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compensated under the law relating to insurance of accidents in the agricultural industries were made in the years 1891' and 1901? on practically the same plan. A discussion of these data will be found in the Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor (Vol. I, pp. 1124 to 1176).
SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION.
The scope of the study of the accidents compensated in the year 1907 is shown in Table 1. The first line in the table gives the grand total for all the insured persons and all the establishments included, and comprises establishments engaged in manufacturing and similar industries, in building trades, in navigation, and in Government plants. The second line shows the total for all the establishments engaged in manufacturing and similar industries, in the building trades and in navigation, but does not include certain kinds of work, the insurance of which is conducted by the organizations called subsidiary insurance institutes. The third line of the table gives separately the total for the subsidiary institutes just mentioned which, however, include only work in building trades, in engineering construction, and in navigation. The fourth line of the table gives the total for work conducted by the public authorities and comprises work in Government plants, such as factories, postal and telegraph work, railroads, building operations, navigation, and work similar to navigation, such as dredging, towing, etc. Following these tables are given the data for the various industry groups, each employers' accident association or group of associations being given separately. At the bottom of the table are given the data for establishments and operations conducted by the public authorities, the general character of the work being readily understood from the designations used in the table. The form used in this table is followed throughout the entire study.
The total number of establishments subject to the insurance in the year 1907 was 673,095; this number, however, does not include the number of establishments conducted by public authorities, nor the establishments whose insurance was conducted by the subsidiary institutes. The largest number of establishments is found in the building trades (associations 43-54) with 159,548, the express and storage industries (association 58) with 64,771, the woodworking industries (associations 31-34) with 61,495, the meat-products industries (association 65) with 56,500, the blacksmithing, etc., industries (association 66) with 54,728. These industries, it will be noted, are those in which the small-sized establishment prevails, and except in I Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts, 1893, p. 231 et seq. 1 Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts, 1904, I-II Beiheft. Unfallstatistik für Land und Porstwirtschaft, 1901.
the case of the building trades these industries are not among the five industries in which the largest number of insured persons is engaged.
The average number of persons subject to the insurance in the year 1907 was 9,879,016. For insurance purposes the average number of insured persons does not give an accurate statement of the number of persons subject to the hazard of the industries in which they are engaged; for this reason an abstract workman, called a "full-time workman," is used and the number of such workmen is found by taking the number of days' work performed and dividing this number by 300 days. Thus if an establishment is in operation 300 days in the
year and employs 200 men, the number of full-time workmen is 200; if this establishment were in operation but 150 days during the year, the number of full-time workmen would be 100; by this method it is possible to make accurate comparisons between the various industry groups, some of which may be seasonal in character, while others may work continuously during the entire year. In the tables following the number of full-time workmen has generally been used. In the year 1907 the total number of full-time workmen included in the insurance was 8,604,155. The industry groups employing the largest number of full-time workmen are the iron and steel group (associations 4-11) with 1,211,881 full-time workmen, the building trades (associations 43-54) with 983,499, the textiles (associations 20–27) with 912,594, and the mining industries (association 1) with 732,584, though the State railway establishments employed 458,953 full-time workmen; none of the other industry groups employ more than 450,000 full-time workmen.
The number of persons killed or injured for whom compensation was paid for the first time in 1907 was 81,248. It should be stated that in this table and in the following tables the number of persons compensated in the year 1907 is assumed to be the number of accidents, each person killed or injured being counted as one accident. As the number of persons employed in the various industry groups varies so greatly, a comparison of the total number of persons compensated in each industry group merely indicates the relative amount of work performed by the insurance organizations in the different industries.
The total number of persons compensated for the first time in 1907 formed 9.44 per 1,000 full-time workers; the number of persons compensated in industries, building trades, and navigation formed 9.58 per 1,000 full-time workers, while in 1897 this proportion was 8.07 per 1,000 full-time workers. The increase in the accident rate is so marked that it has been made the subject of special study and the results are given on pages 15 to 18.
The number of persons for whom accident reports were made in the year 1907 was 516,366, this being 60.01 per 1,000 full-time workers in that year. Under the German insurance system, disability lasting less than 13 weeks is cared for by a system of sickness insurance funds, so that the vast majority of accidents are not handled by the accident associations; in addition, reports of accidental injuries are frequently made for the purpose of establishing a possible claim of the workman for compensation, but which official investigation later proves not to have been industrial accidents within the meaning of the law. An accident report, in fact, means merely a notification that a workman claims to have been injured and intends to apply for compensation, even though the case may be a doubtful one. These data are therefore of questionable value and have not been made the subject of further study in the investigations conducted by the Imperial Insurance Office.
TABLE 1.-SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION: NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, AVERAGE NUMBER OF PERSONS INSURED, NUMBER OF FULL-TIME WORKERS INSURED, AND NUMBER OF INJURED PERSONS COMPENSATED FOR THE FIRST TIME IN 1907 AND 1897. [Source: Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts, 1910. I Beiheft, I Teil. Gewerbe-Unfall
statistik für das Jahr 1907, pp. 2 to 191.)
(1) 9,879,016 8,604, 155 81,248 9. 44 (1) 516,366 60.01
673,095 9,018, 367 7,860, 780 75, 370 9.58 8.07 465, 224 59. 18
building trades, engi-
723, 705 662, 211 | 4,533 6.85 48,074 72.60 B, GROUPS OF ASSOCIA
TIONS. 1 Mining.
2, 258 732,584 732,584 11,381 15.54 12.09 92, 455 126. 20 2 Quarrying.
12, 779 476, 691 174, 446 2,677 15.35 11.94 12,001 68. 79 3 Fine mechanical products 5,802 222, 958 222,958 1,481 6.64 5.38 10,336 46.36 4-11 Iron and steel..
40,276 11,249, 681 1,211,881 14,083 11.62 28.92 117,868 97.26 12,13 Metal working
5,934 216,738 200, 929 1,533 7.63 4.21 7,686 38.25 14 Musical instruments. 1, 203 54,943 32, 504 225 6.92 3. 96 1, 126 34.64 15 Glass...
960 85, 636 77,850 347 4. 46 4.07 2, 634 33.83 16 Pottery
91, 447 91, 447 310 3.39 2. 33 1,689 18. 47 17 Brick and tile making.. 11, 582 293, 126 201, 4121,931 9. 59
6.71 7,073 35.12 18 Chemicals...
8,618 214, 904 206, 263 2,038 9.88 7.76 13,034 63.19 19 Gas and water works..
4,884 72. 41 20 Linen.
582 58, 830
4.76 4. 49 1,038 | 17.64 27 Silk.
2,251 72,032 72,032 93 1.29 1.26 520 7.22 30-27 Textiles (including linen and silk).
15, 457 914,033 912,594 2,739 3.00 3.25 | 12, 669 13.88 28 | Paper making..... 1,264 83,335 86,087 793 9.21 9.27 3,808 44.23 1 Not reported.
Including blacksmithing, etc.
98.16 47.64 32.89 84.87 30.83 20.95 23. 63 13. 37 24.96 52. 68 66. 43 14.93 5. 50
TABLE 1.-SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION: NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS, AVERAGE NUMBER OF PERSONS INSURED, NUMBER OF FULL-TIME WORKERS INSURED, AND NUMBER OF INJURED PERSONS COMPENSATED FOR THE FIRST TIME IN 1907 AND 1897–Concluded.
The accident rate in the various industries, with the injured, etc., persons classed according to age and sex, is shown in Table 2. Where the number of injured, etc., persons was large enough to compute rates for the separate industries in each group of industries, the subgroups are given.
The average accident rate for all insured persons in 1907 was 9.44 per 1,000 full-time workers—in other words, approximately 1 per cent of the persons covered by the industrial insurance system received injuries during the year. The fact of greatest interest in the report is the relative standing of the various industries as disclosed by the accident rates. The industry group which in 1907 had the greatest proportion of injured employees was that designated "livery, drayage, cartage, etc.” (association 59), which had a rate of 26.61; the group with the next highest rate is that of flour milling (association 35), with an accident rate of 16.06 per 1,000 full-time workers. The groups of mining (association 1) and quarrying (association 2) had each a rate of over 15 per 1,000 full-time workers. Following these come woodworking (associations 31-34) with 13.28, brewing and malting (association 39) with 13.05, engineering, excavating, etc. (association 64), with 12.95, inland navigation (associations 60-62) with 11.82, iron and steel (associations 4-11) with 11.62, express and storage (association 58), with. 11.34, and the building trades (associations 43–54) with 11.22 per 1,000 full-time workers. All of the other groups of industries had a rate of less than 10 per 1,000 full-time workers.
There are seven groups with rates of less than 5 per 1,000 fulltime workers; the tobacco group (association 40) has the lowest rate of any of those in the table, with only 0.49 per 1,000 full-time workers; this is followed by clothing (association 41) with 2.81, textiles (associations 20-27) with 3.00, printing and publishing (association 55) with 3.02, pottery (association 16) with 3.39, paper products (association 29) with 3.81, and glass (association 15) with 4.46 per 1,000 full-time workers. There are 17 groups with rates over 5 and less than 10 per 1,000.
The part of the table giving the accident rates for the subdivisions shows that in a number of the subgroups of industries the accident rate is unusually high; in the case of tenders of motors, etc., engaged in the building trades (associations 43–54), 55.04 per 1,000 full-time workers received injuries requiring compensation; five other subgroups of industries had such rates in excess of 25 per 1,000 full-time workers, namely, hauling of goods, etc. (association 59), shops engaged in iron work, structural work, etc. (associations 4-11), miscellaneous work of commercial establishments (association 58), express workers, furniture movers, etc. (association 58), boiler workers, etc. (associations 4-11).
For female adults the subgroups of industries show a number of high accident rates, though these rates are to be accepted with caution because of the small number of persons engaged in the occupation. In the subgroup blacksmithing, farriers, etc. (association 66),