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CONTENTS

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PART I. Europe as an emigrant-exporting continent and the United

States as an immigrant-receiving nation...

1231

European field studies in immigration..-

1233

American consuls and immigration service.--

1234

The three historic immigration policies of the United States.

1236

Contrasted economic conditions in Europe and the United States.... 1238

Causes and intensity of emigration pressure illustrated in the cases

of Sweden and Italy--

1240

The emigration situation in Sweden..

1242

The emigration situation in Italy ---

1244

The line of demarcation in authority and function in immigration

matters

1248

Jewish immigration.-

1253

Canada's immigration problems.

1258

Immigrant-receiving nations -

1260

The several filterings of the immigrant stream directed toward the

United States.--

1262

Examination of would-be immigrants in their home territories 1263

Family stock values as shown by an experimental case history- 1265

Declaration and questions for securing facts about the prospective

immigrant.-

1269

Natural qualities of immigrants-,

1272

Practicability and cost of examination of immigrants in their home

Te territories

1274

Immigration standards

1277

Natural intelligence

1278

The basic principles of international law in relation to human migra-

tion and naturalization.--.

1284

Deportation of aliens who become public charges--

1286

The division of migration of the International Labor Bureau of the

League of Nations, at Geneva.

1287

Comparative quota formulas -

1290

The American race.

1293

Differential fecundity.

1297

The authority of the committee and foreign propaganda.

1300

The parallel between military invasion and invasion by immigration. 1305

Vested interests and immigration ----

1305

A commission for the further study of the biological aspects of immi-

gration---

1307

Future researches ---

1308

PART II. Re-examination of previous researches published under the title

"Analysis of America's Modern Melting Pot”-

1311

Reply to criticisms of the previous researches..

1311

Extent of the “Melting Pot” survey -

1312

State and Federal responsibility --

1318

Further analysis of the data on the socially inadequate in institutions

by race, nationality, and nativity group ---

1319

Institutional quota fulfillments by individual States -

1320

The insane by sample States --

1322

The criminalistic by sample Sta es..

1322

JF Comparative findings from different standards or analysis methods. 1323

Color and age standards.

1323

The feeble-minded.-

1324

The insane...

1325

The adult criminalistic-

1326

All types of the socially inadequate as a unit, by different standards

of measurement.--

1334

Constant versus special standards.

1334

Conclusion --

1339

Future reports on immigration researches-

1340

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1. Europe as an exporter of emigrants and the United States as an im-

porter of immigrants..

2. National economic conditions, as basic factors in national emigration

policy, illustrated by the contrasted population and economic con-

ditions of Sweden and Italy -

3. Rough or approximate comparability of scales for the measurement

of natural intelligence..

4. Estimate of comparative natural intelligence of the total white and

foreign-born populations of the United States.--

5. Alternative immigration quota formulas—Approximate annual quo-

tas admissible by principal immigrant-contributing countries and

nations under each of 25 different formulas.-

6. Approximate fecundity indices of American women by nativity group

for the decade 1910–1920, computed from the census returns on

nativity, age, and sex..

TABLES-PART II

7. Summary table-Foreign-born inmates in State and Federal custodial

institutions in the United States..

8. State institutions for the insane-Native-born, foreign-born and

negro inmates in the insane institutions of two northern (Michigan

and New York) and two southern (Louisiana and Virginia) States.

9. State institutions for the criminalistic-Native-born, foreign-born

and negro inmates in the criminalistic institutions of two northern

(Michigan and New York), and two southern (Louisiana and Vir-

ginia) States.-

10. Institutional quota fulfillments by the feeble-minded--Comparative

findings from four different standards or analysis methods

11. Institutional quota fulfillments by the insane - Comparative findings

from three different standards or analysis methods..

12. Institutional quota fulfillments by the adult criminalistic group-

Comparative findings from three different standards or analysis

methods.

13. Institutional quota fulfillments by all types of the socially inadequate

as a unit-Comparative findings from five different standards or

analysis methods.

14. Institutional quota fulfillments by all classes of the socially inadequate

as a unit-Comparative analyses based upon three different stand-

ards, in which the same data are used and the same methods of

analysis are applied.-

15. Relative constancy of findings in analyzing the same data by dif-

ferent methods and standards or "unit measuring rods".

CHARTS–PART I

1. Curves showing the relation between Swedish immigration as a unit

and total immigration from all countries as a unit, from 1850 to the

present time (prepared by the Swedish State Institute for Race-

Biology).

2. Curves showing the relation between Italian immigration as a unit

and total immigration from all countries as a unit, from 1850 to the

present time...

3. Jewish immigration into the United States, 1899–1922.
4. Jews departing from the United States, 1908-1922.
5. Ratio of Jewish departures to admissions, 1908–1922.
6. Jews deported from the United States, 1908–1922.-
7. Superior intelligence-race, country of birth, or Army rank, and per

cent of men in each group, by Army mental tests, showing superior

(B), or very superior (A) intelligence..
8. Inferior intelligence-Race, country of birth, or Army rank, and per

cent of men in each group, by Army mental tests, showing inferior

(D), or very inferior (D-, É) intelligence.
9. Intelligence rating-By percentage of letter grades, of foreign-born

white, and American negro draft, and Army officers and men.
10. A century of change in Hawaii's population (prepared by Louis R.

Sullivan)

1245

1254
1255
1256
1257

1278

1278

1278

1305

APPENDIXES

(Reprinted with this hearing on the order of Hon. Albert Johnson, chairman of the Committee on Immigra

tion and Naturalization of the House of Representatives, November 19, 1924) SERIES I. Experimental studies in selective immigration:

Page Appendix A. An experimental individual and family history study made of a prospective immigrant in her home community, prepared under the direction of Harry H. Laughlin..

1343 Appendix B. Set of folders proposed for outlining and filing personal and family history data concerning would-be immigrants, prepared by Harry H. Laughlin..

1349 SERIES II. Swedish emigration to the United States:

Appendix C. Statistical data concerning emigration from Sweden to

the United States, drawn up for this particular research by S.
Wahlund, assistant at the Swedish State Institute for Race-Biology,
Uppsala, Sweden..

1355 SERIES III. The composition of the American people:

Appendix D. A study of the population of the United States, by

John B. Trevor, M. A. (reprinted in full from “International
Conciliation,” No. 202, September, 1924) --

1361 SERIES IV. The Rome conference:

Appendix E. The Rome conference on emigration and immigration,

1924 (reprinted in full from the Monthly Record of Migration,
No. 21, June, 1924, of the International Labor Bureau of the League
of Nations, Geneva)-

1367 SERIES V. Immigration reports, 1923 and 1924:

Appendix F. Official data from the United States governmental
reports--
(a) From the report of the Secretary of Labor for the year ending
June 30, 1923..

1377 (b) From the report of the Commissioner General of Immigration

for the year ending June 30, 1924 (advance sheets) - 1383 (c) From the report of the Commissioner of Naturalization for the year ending June 30, 1923.

1393 SERIES VI. The United States immigration act of 1924:

Appendix G. Text of the United States immigration act of 1924.---- 1397
Appendix H. Presidential statement and proclamation-
(a) Statement issued to the press by President Coolidge, May
26, 1924.

1409 (6) President Coolidge's quota proclamation of June 30, 1924,

listing the several national immigration quota allotments,
under the immigration act of 1924..

1410
Appendix I. An analysis of the American immigration act of 1924, by
John B. Trevor, M. A. (reprinted in full from “International Con-
ciliation,” No. 202, September, 1924) ---

1412 SERIES VII. Outline for further research and conference by the immigrantreceiving nation's: Appendix J. A general outline for the scientific study of the causes and consequences of human migration, prepared by Harry H. Laughlin

1425 Appendix K. A special outline for a proposed scientific study of immigration and other biological population-determining factors in

the Western Hemisphere since 1492, prepared by Harry H. Laughlin. 1426 Appendix L. Proposal for a conference of the immigrant-receiving

nations, on their common rights, duties, interests, and policies,
prepared by Harry H. Laughlin-

(a) International law and the immigrant-receiving nations.. 1429
(6) The list of immigrant-receiving nations---

1430 (c) Proposed conference of immigrant-receiving nations.

1433 (d) Proposed agenda---

1433

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EUROPE AS AN EMIGRANT-EXPORTING CONTINENT AND

THE UNITED STATES AS AN IMMIGRANT-RECEIVING NATION

A PRELIMINARY REPORT OF FIELD INVESTIGATIONS CONCERN

ING PRESENT-DAY HUMAN MIGRATIONS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO RACIAL AND NATIONAL FORTUNES, STATISTICALLY AND BIOLOGICALLY CONSIDERED

COMMITTEE ON IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION,

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,

Saturday, March 8, 1924. The committee met at 10 o'clock a. m., Hon. Albert Johnson (chairman) presiding.

The following members of the committee were present: Messrs. Johnson, Taylor, Vaile, White, Cable, Holaday, Vincent, Bacon, Sabath, Wilson, Box, Dickstein, and Watkins.

The CHAIRMAN. The purpose of the meeting to-day is to hear Dr. Harry H. Laughlin, who has carried out several valuable researches for this committee since 1920. The committee will recall that, among other studies, he conducted a census of the different nativity stocks in the State and Federal penal and eleemosynary institutions, which investigation resulted in the publication of a hearing entitled "Analysis of America's Modern Melting Pot,” which was a basic study in relative social inadequacy of the several nativity groups of the United States. Seven or eight months ago Doctor Laughlin, when about to go abroad, was granted credentials by the Department of Labor as United States immigration agent to Europe. He also agreed to make some observations that might be of value to this committee, and to report his findings to us. He is just returned after six months' research in immigration in European countries, and, in accordance with the understanding made before his departure, we have called the committee to hear him to-day. If you are ready to proceed, Doctor Laughlin, we will be glad to hear you now.

STATEMENT OF DR. HARRY H. LAUGHLIN, OF THE EUGENICS RECORD OFFICE OF THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON, COLD SPRING HARBOR, LONG ISLAND, N. Y

PART I. EUROPE AS AN EMIGRANT-EXPORTING CONTINENT AND

THE UNITED STATES AS AN IMMIGRANT-RECEIVING NATION.

Mr. SABATH. Do I understand that Doctor Laughlin went over there for the Labor Department?

Doctor LAUGHLIN. Yes, sir. As a so-called “dollar a year man, I had a commission from the Department of Labor. Mr. SABATH. What do you mean by a commission?

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