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Sub-Folder B.-Physical Examination.

Record of physical, physiological, pathological, anthropometrical and racial tests and measurements. Personal identification.


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FIG. 3.-Title Page of Sub-Folder B. (Actual size of folder, 9 by 12 inches.)


Sub-Folder C.-Mental and Educational Tests.

Descriptive records. Special tests of literacy, of general mental ability, and of special talents and defects. Record of education and training.

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FIG. 4.-Title Page of Sub-Folder C. (Actual size of folder, 9 by 12 inches.) 429-24†-SER 5A—— 9


Sub-Folder D.-Family-Stock Values

1.-A biological pedigree-chart and descriptions of the near kin of the would-be immigrant.

2. An analysis showing:

a) The probable development and values of the individual gauged by
his juvenile promise and by the stock from which he springs.
b) Whether the possible offspring of the individual would constitute
an asset or debit to the American nation, based on the average
inborn physical, mental and moral qualities of the family-stocks
already existing in the United States.

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FIG. 5.-Title Page of Sub-Folder D. (Actual size of folder, 9 by 12 inches.)





Drawn up for this particular research by S. WAHLUND, assistant at the Swedish State Institute for Race-Biology

For more than half a century emigration has been a question of greatest importance to Sweden. During the last years this problem has become still more actual, as emigration which during the war nearly ceased-afterwards has increased very rapidly, while at the same time the United States have begun to apply severe restrictions in their immigration politics. The following figures are intended to throw some light upon the emigration problem, so important for both the countries.

From the beginning of 1851 it is possible to obtain out of the official statistics of Sweden information concerning the extent and proportions of emigration. Since 1874 statements are also given as to persons immigrated to this country. It is of no great importance that the migration statistics do not go further back in the past, as emigration and immigration before the year mentioned were rather unimportant, amounting to about some hundred persons yearly. During the first half of the eighteen-fifties a first impulse to a more extensive emigration from Sweden to the United States can be noticed. But not before the end of the eighteen-sixties—during the years of bad harvest-did it reach greater dimensions. The time 1867-1873 forms the first epoch of vivid emigration, whereafter followed a regression of about the same number of years. A second tidal wave in the stream of emigration lasted during the time 1879-1883 and had its origin chiefly in a relatively large population of young people. the middle of the eighteen-eighties this surplus disappeared and a shortage instead arose, whereafter the number was further increased through a third and specially great emigration wave during the years 1887-1893. Thereafter emigration has decreased a little, with the exception of single years. During the war it was, as is before mentioned, rather inconsiderable, but after the treaty it became more lively again.


The extent of emigration from Sweden to the United States during the time 1851-1910 is estimated at 1,060,000 persons. If we subtract those 125,000 persons who during said time have immigrated to Sweden, the net loss is no less than about 935,000 persons.1

It is remarkable that the official statistics of Sweden account for only 948,823 emigrants during the period 1851-1910 and for 113,624 immigrants during the period 1875-1910. The difference between the estimated number of emigrants, which may be considered as very exact, and the number given by the official statistics, is due to the fact that a lot of emigrants have neglected their certificates for moving, and thus have escaped the official registration. The number of emigrants not accounted for is relatively varying during different periods. A close inquiry into this question shows that the official figures as to emigration for the eighteen-fifties should be nearly doubled and for the period 1861-1884, 10 per cent should be added, but the data for the time 1885-1893 probably answer fairly well to the real number of emigrants. After 1893 the number of emigrants accounted for is again too low, owing to illegal emigration of young men bound to military service.

When estimating the official figures given below attention should be paid to these imperfections in the Swedish vital statistics, which are otherwise so excellent. It should be mentioned that the information concerning registered emigrants is very exact.

The exchange of people between Sweden and the United States is illustrated by the figures given below.

TABLE IA.—Emigration from Sweden to the United States, 1851-1875, in periods

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TABLE IB.-Emigration from Sweden to the United States and immigration from the United States to Sweden, 1876-1920, in periods of 5 years

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TABLE II.-Yearly emigration from Sweden to the United States, 1851 to 1922Consumption of pig iron in the United States (in tons of 2,240 pounds), 1871 to 1914

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NOTE.-The consumption of pig iron in the United States is stated according to Statistical Abstracts of the United States of America, 1880, 1897, 1907, and 1914.

1 According to calculations made by the late Dr. G. Sundbärg, professor of statistics at the University of Uppsala.

The figures of this table wholly verify what has been said before about the fluctuations of emigration. A thorough parallel can be shown if comparing the number of emigrants from Sweden with the consumption of pig iron in the United States, which may be used as a measure of the fluctuations of their conjunctures.

The emigration from Sweden to the United States thus must be considered chiefly as a question of conjunctures, deriving from the emigrants' struggle for

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