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Doctor LAUGHLIN. Table No. 2 (p. 1240 ) shows several of the economic and population conditions, in parallel columns, so that by examining the table the situation is more readily compared. Item ģ of this table summarizes the matter in reference to these two countries as emigrant-exporting nations and the United States as an immigrant-receiving country. To summarize this particular situation, we find that the complex of affairs is such at the present time that, if there were no immigration quota limitations, Italy would probably cover her present quota by many times, while Sweden would cover only a part of hers.
THE EMIGRATION SITUATION IN SWEDEN
The CHAIRMAN. More specifically, what is the emigration situation in Sweden ?
Doctor LAUGHLIN. In Sweden there is a natural increase of population—that is, an excess of births over deaths-of about 50,000 per year. For 1921 this figure is given at 53,310. Sweden is well balanced between agriculture and industry. In the north the country is very poor from the agricultural viewpoint-a cold climate, with many mountains, rivers, and forests. If the north were more inviting to the farm settler, this surplus of births over deaths would naturally tend to move northward, for Sweden would, logically, prefer to have her natural increment of population of the south to develop her own sparsely populated territory. There is a society
. in Sweden which offers to lend young Swedes money with which to buy land in the north, the terms being 49 years at 4 per cent. Many young Swedes, upon investigating this opportunity, find that if they borrow money for 49 years at 4 per cent, their grandchildren will probably own a tract of land in the north of Sweden, but the task is hard and the prospect long. On the other hand, the young Swede investigates the situation in the United States and finds that he can come to this country with little capital, other than his hands and decency, and that at the end of 15 or 20 years he can own a large and productive farm, can become a citizen of the United States, and can look forward to sending his children to college. Sweden tries to keep the young Swedes at home to develop her northern section, but there is that other great attraction which pulls a large portion of the surplus population of Sweden to the United States.
Also, Sweden is working in the north to supplement her agriculsure with industrial development. In this she is more successful. She has a great deal of potential water power, which is being rapidly developed, especially in connection with the paper pulp, and metal industries. When a
When a new industrial colony is established in the north—a colony that gives the young Swede wages so that he can start a household through means of industrial work around a waterpower development-he is attracted to settle in the north of his own country.
Mr. VAILE. Is there any official restriction in Sweden against emigration?
Doctor LAUGHLIN. There is no law in Sweden, so far as I could ascertain, that prevents a young Swede, who has fulfilled his military service requirements, from emigrating. Similarly to the souththat is, in Germany-one finds that one of the provisions in the
Immigration to United States. Total Swedish Per cent
CURVES SHOWING THE RELATION BETWEEN SWEDISH
TO THE PRESENT TIME.
900,000 45,000 9.0
800,000 40,000 8.0
600,004 30,000 6.0
500,000 25,000 5.0
400,000 20,000 4.0
CHART No. 1. (See also Series II, Appendix C, p. 1355. [This chart was prepared by the Swedish State Institute for Race-Biology)
Total Immigration to United States 1850 - 1922,
Per cent of Total Immigration which was
1865 (875 1880 1885 1890 1895 1900 1905 1910 1915
constitution of the new German Republic is that “Every German has the right to emigrate to countries outside of Germany. Emigration may be limited only by national law.” That is the literal translation of Article 12 of the German constitution. As we go still farther south into Italy we find the Government taking more definite and arbitrary charge of the emigration privileges and movements.
Mr. BACON. In other words, the attitude changes as you go from north to south. You have in the north the effort to keep the young Swedes at home, but the farther south you go the more in evidence is the effort to get rid of the surplus population and to assist them to emigrate.
Doctor LAUGHLIN. Yes, sir. The factors of liberality in emigration control seem to be density of population, population capacity of the country, and liberality of government.
Mr. Wilson. It means that in Sweden the young man is told he should stay at home, in Germany he is entitled to go abroad, and in Italy he must go abroad. Doctor LAUGALIN. Yes, sir. It works out that way.
, I have already mentioned the State Institute for Race-Biology which Sweden maintains at the University of Uppsala under the direction of Dr. Herman Lundborg. This institute collaborated very kindly with my European studies, and the director was good enough to assign his assistant, S. Wahlund, to the detailed task of collaborating. As the result of this specific study, this institute supplied our investigation with a number of statistical tables, which data are of great value in throwing light upon our problems, and for which we are very grateful. Chart No. 1 (p. 1243) was based upon the facts supplied by Doctors Lundborg and Wahlund. During the last five decades there has been a remarkably even proportion between the number of emigrants from all Europe as a unit and from Sweden. (See Series II, Appendix C, p. 1355.)
THE EMIGRATION SITUATION IN ITALY
The CHAIRMAN. You have described the situation in Sweden and have filed with the committee a report by the Swedish State Institute for Race-Biology, for which we are very grateful. What is the corresponding situation in Italy?
Doctor LAUGHLIN. In 1901 the Italian Government established in its department of foreign affairs a section known as the Emigration Service, of which Sig. de Michaelis is the very effective director. All around the Italian Peninsula there is a very strong legal and police barrier against unauthorized emigration and immigration. It is now the duty of the Italian emigration service to consider the applications of would-be Italian emigrants and to give or to deny them passports as the service may determine, in accordance with Italian policy.
The system works something like this: When a young Italian wants to emigrate, he applies to his village officials, who give him a general preliminary physical examination. One important thing that the examiners look for is hernia, because if the emigrant is ruptured, or has any disease that prevents him from earning high wages, he is not a valuable export from the Italian viewpoint-he can earn no money to send home. While the preliminary examination of the
Immigration to United States.
Total Italian Por cent 1,300,000 325,000 Italian
CURVES SHOWING THE RELATION BETWEEN ITALIAN
TO THE PRESENT TIME.
men is made by the village officials, the final permission or denial must come from Rome. It is the central emigration service that selects the 42,000 who are entitled to come to the United States each year, and that is about all there is to it. It is against the law in İtaly, and a serious matter, for anyone to antagonize the authorities or the policy of the Government in emigration matters.
The "CHAIRMAN. If the Italian Government gives a working man a passport to the United States, and he declines to go in order that the wife or child of some other man already here may go, would these others be entitled to passports ?
Doctor LAUGHLIN. No, sir. Apparently not, even if they were within the quota. The policy seems to be to fill the quota, as nearly as possible, with wage earners. The loyal Italian emigrant wage earner represents an economic export just as valuable to Italy as an export of Italian goods.
Mr. Bacon. Did you see any evidence that the authorities in issuing passports to married men to come to America were not accompanying those passports with passports for relatives?
Doctor LAUGHLIN. That seems to be the policy; the wage earner has the preference within the quota.
The CHAIRMAN. I might say here, and the committee will probably remember, that in previous testimony on this same subject it was shown that the Italian emigration office keeps the names of the applicants for emigration in books, and the time was when they had 250,000 names of persons who were seeking to come to the United States. We had further evidence that men were given passports but that women were not given passports. If the quotas were not filled by those with whom the Italian Government elected to fill the quotas, then passports were given to the exempted classes.
Doctor LAUGHLIN. The selection of Italian emigrants for the United States is not based primarily upon the initiative of the emigrant, but practically he is selected by his Government. The American consul at present is confined in his consideration of the matter to the perfunctory viséing of the passports within the quota number. He does not investigate thoroughly to determine whether the would be immigrant is a highly desirable addition to the population of the United States.
The Italians say that their country is overpopulated. This will continue to be true if Italy is to depend so largely upon agriculture for national existence. If she could become highly industrialized, she could import her foodstuffs and maintain in comfort a still greater number of people. Italy is a mountainous peninsula of 110,632 square miles, with a population in 1921 of 37,276,738 people-a density of 336.9 per square mile. Contrasted with Spain, for example, as another country which is dependent largely on agriculture for national maintenance, we find that Spain has an area of 190,050 square miles and in 1920 a population of 21,347,335, or a density of 112.3 per square mile. The emigration pressure from Italy is great; that from Spain is much less. In 1921 Italy had a surplus of births over deaths of 461,013. In this same year she had a national emigration of 255,166, while in this same year 92,212 Italians returned to their home country.