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The CHAIRMAN. I am very glad you are here. You can bear witness to the fact that these studies Doctor Laughlin is explaining to the committee are not secret and confidential. The charge has been made that these were gathered and reported in an underhanded way. I would like to say that when the time is fixed for a hearing the clerk of the committee notifies the members of the committee and states the principal reason for calling the committee. Following a custom for a long time, we start at the hour we are called. If the call is for 10 o'clock, we start on time if only two or three members are here, unless there is a point made that there is no quorum present. But à quorum soon appears, as a rule.

Mr. JACOBY. I would like to express my appreciation that the committee has, for several years past, secured some scientific information for the basis of its studies, because sometimes we endeavor to make our conclusions without knowing all the facts.

Mr. Box. Mr. Chairman, may I call attention in that connection to the fact that these studies were based on what was found in State and Federal-public institutions? Necessarily the communications made were made by public officials and the data given were compiled by public officials of the different States of the Nation.

The CHAIRMAN. I am glad you make that statement for I have received from time to time protests from citizens of the United States, usually citizens born in other countries, that the reports we make reflect on various peoples.

Now, if you are going to pursue a study and authorize a factfinding agency to work for you, you can not help where the facts may lead.

CONCLUSION

Doctor Laughlin, what is your main conclusion in reference to the studies which you have reported to the committee to-day?

Doctor LAUGHLIN. With each special subject of this report, I gave first the facts, and then, from the biological and statistical points of view, made a statement of the conclusion logically to be drawn from the facts.

The outstanding conclusion of all of the investigations so far is that immigration into the United States, in the interests of national welfare, is primarily a biological problem, and secondarily, a problem in economics and charity. An examination of the present American immigration situation shows the United States adopting the biological basis for its policy.

These studies show also that, in the matter of international interests and control, the United States, together with all of the other Republics of Pan America and the self-governing British Dominions in North America, Australasia, and South Africa, constitute at present the immigrant-receiving nations, whereas most of Europe and the Orient are overpopulated and are emigrant-exporting regions. The interests of these two groups of regions in any general worldwide agreement for the control of human migration must be considered equally,

These studies traced also, by experimental methods, the line of demarcation between the authority of the American consuls on the one hand, and, on the other, of the countries to which they are accredited,

in securing reliable first-hand data about would-be emigrants from the particular country to the United States. A typical case and family history of a would-be immigrant (one of 12 made during the present studies) is presented to the committee for the purpose of demonstrating, in both theory and practice, how such a study could be made. (Appendix A, p. 1343.) Also, these researches compiled for systematic presentation, the actually existing and the apparently needed rules of international law for the control of human migrations. (See p. 1285)

Criticisms of the former study, entitled "Analysis of America's Modern Melting Pot," I met by producing more first-hand data. and by reanalyzing the original material in accordance with constructive suggestions.

(6

FUTURE REPORTS ON IMMIGRATION RESEARCHES

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As I stated at the beginning to-day, this report is only a preliminary account of the researches in hand, which deal with the biological and statistical aspects of Europe and the Near East as emigrantexporting regions and America as an immigrant-importing continent. As an agent of the Department of Labor, I have data of a fundamental nature in reference to ethnology, geography, and economics in process of collection and collaboration with the American consuls, who are agents of the Department of State. I trust that authority will be granted to enable us to bring this latter research to a head.

Mr. BACON. I have just examined one of those typical family studies made by Doctor Laughlin in collaboration with an American consul. This series of studies ought to be completed and the results analyzed and made available for the use of this committee. These data are of value.

Doctor LAUGHLIN. This work is under way, and the assurance of its completion awaits only the arrangement of some further details of cooperation.

Compared with the plan now being followed, there is probably only one more effective method for securing fundamental first-hand facts about immigration. This would consist in a thorough study of facts, causes, and consequences to be made under the immediate authority of the Congress.

The CHAIRMAN. We thank Doctor Laughlin for presenting to the committee to-day the results of his researches on Europe as an emigrant-exporting and America as an immigrant-receiving continent, and we shall look forward to hearing the results of his future studies. I understand that the analysis of these basic researches made in collaboration with the several American consuls and a report on studies in deportation are the subjects of Doctor Laughlin's current investigations and therefore of early reports to the committee.

Later, I think some plan should be devised under which the United States might compare notes with other immigrant-receiving nations. Also I want Doctor Laughlin, and all of the members of the committee for that matter, to study the deportation situation. There is a big hole in it somewhere.

(Thereupon the committee adjourned to meet again Monday morning, March 10, 1924, at 10.30 o'clock.)

APPENDIXES

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(Reprinted with this hearing on the order of Hon. Albert Johnson, chairman of the Committee on Immi

gration and Naturalization of the House of Representatives, November 19, 1924] SERIES I. Experimental studies in selective immigration:

Page Appendix A. An experimental individual and family history study made of a prospective immigrant in her home community, prepared under the direction of Harry H. Laughlin..

1343 Appendix B. Set of folders proposed for outlining and filing personal and family history data concerning would-be immigrants, prepared by Harry H. Laughlin..

1349 SERIES II. Swedish emigration to the United States:

Appendix C. Statistical data concerning emigration from Sweden
to the United States, drawn up for this particular research by S.
Wahlund, assistant at the Swedish State Institute for Rac
Biology, Uppsala, Sweden..

1355 SERIES III. The composition of the American people:

Appendix D. A study of the population of the United States, by
John B. Trevor, M. A. (reprinted in full from “International Con-
ciliation,” No. 202, September, 1924) --

1361 SERIES IV. The Rome conference:

Appendix E. The Rome conference on emigration and immigration,
1924 (reprinted in full from the Monthly Record of Migration,
No. 21, June, 1924, of the International Labor Bureau of the
League of Nations, Geneva)

1367 SERIES V. Immigration reports, 1923 and 1924:

Appendix F. Official data from the United States governmental
reports-
(a) From the report of the Secretary of Labor for the year
ending June 30, 1923.-

1377 (6) From the report of the Commissioner General of Immigra

tion for the year ending June 30, 1924 (advance sheet) -- 1383 (c) From the report of the Commissioner of Naturalization for the year ending June 30, 1923--

1393 SERIES VI. The United States immigration act of 1924:

Appendix G. Text of the United States immigration act of 1924.--- 1397
Appendix H. Presidential statement and proclamation-
(a) Statement issued to the press by President Coolidge, May
26, 1924.

1409 (6) President Coolidge's quota proclamation of June 30, 1924,

listing the several national immigration quota allotments,
under the immigration act of 1924.

1410
Appendix I. An analysis of the American immigration act of 1924,
by John B. Trevor, M. A. (reprinted in full from "International
Conciliation," No. 202, September, 1924) --

1412 SERIES VII. Outline for further research and conference by the immigrant-receiving nations: Appendix J. A general outline for the scientific study of the causes

and consequences of human migration, prepared by Harry H.
Laughlin

1425
Appendix K. A special outline for a proposed scientific study of
immigration, and other biological population-determining factors
in the Western Hemisphere since 1492, prepared by Harry H.
Laughlin.--

1426 Appendix L. Proposal for a conference of the immigrant-receiving nations, on their common rights, duties, interests, and policies, prepared by Harry H. Laughlin

(a) International law and the immigrant-receiving nations. 1429 (6) The list of immigrant-receiving nations.-

1430 (c) Proposed conference of immigrant-receiving nations..

1433 (d) Proposed agenda

1433

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