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would not have an immigration port, and that port would be, we will say, in Mr. Vaile's district in Colorado, would not the State of Colorado have to solve its problem with respect to the immigrant that comes there, and some of them remain there, and as a result of which hospitals get filled, and other institutions-would not that situation practically arise if they go to Colorado as a United States seaport?
The CHAIRMAN. Colorado would be doing like New York and some other States, demanding the right to sue the United States for taking care of aliens, and arguing that the alien defectives are not wards of the State but of the United States Government.
Mr. DICKSTEIN. The State of New York is not protesting and asking you to pass this bill.
The CHAIRMAN. The State of New York is asking us to pass a resolution giving the State the right to sue the Government to reimburse them for a great deal of money.
Mr. DICKSTEIN. Would not that apply to your own State? ·
Mr. DICKSTEIN. Yes; but you will find it is not the immigrant who comes here, because under the law you have the right to deport him within five years. These immigrants who do not become naturalized and who subsequently have some ailment and become sick, etc., are eventually a burden upon a community. Would that condition not result in
State? Mr. Box. Yes; and I will say that in a conference on immigration they discussed this burden placed upon the States, and in the conference the city of Chicago and the State of Illinois were represented and advised that they had a great problem of the same kind, and that when the State of New York went to deal with it the State of Illinois would follow up the State of New York with its claim.
FURTHER ANALYSIS OF THE DATA ON THE SOCIALLY INADEQUATE IN
INSTITUTIONS, BY RACE, NATIONALITY AND NATIVITY GROUP
Doctor LAUGHLIN. In the analysis given in the “Melting Pot" paper the standard was uniform throughout, namely, the whole population of the continental United States for 1910 was the standard or measuring rod. The ratio to the whole population of the country, of the total social inadequacy of the particular type under consideration in the whole United States-all ages, sexes, nationalities—was the standard or quota fulfillment of 100 per cent. Every nativity group or racial group or geographical group which was selected for a particular analysis was compared, in incidence of the inadequacy under consideration, with the frequency of the same inadequacy in the whole United States.
Critics have suggested that if other standards of comparison were taken, other comparative quota fulfillments would result. This is true, but it must be borne in mind constantly in analyzing statistics that a standard of comparison should be adopted early and maintained throughout the analysis. If the results of different particular groups are to be compared, the standard must be held constantly in mind to make the comparison adequate to its purpose. Critics have suggested that because the negroes are not highly institutionalized in the United States, the negro group should be subtracted from the standard. It is, of course, possible to do this (see Tables 10, 12, and
13), but if done for one type of inadequacy, it should be done for all, and in reading the results of the analysis, this modified standard must be kept constantly in mind. It is, however, a mistake to imagine that a specialized and local shift from a fundamental and constant standard, which latter is the whole population of the whole continental United States, could long be made use of to juggle statistics to make one particular group show more favorably than under a constant standard.
It is further suggested that the findings of the analysis as given in the “Melting Pot" paper are unfair to the recent alien who, after all allowances are made, must be acknowledged to have made a remarkably poor showing in social adjustment, compared with the older stocks. It is suggested that because among the immigrants there are relatively few children, the age group should be taken into consideration, and it is hinted that if the standard were taken, not of the whole population, but of the adult population, ignoring the children in the standard, the aliens might make a better showing. This is special pleading for the alien, but to see how this would work out, the accompanying tables analyze three groups in accordance with this standard (Tables 10, 11, and 12). The fact is that, if the data are
, carefully collected and logically analyzed, a new but uniformly applied standard will fail to shift the logical deductions concerning the meaning of the facts secured. The three types of inadequacy for which the age group analysis is possible are as follows: Feeble-mindedness, which appears early and persists throughout life, is analyzed in Table 10 (p. 1327). Insanity, which is primarily an adult disease, is analyzed in Table 11 (p. 1329), and the standard of comparison taken is all age groups above 20 years of age. The second type is adult
. crime, Table 12 (p. 1332), the measuring rod being the whole population above 20. A comparison in quota fulfillments under the age formula, as in those under the standard or general, fails to show a better basic character for the alien than is shown in the earlier standards. We can vary the measuring rod, but we can not logically use one measuring rod in one analysis, another in the second, and compare the results without keeping constantly in mind these different standards.
It is suggested also that the inmates per 100,000 population would make a good basis. This, too, is a very good method. However, there is nothing special to be gained by this system. Table 14 (opposite p. 1338) gives an analysis which shows the incidence per 100,000 population in column 4, then gives the quota fulfillments by several standards.
INSTITUTIONAL QUOTA FULFILLMENTS BY INDIVIDUAL STATES
Doctor LAUGHLIN. The original data for the "Melting Pot” paper were secured from all State and Federal institutions in the United States which could be prevailed upon to make reports. The result was that for each type of the socially inadequate, large and representative samples of institutional population were thoroughly analyzed. If, however, it is desired to study the institutional population by individual types of inadequacy and by single States, it is still possible to do so, but because of the following factors the statistical picture is not so accurate. These factors are: (1) The migration or immigration unit for the United States is the whole country. There is
no interstate embargo on migration. (2) States vary greatly in their policy of institutionalizing inadequates, both as to the extent of inadequacy required for State care, and further as to the specialization of institutions for specific sorts of defect. Some States make a distinction, in institutionalization, between the negro and the white race, but not even all of the Southern States do that. No racial discrimination within the white race was found in any State in caring for inadequates in institutions. Some institutions draw from the entire State, others from localized districts.
Thus, in getting random samples of institutional population, the picture of the whole population as a unit is much clearer than would be the picture of a specialized region in reference to a specialized type of inadequacy. It would be possible to gerrymander a section of a State, or a group of States, if one were seeking specialized results for a particular pleading, but that was not the purpose of the survey made. Therefore the standard of comparison was the whole population, and all reports of all institutions that could be secured were included. I shall, nevertheless, present a few single State analyses.
, New York: The thirty-fourth annual report of the State hospital commission for the year ending June 30, 1922, states that during the year 1922, 3,199 persons, or 45.6 per cent of the total first admissions, were foreign born. The Federal census of 1920 announced that 26.83 per cent of the population of New York State were foreign born. Thus we find 26.83 per cent of the population furnishing, in one year, to the insane hospitals of New York State 45.6 per cent of the first admissions—a quota fulfillment of 169 per cent. The report further states that among the first admissions, the native born, both parents native born, constituted only 1,813, or 25.8 per cent of the whole number of admissions, while the Federal census stated that in 1920 this nativity group constituted 35.32 per cent of_the State's whole population, a quota fulfillment of 73 per cent. Persons of foreign
. born parentage represented 4,390 individuals, or 62.6 per cent of the total admissions.
The report further states that “the nativity distribution of foreignborn first admissions is gradually changing The changes from year to year are slight, but when comparisons between 1922 and 1914 are made the trend is more clearly seen. The percentage of first admissions from Germany decreased from 14.7 in 1914 to 10.1 in 1922. The percentage from Ireland decreased from 20.2 to 16.5 during the same period, while the percentage from Italy increased from 12.0 to 15.4. The changes in percentages of admissions from the several countries from 1921 to 1922 are quite striking in the following cases: Austria, reduced from 8.4 to 4.8; Greece, increased from 0.9 to 1.7; Poland, increased from 4.8 to 8.3."
THE CHAIRMAN. It would be interesting to carry the "Melting Pot” analysis down to the county jails and poor farms, but it would be a great task.
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THE INSANE BY SAMPLE STATES
Doctor LAUGHLIN. Table No. 8 gives the analysis of the institutional findings in sample States, using the same data which were secured for the analysis report in the "Melting Pot” paper.
TABLE 8.—State institutions for the insane-Native-born, foreign-born, and negro
inmates in the insane institutions of two Northern and two Southern States
1 Reported by 5 out of a total of 6 institutions for the insane. Two of these institutions draw their inmates from the entire State; the other three are limited to certain counties. No distinction of race.
2 Reported by 5 out of a total of 13 institutions for the insane, all of which draw their inmates from one, two, or four counties only. No distinction of race.
3 Reported by 1 out of a total of 2 institutions for the insane. The inmates are drawn from 26 parishes, but there is no distinction of race.
* Reported by 3 out of a total of 4 institutions for the insane. One of these institutions is open only to colored inmates drawn from the entire State; the other two are limited to certain counties and admit only white persons.
GENERAL NOTE.-The census figures on native born of native parentage include only native-born whites; the institutional population includes all native-born persons of native parentage, regardless of race.
THE CRIMINALISTIC BY SAMPLE STATES
Doctor LAUGHLIN. Table No.9 (p. 1323) gives an analysis of State institutional reports for the criminalistic, for four sample States, based upon the same data which were used in the analysis presented for the criminalistic of the whole United States in the 16 Melting
TABLE -State institutions for the criminalistic-Native-born, foreign-born,
and negro inmates in the criminalistic institutions of two Northern and two Southern States
1 Reported by 2 out of a total of 5 institutions for the criminalistic. Both institutions draw their inmates from the entire State and make no race distinctions.
? Reported by 6 out of a total of 15 institutions for the criminalistic. Four of these institutions draw heir inmates from the entire State; the other two are limited to certain counties. There is no distinction of race.
Reported by 1 out of a total of 2 institutions for the criminalistic. The inmates are drawn from the entire State, and there is no race distinction.
* Reported by 2 out of a total of 3 institutions for the criminalistic. Both institutions draw their inmates from the entire State, but one admits only white persons.
NOTE.-The census figures on native born of native parentage include only native-born whites; the institutional population includes all native-born persons of native parentage, regardless of race.
COMPARATIVE FINDINGS FROM DIFFERENT STANDARDS OR ANALYSIS
The CHAIRMAN. Will you explain in greater detail just how the different statistical standards affect the findings?
Doctor LAUGHLIN. After first-hand field data—in this case racial and diagnostic returns from the census of State and Federal institutions for the socially inadequate-were secured, the next thing was to decide upon a standard of measurement to be used in the analysis of the compiled facts. In the “Melting Pot” paper, as I explained, however, the one standard was used throughout. This standard, if only one standard is to be used, is doubtless the most satisfactory. It is the average incidence of the particular defect in the whole population of the United States.
In the accompanying series of tables-Tables 10 to 14-which I am laying before the committee, I have used every measuring rod and system of analysis which serious and reputable critics have suggested. Criticism of this sort is constructive and of value in scientific studies.
COLOR AND AGE STANDARDS Mr. VAILE. One criticism was based on the fact that the inclusion of negroes, constituting roughly, I believe, about 10,000,000 people,