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APPENDIXES TO THE HEARING ON “EUROPE AS AN EMIGRANT-EXPORT
ING CONTINENT AND THE UNITED STATES AS AN IMMIGRANT-RECEIVING NATION”
SERIES I. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES IN SELECTIVE IMMIGRA
AN EXPERIMENTAL INDIVIDUAL AND FAMILY HISTORY STUDY MADE OF A PRO
SPECTIVE IMMIGRANT IN HER HOME COMMUNITY, PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF HARRY H. LAUGHLIN
This is one of 12 experimental individual and family history studies secured by the author of this report in different European countries. Their principal purposes are to develop the outline and technique of such examinations and to demonstrate their practicability, in case similar investigations were required to be made by American consuls as a prerequisite to viséing the passports of wouldbe immigrants.
Altogether, 4 demonstration studies of this sort were made in Belgium, 4 in England, and 4 in Sweden. The Italian commissioner of emigration declined to permit similar studies to be made in Italy, but offered to make them himself.
Such studies were demonstrated to be legal from the standpoint of international law (see p. 1264 of this report), in cases in which the international initiative in the emigration is taken by the emigrant-exporting nation, as evidenced by the latter's first granting the passport to the would-be emigrant to the United States. From the standpoint of cost, practical administration, technical quality of the results and practical use in enforcing higher immigration standards of the United States, the practicability of making such collections of data about would-be immigrants is discussed in the main report (p. 1274).
THE CASE OF J. B.
The case here reported is one selected for study by the American consul at Brussels, with the full consent of the person selected. This individual (as in the cases of all other persons studied in similar fashion in Belgium, England, and Sweden), had been granted a passport by her home country to emigrate to the United States. It was during the interval between the granting of the passport and the decision of our consul to visé or not to visé the passport, that these studies were made.
For the practical general guidance of the field workers and physicians, the outlines of the five folders described in Series I, Appendix B (p. 1349), were used.
THE CONSULATE OF THE UNITED STATES AT BRUSSELS IMMIGRANT EXAMINATION
The field examinations were made by Madame Catharine Varchaver, who returned the completed study on September 20, 1923. This field worker made the physical examinations and the mental test measurements, secured photographs and other data for personal identification, secured the individual biography or history, and made pedigree studies of the nearest kin.
The medical examination was made by Dr. Albert Govaerts.
Besides the subject herself and her immediate family, the following additional sources of information were provided: (1) Reverend mother superior of the Convent of the M. N. of St. M., whose address is Woluwé, Belgium, and who speaks the French language; (2) reverend mother superior of the Convent of the F. S., whose address is Brussels, Belgium, and who speaks the French language; and (3) Mr. D., the director assistant of M. B., of Brussels, Belgium, and who also speaks the French language.
SUBFOLDER A-INDIVIDUAL HISTORY
Full name: J. B.
Personal appearance and personal identification: (Two pictures of her were supplied to the field worker and are filed with the original study. See also Anthropometric measurements," p. 1345.)
Habits: J. B. seems to take an optimum amount of exercise, has considerable physical endurance, and wall with a moderate gait. Her condition of speech is clear. Her prevailing mood is that of good humor, and she shows no abnormality in nervous behavior, has regular habits, is very industrious, and has a predilection for companionship. She talks slowly, seems to have good common sense, is courteous, neat, modest, and frank, kind-hearted, and content.
Her father" (I-4) was a painter. As he was very often out of work in winter, he preferred seeking permanent work, and in 1896 he entered the service of the Moniteur Belge as a manual worker. He still works there and gives his employers entire satisfaction. (Mr. D., the director's assistant, has never had to complain of him.) This is proved by the fact that he has been in his present employment for 27 years.
The mother (I-2) of J. did housework only. She had 13 children, 9 of which she brought up, 4 having died at an early age (II-6) (II-9) (II–14) (II–16).
Having always had an excellent health, she began during the war to grow pale and thin and weak and until her death was ill. She died on the 1st of August, 1917.
One of J.'s sisters died at the age of 25 of peritonitis. It had not been cared for in time.
Of the eight children actually living three are married and live apart. Two brothers and three sisters (II-12) (II-13) (II-3) (II-4) (II-15), including J., live with their father, 52 Rue M. P.
J. went to a school directed by nuns. At the age of 12, after her first communion, she entered an embroidery shop, where she remained for 12 years, giving the greatest satisfaction. According to references given by the superiors of the convent of M. N., J. by her work and conduct always gave them satisfaction. The nuns who directed the workshop were also always pleased with her.
Busy as she was, working all day (she worked at the shop from 6 a. m. to 12 and from 1 p. m. to 7)—that is, 12 hours a day-J. managed to attend and to graduate from a domestic school organized by the same nuns. On Sundays J., who was extremely pious, went to church in the morning to mass, and from 2 p. m. to 7 at the patronage organized by the F. S. in a school which two of her sisters attended (ÎI-10) (11-15). The reverend mother superior of this school particularly praises J. She considers that J., by the amiability of her character and by her good conduct, is above the young girls of her neighborhood.
In 1917, during her mother's illness, she left the workshop and took charge of the housekeeping of the whole family, living with her father. She continued going regularly to mass until 1921, when she suddenly lost all inclination for religious institutions.
Soon after her mother's death J. made the acquaintance of a young man, J. V., who worked in an auction sale shop. The father of the young man, a carpenter, has already been in the United States for 14 years. J. V., with his mother, his four sisters, and brother, had during the war come from Eldringen (near Minove), in East Flanders, to Brussels. The young people, J. B. and J. V., became engaged and intended marrying, when, in 1920, the father of J. V. sent him money to go to the United States. The money received was insufficient for the voyage of both, and he left his fiancé in Brussels and went alone. Since then he works
in the United States and earns his living. He is true to J. B.; often writes letters asking her to come. At the same time his father asks his wife, the mother of J. V., to join him also. She is now in Brussels with her son and four daughters. J. V.'s mother hesitates undertaking so long a voyage, while J. B. is ready to go alone, provided her_fiancé sends her the money she needs for the voyage. In the meanwhile J. B. continues doing the housework for the whole family. She also takes care of a little niece 3 years of age. This child is the daughter of her married sister, who lives in the same house and works out.
The father of J. B. occupies two large and one very small room on the ground floor of the house on Rue M. P.
The father sleeps in a small room, while J. B. and her sisters and brothers sleep in one of the large rooms, where there are three beds. The fact of sleeping together in the same room as her brothers in no way seems to disturb J. and she considers it as a matter of course. This promiscuous living seems to have no effect on her or her brothers' morality, or to be the cause of any licentious conduct.
The second room is the kitchen and living room. It is there that the family have their meals. The members of this family seem to agree very well. In the evenings they generally stay at home all together and play games. The winner of the games gets 5 centimes, which is put into a money box.
This money is used to buy a bottle of beer. Once in a while the two brothers go to a dance, but never do J. or her sisters go there.
J. loves her little niece. The rooms are in order and very clean. J. looks very neat and tidy. She gives one the impression of being modest, gentle, and devoted to her family.
All the foregoing makes one believe that she will be as excellent a wife and mother as she is now a kind sister, daughter, and aunt.
SUBFOLDER B-PHYSICAL EXAMINATION Before making the medical examination it was necessary to secure the subject's written permission. For this purpose the following form was used:
BRUSSELS, I, J. B., hereby give my consent to having a complete medical and anthropometric examination made of myself by Doctor A. G. and consent that the results of this examination be filed with the United States immigration agent to Europe.
(Signed) J. B.
(Address) Brussels. Name: J. B.; address, Rue ; age, 31 years; weight, 54 kg.
Stature, 1.50 m; sitting height, 0.79 m.; sternum height, 1.24 m.; pubic arch height, 0.79 m.; acromium height, 1.22 m.; digital height, 0.55 m., spinal height, 0.86 m.; foot length, 0.22 m.; hand length, 0.15 m.; nose length, 0.05 m.; girth chest: Inspiration, 0.75 m.; expiration, 0.73 m.; girth neck, 0.29 m.; diameter bispinal, 0.25 m.; diameter bitrochanterium, 0.28 m.; depth head, 0.17 m.; depth chest, 0.175 m.; breadth head, 0.14 m.; breadth chest, 0.22 m.
Robustness index, pignet 22, medium; chest index, 122; head index, 76; color hais, auburn; color eyes, blue.
Anthropological type: Mixed Flemish, Walloon.
Type respiratory: Upper chest.
Childhood: Third child in the family.
The mouth, tongue, fauces, larynx, pharynx, and tonsils are in good condition.
column, dorsal lordose. Form and curve of the chest are symmetrical. Chest girth at the height of nipples: At inspiration, 75 cm.; at expiration, 73
Both sides of the chest have the same girth and the same form at inspiration and at expiration.
Development of chest and back's muscles is normal.
STATE OF LUNGS
Eighteen breaths when resting.
There is a crackling sound in the bladder respiratory in the upper part of the lungs.
There are no traces of pleurisy, either former or recent.
STATE OF HEART AND VESSELS
Pulse rate at rest, 80.
STATE OF THE LOWER PART OF ABDOMEN
During the examination of the lower part of abdomen nothing abnormal was noticed. Girth of abdomen at navel is 69 cm.
STATE OF GENITAL ORGANS
State of genital organs is normal.