date, (g) region of departure, (h) destination, and (i) permanency of stay.
2. Mate selection.-With special reference to inter-racial matings and hereditary qualities. Geographical, racial, and statistical data on the factors which determine mate selection (sex ratios, contact, racial and social elements). The eugenical nature and the measure of the value of elements which enter into and which come out of the matings of each generation, nationally considered.
3. Differential fecundity within each racial, nativity, and social group of the whole population. Causal factors. Consequences.
4. Differential survival within each racial, nativity, and social group of the whole population. Causal factors. Consequences.
These four main factors, each as a continuous process, measured and recorded for each of the 14 generations (of 30 years each) since the discovery, would outline the principal biological processes which have worked out the eugenical and racial history and present-day status of the population of the Western Hemisphere. III. Sources of data. This research involves securing, so far as possible, from original sources, data on the above listed four essential factors. Besides printed histories, there are in existence many domestic and foreign, national, and local records, ships' manifests, private documents, manuscripts, and rare books and notes in libraries of historical societies and museums, all containing data pertinent to this projected research. All of these sources should be drawn upon with critical discrimination, and for each finding an accurate memorandum of sources should be procured. Many data could be supplied through collaboration with anthropological, archaeological, historical, and statistical societies. Individual investigators, governmental officials, in both Pan America and abroad, could aid greatly. Societies and local and foreign governments would be expected to vote active collaboration in a research of this nature.
IV. Methods. The first studies would of necessity be rough and approximate, but it is essential that the outline be first blocked out and that a general plan be adhered to. Further research would supply and correct the details.
It is proposed that in making these investigations there be prepared a series of outline maps of the Western Hemisphere and a set of blank statistical tables and plots calling for, in the boldest outline, statistical, geographical, racial,
and eugenical pictures of the Western Hemisphere for each of the 14 generations in question. One series of these maps and tables, for example, should show the extent, source, direction, time, destination, race, sex, numbers, and quality of the human migrations to, from, and within the Western Hemisphere. Others should show statistical, racial, and eugenical pictures of the population for each generation or 30-year period.
Special reference and analysis should be made of the relative degrees of voluntary and involuntary factors in migration, and to such other elements as slavery, famine, pestilence, religious persecution, war, conquest, greed, and love of adventure.
A series of systematic records and analyses, by nations, nativity groups, and time, should be made of the laws, customs, and the economic, social, religious, and biological factors which enter into the causations of human migration, mate selection, fecundity, and survival.
V. Value of the study.-A study of this nature, made in accordance with modern research methods, would be expected to yield the following returns:
1. It would coordinate for the first time censuses and other demographic data of the New World geographically for each race, for each social complex, and for each generation since the discovery.
2. It would trace, as a continuous process, each of the several principal biological factors involved in working out the racial fortunes of the New World in a manner more connected chronologically and better correlated in relation to other factors than has yet been done.
3. The organization and analysis, geographically, biologically, and statistically, of the proposed collection of data would in some measure result in a better understanding of the natural laws which govern (a) human migration, (b) mate selection (with particular reference to race mixtures and to values going into and coming out of each generation of matings), (c) the struggle for existence among races and among the natural hereditary qualities within races. Some of these laws should be mathematical as well as descriptive, provided the statistical features of each study were exact and accurate. One valuable check of accuracy would be found in the comparison of the results of the several processes traced from an earlier date, with the demographic status of the census of a later date. If such checks show close approximation, it should be possible to predict, by the application of the facts and of the laws deduced from their analysis, the outcome, under various given controllable or uncontrollable conditions, of the movements and tendencies now present in the whole population of Pan America.
4. Practical use could be made of the tables, analyses, laws, and other findings of the proposed studies in aiding the development, along sound biological lines, of national policies of the several Republics and colonies of the Western Hemisphere in reference to immigration, mate selection, and other factors which control the numbers, distribution, and quality of population.
VI. Suggested working plans. To make the survey and analysis herein proposed would require several years of intensive work, depending upon the organization of the working staff and the support provided. The development of these outlines in ultimate detail would constitute an endless task, but the working out of their essential features from the several statistical and biological points of view, is within the range of feasibility.
1. Direction and support.-On account of the extent of the researches and analysis involved in the researches herein proposed, and because of the common interests of all of the nations of the Western Hemisphere in the determination of the facts, and because of the general value of such researches in adding to the world's stock of knowledge, and in promoting better international understanding, it is respectfully suggested that one of the following agencies should initiate and support these researches:
(a) The Union of Pan American Republics. (b) The Pan American Scientific Congress. (c) The Congress of the United States.
(d) One of the great private foundations which is engaged in scientific research and in the promotion of international welfare.
(e) A special conference of the immigrant-receiving nations which may be assembled in the future.
2. Preliminary examinations. It is respectfully suggested that any appropriate agency which may consider the initiation of these researches be invited to examine fully into the use and feasibility of the project. If a favorable preliminary report were secured, the examining agency could next prepare a working outline of the necessary organization with specific recommendations. Logically, such an outline would include a definition of ends sought, plans for organization of the
staff, the location of headquarters, the sources and extent of support necessary for the execution of the work, the time and cost limits, and plans for the permanent preservation of records and the publication of findings, as well as for other pertinent elements in the consummation of the projected research.
PROPOSAL FOK A CONFERENCE OF THE IMMIGRANT-RECEIVING NATIONS, ON THEIR COMMON RIGHTS, DUTIES, INTERESTS, AND POLICIES, PREPARED BY HARRY H. LAUGHLIN
(A) INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE IMMIGRANT-RECEIVING NATIONS (See p. 1285) So long as the United States remains outside of the League of Nations, the overbalancing weight of authority within the league is represented by emigrantexporting nations. Consequently any action which the league, as presently constituted, may take on the subject of human migrations, no matter how unbiased the constituent members might try to be, naturally would be biased in favor of the overpopulated and emigrant-exporting nations. The tendency of such nations is to consider international migration as an economic problem, and to work toward an unrestricted open door into the immigrant-receiving nations.
Just as in affairs concerning the movement of goods between nations, it is equally necessary in the international movement of human migrants that international law protect and maintain the sovereign rights of both the exporter and the importer States. International law, up to its present point of development, has supported the sovereign right of free nations to control their own emigration and immigration processes, with exactly the same freedom which they enjoy in reference to the importation and exportation of raw and manufactured articles in the course of trade. It is essential to the existence of sovereign nations that these two rights be maintained unaltered.
It is necessary, in order to promote peace and cooperation with better understanding among nations, that the immigrant-receiving as well as the emigrantexporting nations be fully represented in any international organization which seeks to define international law in reference to human migration. Emigration congresses are held from time to time in Europe. There the rights of the emigrant-exporting nations are declared, and the desires of such nations in reference to emigration are advocated and supported so far as possible by arguments of history, international law, justice, and statistics. It is similarly proper that conferences of the immigrant-receiving nations should be held for the similar purpose of maintaining and clarifying international law in reference to the rights of immigrant-receiving nations, and for setting forth their standards and desires in reference to recruiting their populations by immigration, and for supporting these rights by arguments of history, international law, justice, and statistics.
In balancing the emigrant and immigrant forces in human migration in relation to national welfare, any general conference of nations must face clearly the racial, economic, social, and political consequences of migrations on both the particular sending and receiving nations. Ultimate relative racial numbers and family stock qualities, as well as the present economic and social worth of the migrants, must be considered. Meanwhile the clarification and maintenance of the established international law on human migration must be defended primarily by the immigrant-receiving nations.
The last of the world's wild territories have been taken up by stronger nations. There is no more land over which political control may be secured by the conquest of territories inhabited by savage or semi-savage people. Future migrations will mean that subjects of one sovereign state will move into the territories of another equally sovereign country.
It is evidently to the immediate selfish interests of the emigrant-sending nations that the limitations of emigration by the receiving nations be abolished or relaxed, or possibly made the subject of international concern. To balance this, the immigrant-receiving nations, many of which are still building up their industries and recruiting their populations by immigration, may claim the right for their agents to go into the home territories of the emigrant-sending nations and deliberately select the best individual and family strains for recruiting their populations.
But the sovereign rights of free states, as developed and now supported by international law, make the control of emigration a sovereign right for the semigrant-sending state and, similarly, holds the control of immigration to lie olely and absolutely within the sovereign rights of the immigrant-receiving
state. The clarification and maintenance of this pair of sovereign rights by all free states is essential to the maintenance of the world's peace, and also is an essential preliminary to any successful general cooperation among nations. Any attempted general agreement among a group of nations for the preservation of peace which did not recognize the universal application of these elementary sovereign rights would constitute an entangling alliance.
Finally, an impartial League of Nations, or other general conference of sovereign states, with all nations represented would be expected to clarify and to support international law in reference to human migration in full accordance with the sovereign rights of both the overpopulated emigrant-sending and the underpopulated immigrant-receiving nations.
(B) THE LIST OF IMMIGRANT-RECEIVING NATIONS
At present the principal group of immigrant-receiving nations comprises the 21 Republics of Pan America, the Dominion of Canada, Newfoundland, the Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and the Union of South Africa. Perhaps after one or two more generations, Siberia may be added to the list, but for the present it is not open as an immigrant-receiving nation, although because richly endowed by nature and possessing only a sparse population, it is potentially but not actually an immigrant-receiving country. With the present group of the principal immigrant-receiving nations the United States now might well collaborate heartily in scientific studies for determining the status, tendency, and consequences of immigration, and for establishing within their sovereign rights their individual and common policies for the future control of immigration.
The self-governing Dominions within the British Empire are essentially nations which control their own immigration policies, and because these Dominions are still immigrant-receiving nations, they have, in common with the United States and all of the other Republics of Pan America, an immediate interest which, in this specific field, is contrasted with that of the overpopulated emigrant-exporting nations.
While for the immediate future there seems to be a difference of interests between nations which are exporting and those which are receiving immigrants, this is only temporary, because in the long run the highest welfare of each nation will work to the welfare of every other nation. Both the feelings and the judgment of mankind are demanding, with increasing authority, the cessation of wars and of international exploitation, and the substitution of just laws and peace among nations.
Many of the nations and colonies of the world do not yet keep and develop accurate statistics of their total emigration and immigration, but so far as data are available the most extensive and reliable compilation of migration movements in relation to the several nations is maintained by the Division of Migration of the International Labor Office, which is managed under the auspices of the League of Nations at Geneva.
In Tables I, II, III, and IV, published under the head of "Migration movements" in the International Labour Review, Volume X, No. 2, August, 1924, the following summaries are given:
[From Table I. Oversea Emigration of Nationals or Foreign Residents, 1923]
[From Table II. Oversea Immigration of Nationals or Intending Foreign Residents, 1923]
[From Table III. Continental emigration of nationals or foreign residents, 1923]
[From Table IV. Continental immigration of nationals or intending foreign residents, 1923]
79, 498 (1)
(1) 12, 189 4, 254
It is to be noted that in the lists just quoted (which were abstracted from the pamphlet entitled "Migration movements," issued by the Division of Migration of the International Labor Office), the compilations include two sets of data, first on "oversea" emigration and immigration (Tables I and II), and second, "continental" emigration and immigration (Tables III and IV). The sum of the "oversea" and "continental" emigration or immigration, as the case may be, should give the total national emigration or immigration, but these sums do 'not always tally with the latest data for national emigration and immigration printed in the Statesman's Year Book for 1924.