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Concerning this person I secured information on the following points:
PART A. INDIVIDUAL HISTORY
Short biography and personal identifications.
Conduct, community reputation, occupation, achievements, and other economic and social records and values.
Moral and social instincts and emotions.
PART B. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
Records of physical, physiological, pathological, anthropometrical, and racial tests and measurements.
PART C. MENTAL AND EDUCATIONAL EXAMINATIONS
Descriptive records, and also special tests of literacy, of general mental ability, and of special talents and defects. Educational record.
PART D. FAMILY STOCK VALUES
A pedigree of the near kin of the would-be immigrant.
(a) The probable development and values of the individual gauged by the stock from which he springs; and
(b) If the individual is sexually fertile, seek data which would answer questions whether the possible offspring of the individual would constitute an asset or a debit to the American Nation on the standard based on the average inborn physical, mental and moral qualities of family stocks already existing in America. (For the facts secured about "J - B "in following
this outline, see Series I, Appendix A, p. 1343.)
Mr. VAILE. What is the significance of each of the groups of data? Doctor LAUGHLIN. In the first part, the biography describes the traits and qualities of the individual, and shows, among other things, whether he is capable of holding a job or whether he is a black sheep in the family. Such information enables one to form some notion of the subject's social instincts. This is a kind of information practically impossible to get at Ellis Island.
The second part of the examination covers the applicant's physical record. It examines his physical, physiological, and pathological conditions. It includes also a system of anthropometric measurement, and assures a definite personal identification by measurements and photographs. It is rather hard to go very far into the immigration service without hearing many stories of duplications, or of the double and fraudulent use of single passports. Therefore the matter of personal identification, for the protection of immigrants and the immigrant country is just as important as protecting checks against forgery. Unmistakable personal identification is important in the matter of immigration.
The third part of the examination concerns mental qualifications and educational tests. It contains a descriptive record of the individual's mental reactions. The field worker applied the YerkesBridges mental test. At this point let me say that there is no absolutely satisfactory mental test yet developed for adults. Probably the best tests, up to that time, were those that were developed in the United States Army under the direction of Maj. Robert M. Yerkes. The scientific world is looking to him to develop a still more satisfactory mental test for adults. However, pending this perfection, we should
apply the best tests that are available. This third part of the examination covered also the literacy test.
The fourth part of the examination relates to the biological pedigree or the family stock. This is something that it is generally possible to secure by field study. It involves an eugenic study of 15 or 20 of the near kin. By means of these short pedigree studies; it is possible to throw some light upon the character of the individual, or enough to determine, much more surely than is done by personal examination alone, whether the individual is sound, whether he is likely to become a "waster," whether he is of good stock, and, from the soundness, initiative, natural intelligence, respect for law and order, industry, and the like, of his near kin, whether he would probably make a desirable addition to the population of the United States.
At this point let me make a more direct biological analogy. We allow to be brought into the United States, regardless of breed or race, any superior domestic animal, if that animal can bring an individual record and a pedigree which show that the subject is sound individually and is also desirable for reproduction in the United States; that is, that its progeny would probably improve the quality of our American domestic animals of the same breed. That is true, whether it is a Percheron horse, a Jersey, a Holstein, or a Short-horn cow, a Berkshire hog, or what not. So this fourth section of the examination was meant to do for the human stock the same thing that our Department of Agriculture does for protecting and improving our best domestic animals.
Mr. WHITE. I do not believe we ought to lose sight of the proposition right there that the bringing in of stock with great care, and with the limitations that are laid upon the importation of stock, is not for the sake of the stock, but for the sake of the human race.
Mr. VAILE. But those selective restrictions applied to human beings would be still more for the benefit of the human race.
Mr. WHITE. Yes; but I do not want a statement of that kind to go in without qualification.
The CHAIRMAN. Let me ask a question: Those individual studies and examinations made by you were made with blanks of your own? Doctor LAUGHLIN. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. They represented your own ideas as to what would be desirable inquiries?
Doctor LAUGHLIN. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. Those blanks were not made with any effort to conform to the proposed questionnaire blank that is outlined in the bill that was recently presented to the House?
Doctor LAUGHLIN. This was a study undertaken at your suggestion two or three years ago. You wanted to find out what could
The CHAIRMAN. I wanted it to be made quite clear that you proceeded according to your own ideas with the studies, and that the studies conformed to your own views regarding that line of work; that is, you tried to secure the most desirable information. You will admit now, of course, that the line on which your studies, for instance, including measurements, etc., would be beyond that which this committee would probably desire at this time to recommend
to the House in a questionnaire covering information of the kind that the consul could properly call for.
Doctor LAUGHLIN. The facts outlined are essential, and the feasibility of their collection about individual would-be immigrants depends principally upon where the cost of sifting the immigration stream is placed. I agree, of course, that extensive studies of this sort for each would-be immigrant could not be made by our consuls without the assistance of expert field workers or immigration attachés. It is a matter of organization and expense which I wish to go into a little later. I hope that these sample biological studies which have actually been made will be of some use to this committee and to the Department of Labor in constructing the practical outline of facts required. (See p. 1274.)
These demonstration case history studies in Europe were an outgrowth of the study of immigrants or aliens in institutions in the United States, and the tracing of the immigrant stream in such a way as to locate the defectives at their source. It is not only a matter of sorting out the bad that would be a great accomplishment-but a more logical positive selection should be made, so that every immigrant who comes to the United States would be a valuable addition to our national family stocks; he ought to add something desirable to the character of the American people.
The outline followed in these experimental individual and family histories is, no doubt, in advance of the possibilities of the executive machinery now in existence or provided for in the present Johnson bill, which is a great advance over the present system. The experimental outline has been proven possible. It calls for the facts most needed if immigration is to be an asset to this country. Possibly some future development of the selective principle will provide still more facilities for sorting, still more effectually, the prospective immigrants at their source.
DECLARATION AND QUESTIONS FOR SECURING FACTS ABOUT THE
The CHAIRMAN. I want a copy of the present consular form entitled "Declaration of alien about to depart for the United States" to be inserted in the hearings at this point.
[Form No. 228. Established July, 1917, and amended August, 1920)
DECLARATION OF ALIEN ABOUT TO DEPART FOR THE UNITED STATES
am about to go to the United States of America, accompanied by---. suis sur le point d'aller aux Etats-Unis
d'Amérique, accompagné de
and photographs of whom are attached thereto) déclarant et dont les photographies y sont attachées)
(Names of persons included in declarant's passport (Noms des personnes consignées dans le passeport du
as shown by letters or affidavits attached hereto, and filed at the consulate. comme il résulte de lettres et de déclarations sous serment ci-jointes et deposées dans le consulat.
I have previously resided in the United States as follows:
My references are:
(Object of visit) (But de la visite)
(Business address in the United States) (Adresse commerciale aux Etats-Unis)
(In the consular district where the declaration is made)
I rendered military service during the World War in the armies of--J'ai rendu du service militaire pendant la guerre mondiale dans les armées de as follows:
I have informed myself of the provisions of section 3 of the immigration act of February 5, 1917, and am convinced that I am eligible for admission into the United States thereunder.
Je me suis renseigné sur les dispositions de la Loi d'Immigration du 5 février 1917, article 3, et je suis persuadé que je réunis les conditions pour être admis aux Etats-Unis en vertu de cette loi.
I realize that if I am one of a class prohibited by law from admission into the United States I will be deported or detained in the United States by immigration authorities, and I am prepared to assume the risk of deportation and of compulsory return in case of my rejection at an American port.
Je me rends compte que, si je suis d'une classe dont l'admission aux EtatsUnis est interdite par la loi, je serai déporté ou détenu aux Etats-Unis par les autorités d'immigration, et je suis préparé a courir le risque de la déportation ou du retour obligatoire en cas de rejet dans un port américain.
I solemnly swear that the foregoing statements are true to the best of my knowledge and belief, and that I fully intend while in the United States to obey the laws and constituted authorities thereof.
Je jure solennellement que les déclarations précédentes sont vraies selon ma connaissance et ma croyance, et que j'ai l'intention bien arrêtée, pendant mon séjour aux Etats-Unis, de me soumettre aux lois et aux autorités constituées du
(Signature of declarant) (Signature du déclarant)
Subscribed and sworn to before me this.....
The CHAIRMAN. What additional questions of a practical nature, under the proposed bill, would you suggest?
Doctor LAUGHLIN. I have prepared a short list of questions, a sort of abstract or abbreviation of the more detailed experimental outline, which would, I believe, be suitable for amending the present consular declaration form, in keeping with the Johnson bill. But even this short outline implies literacy and ordinary understanding. It would have to be worked over into a long list of short clean-cut questions, if the prospective immigrant is expected to do all of the answering. If, however, a consular officer does the examining and prepares the blank, this outline would serve for his general guide. The examiner would ask such simple questions as would, in the end, serve to supply the data put in this list. This record is relatively short, compared with the usual field-secured record. It would be prepared by the consul's aids for and about the would-be immigrant, and, practically, would furnish the data for the consul to judge in the matter of granting or denying a visé. Also it would follow the emigrant to Ellis Island and would take the place of the present consular secret marks. The list of these general supplementary questions reads as follows:
1. Why do you wish to go to the United States?
2. What is your occupation?
3. How skilled are you in it?
4. What is your training and education?"
5. What are your social and economic positions in your own country?
6. Whom do you know in the United States? Give names, addresses, and occupations.
7. What occupation do you intend following in the United States?
8. Have you any relatives in the United States? If so, give names, addresses, and occupations, and, if immigrants, date of immigration.
9. Where do you intend locating?
10. Have you a position or the promise of a position?
11. Give a short statement about each of the nearest of your family connections in education, occupation, and character.
12. Have you or any of your near kin received public aid, charity, or punishment of any sort at home or in the United States?
13. What do you consider your greatest personal handicap?
14. What do you consider your best talents?
15. Do you intend to remain permanently in the United States and to become naturalized?