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better economical conditions, not in any higher degree as may be thoughtfrom Sweden's lack of economical qualification to provide for its birth surplus. This circumstance evidently must have influence upon the composition of the bulk of emigrants.

The following table is interesting as an illustration of the strength of the Swedish emigration compared to that of all Europe: Table III.-Number of emigrants from Sweden compared with that from Europe,

1861-1908, transoceanic emigration

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The table shows that during most of the time that it embraces the transoceanic emigration from Sweden has been relatively more important than the emigration from Europe as a whole. During the years 1867–1905 the firstmentioned number of emigrants has for one year only been slightly less than the last-mentioned number. (See chart 1, p. 1243.)

The proportions of the emigrants as to sex and family status are given in the following tables: TABLE IVA.Registered emigration from Sweden to the United States, 1861 to

1920, by periods of 5 years and by sex and family status-Actual numbers

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1861-1865. 1866-1870. 1871-1875. 1876-1880. 1881-1885. 1886–1890. 1891-1895. 1896-1900 1901-1905. 1906-1920 1911-1915. 1916-1920.

9, 420 79, 311 41, 280 59, 889 146, 543 177, 742 138, 956

61, 568 127, 949 91, 300 59, 923 21, 614

5, 441 46, 066 22, 156 35, 336 81, 210 101, 239 74, 794 30, 021 73, 934 53, 723 33, 704 10, 497

3, 979 33, 245 19, 124 24, 553 65, 333 76, 503 64, 162 31, 547 54, 015

3, 757 26, 219 11, 117

1, 259 10, 032 4, 231 6, 290 15, 471 17, 771 12, 669

3, 551
10, 033
7,542
3, 994
1, 420

1, 259
10, 216
4, 426
6,080
14, 822
12, 795
10, 160
3, 104
7, 763
5, 393
3, 373
1, 788

2, 754
24, 691
12,921
22, 996
49, 791
69, 848
50, 982
23, 489
56, 095
40, 773
26, 270
7, 561

1, 246 12, 305

9, 948 12, 589 34, 776 50, 185 43, 011 25, 115 38, 605 26, 979 19, 276 7,886

2, 902 22, 067

9, 754 11,934 31, 683 27, 143 22, 134

6, 309 15, 453 10, 613 6,810 2,959

1861-1920

1,015, 495

568, 121

413, 554

94, 263

81,379

388, 171

281,921

169, 761

NOTE.-For the years 1861-1868 married persons who have traveled alone (probably very few) bave been placed under the heading “Grown-up unmarried.” The group “Grown-up unmarried” also includes widowers, widows, and divorced persons.

TABLE IVB. -Registered emigrants from Sweden to the United States 1861 to 1920,

by periods of 10 years and by sex and family status-Relative numbers

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An observation of the family status of the emigrants clearly shows that emigration during the years embraced by the table has altered its character. Especially striking is it that the relative number of married emigrants has constantly decreased. During earlier years proportionally many families emigrated, while during later years the bulk of emigrants has altered to embrace more and more unmarried persons—young people for the most part. The proportions of emigrants as to age, combined with sex and family status, are illustrated by the following tables, containing numbers for the decade 1891-1900. The figures refer to the whole extra-European emigration, thus not only to the United States, which circumstance is of no greater importance, as the last-mentioned emigration during the period 1861-1910 has amounted to about 98 per cent of the first-mentioned.

TABLE V.--Extra-European emigration from Sweden, 1891 to 1900, by age groups,

sex, and family status-Actual numbers

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0-5. 5-10. 10-15. 15-20 20-25 25-30. 30-35. 35-40. 40-45 45-50. 50-55 55-60 60-65. 65-70.

9, 687 10, 232 9,659 48, 603 56, 940 27, 628 15, 246 9, 056 5, 248 3, 441 2,594 2,337 1, 742 2,100

4,860
5, 230
4, 603
23, 701
32, 108
11, 712
4, 165
1,610

637
270
133
52
47
58

4
525
2, 745
3,801
3,321
2, 276
1,485
1,019

712
425
423

4,860
5, 230
4, 603

23, 705
12 32, 645
64 | 14,521
102

8,068 124 5,055 119 3, 032 106

1, 861 81 1, 233 127 891 172 644 396 877

4, 827
5, 002
5,056
24, 831
23, 236
10, 401
3,986
1,619

601
292
189
153
80
88

67
1,031
2,603
3,024
2, 205
1, 455
1, 089

803
707
444
314

28
103
168
177
160
199
369
586
574
821

4,827 5, 002 5,056 24, 898 24, 295 13, 107 7, 178 4,001 2, 216 1, 580 1, 361 1, 446 1,098 1, 223

Total..

204,513

89, 186

16,736

1, 303 107, 225

80, 361

13, 742

3,185

97, 288

TABLE VI.-Extra-European emigration from Sweden, 1891-1900, by age groups,

sex, and family status-Relative numbers

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Concerning the figures of the tables above, the before-mentioned illegal emigration of young men, bound to military service (aged 20-21 years), must be noticed, as this circumstance causes that the figures for emigrants 20–25 years old are too low. This flaw, however, does not derange the witness of the tables that the emigrants chiefly are recruited from people between the ages of 15–30 years.

Finally is given a table showing the proportions of the emigrants as to occupation, combined with sex and family status.

TABLE VII.-Extra-European emigration from Sweden, 1891-1900, by employ

ment, sex, and family status

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On the “Swedes as American citizens” the Kansas City Journal-Post for April 19, 1923, contained, among other things, the following:

"The Swedish consul general in New York has carried out an official inquiry as to the Swedes in America. The results achieved are very flattering to this mighty Scandinavian people.

It has, for instance, been stated, that 87.6 per cent of all Swedish immigrants within 10 years of their arrival become 100 per cent true Americans. They can read and speak English and are naturalized citizens.

The average percentage in this respect is for all immigrants 56.9 per cent, which figure would be considerably reduced, if the Swedes were subtracted.

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“About 75 per cent of all immigrants can read and speak English within 10 years of their arrival in the country, as against 87.6 per cent among the Swedes alone.

“The majority of those Swedes, who have made themselves a home in the United States, are either skilled engineers with a technical education, in many cases occupying important positions in the greatest industrial enterprises in America, or they are trained workmen at technical trades or they are farmers. The Swedes do not collect in the American towns. They devote themselves to farming, become producers and concur to the development of the resources of America. In great numbers they live in the districts, where spring wheat is cultivated in large quantities. About one-fifth of all Swedish male immigrants devote themselves to agriculture.

About two-thirds of the Swedish female immigrants become servants, housekeepers, ladies' maids and waitresses, but their daughters generally devote themselves to intellectual work.

"In all, the inquiry proves what has long been known, that the Swedes make citizens of the very best type and form a contribution of highest value to the nation. The Swede on account of his enterprise, his industry, his firm loyalty and patriotism, his ambition, and his unswerving trustworthiness is an immigrant always welcome. As to immigration it is of great need to the country to receive just the type of new comer who possesses the qualities which characterize the Swedes.' (Ur "Hem i Sverige" årg. 16:2, 1923.)

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SERIES III. THE COMPOSITION OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE

APPENDIX D1

A STUDY OF THE POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES

By John B. TREVOR, M. A. Since the Immigration Committees of Congress caused to be printed a study of the population of the United States (see print for use of Immigration Committee, United States Senate, and H. Rept. No. 350), the data therein presented has been reexamined and checked by a new analysis based on a method distinct in some respects from that previously adopted. A comparison of the allotments made under both systems of computing the numerical equivalent of the persons contributed to our population by the various nations of the world show an approximation sufficiently close to justify the conclusions based upon the preliminary study. The relative simplicity of the method which is about to be explained, and the working out of the data to cover all elements of the population, indigenous, native and foreign born, should make the new table determinative where any discrepancies in the results exist.

The population of the United States as enumerated in 1920 was 105,710,620. It is composed of a white population, native born of native parentage amounting to 58,421,957, an element characterized by the Census Bureau as foreign stock; that is, foreign born, native born of foreign parentage, and native born of mixed parentage one parent native and one parent foreign born, amounting to 36,398,958, and a balance of predominately native born of Negro descent, some American Indians, and a relatively small proportion of Asiatics, amounting in all to 10,889,705.

The Census Bureau in a publication entitled "Increase of Population in the United States, 1910–1920, Census Monograph No. 1,” has amplified the results of earlier researches published in A Century of Population Growth, concerning the composition of our population in 1900. As reference to this latter publication has been made in the preliminary study of this question, it is merely necessary to say now that as a result of a perfected formula (Increase of Population in the United States, 1910–1920, pp. 189 to 193), the Census Bureau estimate the numerical equivalent of the descendants from white persons enumerated in the first census taken by the Government in the year 1790 at 47,330,000 to 47,370,000. Owing to the fact that an adaptation has been made of the method by which the latter figure—47,370,000—was arrived at, this figure has been selected as the basis for this study. Furthermore, the method itself used in reaching this basic figure has been applied to ascertain the numerical equivalent of the descendants of the 275,000 immigrants who entered the country between 1790 and 1820, which amounts to 1,716,402. It should be added that this figure of 275,000 (Increase of Population in the United States, 1910-1920, p. 195) is an estimate by the Census Bureau based on such data as was available prior to the regular collection of statistics on immigration which commenced in 1820. As the element which entered the country between 1790 and 1820 possessed the same racial characteristics, or national derivation, perhaps we had better say, since we are dealing with national origins, as those who were enumerated by the census of 1790, they should be added to the basic figure of 47,370,000, giving a total of 49,086,402. For the purpose of this study, we may call this element the basic stock of the population which we can apportion on a basis of numerical equivalents contributed from foreign sources in such proportion as has been indicated in the census publication A Century of Population Growth (p. 121), hereinbefore referred to.

1 Reprinted in full, on the order of Chairman Johnson, of the Committee on Immigration and Naturalization of the House of Representatives, from "International Conciliation," No. 202, September, 1924, in which this appendix appeared as Appendix "B" of Captain Trevor's pamphlet. 429—241-SER 5A---10

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